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A BETTER WAY OI,.'MASTERIN(; EN(;LISH VERBS
PUBLISHER'S NOTE
Hak Cipta @ 2013 Oleh lVluhammad Amin Rasyid, dkk
Hak Cipta dilindungi undang-undang
Cetakan Pertama, 2013
Diterbitkan oleh Badan Penerbit Univemitas Negeri Makassar,
Hotel La Macca Lt 1
JL A. P. Petta Rani Makassar 90222
Telepon/Fax. (0411) 855 199
Anggola IKAPI No. 01 1/SSU2010
Anggota APPTI No. 01o/APPTI/TpV201
1
0ilarang memperbanyak buku ini dalam bentuk
apa pun tanpa izin tedulis dari penerbit
Perpustakaan Nasional Rl: Data Katalog Dalam Terbitan KDT)
It is the main task of UNM
Publisher to publish textbooks in
various fields of disciplines that are wrilten by the faculty
members of State [Jniversity of Makassar (UNM).
The book" A Better Way ol Mastering English Verbs" written
by Prof. Dr. Muhammad Amin Rasyid, M.A., Dr. Nurdin Noni,
M.Hum, and Dr. Maemuna Mualayyang, M.l']d., the teaching
stalT ol FBS UNM. is believed to be useful lbr the students
particularly those who arc interested in studying in lurguage
study program.
The publisher expects that this book will win the interest and
motivation of the other teaching staffto write books that must be
of greater use for the students in enhancing thc quality of the
output ol their learning activities.
May the Almighty Allah bless us, Amin.
Rasyid, Amin Muhammad dkk
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs /
Muhammad Amin Rasyid, dkk Cet. 1
Lay oul /Format: Tangsi
Makassar: Badan Penerbit Universitas Negeri Makassar
Makassar, 2013
188 hlm, 21 cm
Bibliografi: hlm 187
tsBN 978-602-81
1
1-92-8
Makassar, December 201 3
'l-he Publisher
SALT]TATION
FOREWORI)
by the Rector of State University of Makassar
of
Mirkassar is one of the universities in
Indonesia that has the functions to develop science, technology,
and arts and to produce professional educators in various fields.
In order that these firnctions can be carried out as well as
possible, creativities and efforts are required in all fields from its
Sute University
academic staff.
of the most expeoted activities is the writing and
publication of books by the experts in this university. The lack
of books in English is badly f'elt by both the students and the
lecfurers.
One
Alhamdu lillahi rabbil alamin l'or the blessings and
mercies Allah swt bestows on us so that we could complete thc
writing of this book: A Better l4/ay oJ Mastering English Verbs as
answers to the frequently asked questions by students of English
Education Program at Faculty of Languages and l.,iterature,
State University of Makassar. This book discusses in detail Verb
forms, Verb forms and their usage, Verb positions, Verb lypes
and Verbs and their moods. For practical purposes, theoretical
explanations are givcn both in English and lndonesiirn.
May Allah swt bless us all.
Therefore, the publication of the book entitled '7 Better Wuy of
Mastering English Verbs" is highly welcome with the greatest
gatitude to Allah, the Almighty God. The book written by
Prof. Dr. Muhammad Amin Rasyid, M.A., Dr. Nurdin Noni,
M.Hum, and Dr. Maemuna Muhayyang, M.Pd. is expected to be
the main reference in lecturing at English Department.
Makassar, Decernber 20
3
MAR, NN&MM
In the name of the management of State University of Makassar,
I hope that the presence of this book will be very useful and
meaningful.
Makassar, December 2013
Rector
Prof'. Dr. H. Arismunandar. M.Pd.
II
I
lu
CONTENTS
Publisher's Noto
Salutation
Foreword
I
ii
iii
Contents
I.
VERB FORMS
I
A. Finite Verbs
B. Non-Finite Verbs
C. Regular Verbs
D.
2
J
9
l0
lrregular Verbs
II. VERB FORMS AND THEIR USAGI]
III. THE STRUCTI.JRE OF VERB GROUPS
IV. VERB TYPES
V. VERBSANDTHEIRMOODS
BIBI,IO('iRAPIIY
77
89
101
183
187
lv
I
VERB FORMS
BENTUK KATA KERJA
The word 'verb' was derived from French - verbe, Latin verbum, which means a word. In grammar, a verb refers to any
ofa class of words expressing action, or indicating the existence
of a state or condition, or occurrence; run, be, and appear. A
verb functions as the predicate of a sentence that expresses what
people or things do, or what happens to them.
Verbs, as a olass of words. can be divided into six ma.ior
categories according to their form, namely linite verbs (FV),
non-finite verbs (NFV), regular verbs (l{V), irregular verbs (lV),
derivative verbs (DV), and non-derivative verbs (NDV).
Kata kerja berasal dari Bahasa Perancis verbe, Latin verbum, yang berarti kata. Menurut Tata Bahasa Bahasa Inggris,
kata kerja adalah kata yang menyatakan suatu perbuatan,
eksistensi suatu keadaan, kondisi, kejadian atau peristiwa; run,
be, appear. Kata kerja berfungsi sebagai predikat klausa atau
kalimat yang menyatakan sesuatu yang orang atau benda
Verb Forms
L
(subjek/pokok kalimat) ke{akan atau sesuatu yang terjadi pada
mereka (subjek tersebut).
Menurut bentuknya, kata kerja dikelompokkan ke dalam
finite verbs (FV), non-finite verbs (NFV), regular verbs (RV),
irregular verbs (lV), derivative verbs (DV). dan non-derivative
verbs (lrlDV).
A. Finite Verbs
A finite verb must change its lbrms (a) when we change the
personal pronoun which comes (or could come) before it from
or to the first person singular - he (she, it), and (b) when we
change the time referred to (Mc Comish, 1979: 52).
Finite verb adalah kaia kerja yang dapat berubah bentuknya.
Perubahan bentuk tersebut dikondisikan oleh tiga hal, yakni
perubahan number, perubahan person, dan perubahan tense
dalam kalimat.
Number consists of singular and plural number. Number
(umlah) dalam bahasa Inggris terdiri atas dua, yakni jumlah
yang tunggal atau sesuatu yang dianggap tunggal atau satu
dalam wujud (singular) dan jumlah yang jamak yakni lebih dari
satu (plural).
Person consists first person (singular and plural), second
person (singular and plural), and third person (singular and
plural).
Person dalam bahasa Inggris terdiri atas: orang pertama (lirsr
person), orang kedua (second person). dan orang ketiga (third
person). Orang pertama terdiri atas orang pertama tunggal (lirst
person singular) - saya/aku (l), dan orang pertama jamak (first
person plural) - kami/kita (we). Orang kedua terdiri atas orang
kedua singular (second person singular ) - engkau,/kamu.rAnda
(you), dan orang kedua jamak engkau/kamu/Anda (you).
Orang ketiga terdiri atas orang ketiga tunggal (third person
singular) - dia/ia laki-laki atau perempuan (heishe)- dan orang
-
2
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
ketiga jamak laki-laki dan atau perempuan (they). Benda./hewan
dalam jumlah tunggal (it) atau.iamak (they) mengikuti aturem
seperti yang digunakan dalam orang ketiga tunggal dan orang
ketiga jamak.
Tense consists of prcsent tensc and pa-st tense.
Kala (tense) dalam bahasa lnggris terdiri atas kala sekarang
(present tense) dan kala lampau (past tense).
Dengan demikian secara operasional llnite verb adalah kata
kerja yang berubah bentuknya kalau subjeknya diubah dari atau
ke orang ketiga tunggal, atau kalanya diubah t/arl atau ke kala
sekarang (present tense). Contoh, dalam kalimat "1 am a teacher,
dan I ftave books," cm dan have adalah finite verbs karena kalau
subjek .I diganti dengan subjek .Ile , am akan berubah menjadi ls,
dan have akan berubah menjadi ftas. Dalam kalimat "l can do
it," ccz tidak berubah bentuknya kalau subjek / diganti dengan
subjek I/e, yakni he cun do it. Akan tetapi, kalau kalimal "l cur
do it," dijadikan sebagai kalimat tidak langsung yakni kalanya
berubah dari kala sekarang ke kala lampau, can bcrubah
mrenjadi could, misalnya " I said I could do it, atau He said he
could do it" .
B. Non-Finite Verbs
A non-finite verb does not change its tbrrns (a) when we
change the personal pronoun which comes (or could come)
befbre it from or 1o the first singular person (he she, it). and
(b) when we change the time reltned to (Mc Comish, 1979:52).
Non-finite verbs adalah kata kerja yang tidak berubah
bentuknya walaupun terjadi perubahan number, pcrson, dan
tense dalam suatu kalimal. Non-finite verbs pada umunnya
berada dalam konstruksi ftasa. Contoh, dalam kalimat " He can
do it, dan He is doing it now," (can do dan is doing adalah verb
phrases).Da dan doing adalah non-finite verbs karena kalau kita
mengubah subjek He ke I, atau kalau kita mengubah kalanya
Verb Forms
3
dari kala sekarang ke kala lampau, do dan doing tetap tidak
berubah bentuknya, yakni I could do it, and I was doizg it then.
Pada contoh ini kita melihat pula bahwa can dan is adalah llnite
verbs karena bentuknya berubah menjadi could dan pas setelah
subjek dan kalanya diubah. Do dalam kalimat "l do my
homework carefully" adalah finite verb sedangkan do dalam
kalimat "She does not do her homework carelully" adalah nonfinite verb.
Contoh-contoh yang dikemukakan di atas menunjukkan
bahwa predikat kalimat bahasa Inggris mutlak berunsurkan satu
finite verb, tetapi ia tidak mutlak memiliki unsur non-finite verb.
Dengan kata lain, keberadaan non-finite verb dalam suatu
kalimat tidak mutlak. Dalam struktur kepredikatan berkonstruksi
kata kerja, non-finite verb mengikuti finite verb, seperti dalam
kalimat "He can do it," do mengikuti can. Begitu pula pada
kalimat"He is doing it now," doing mengikuti is. Conloh-contoh
yang dikemukakan di atas memperjelas bahwa finite verb dan
non-finite verb ada yang persis sama (identical) benluknya.
Finite verbs dan non-flnite verbs masing-masing mempunyai
tiga macam bentuk seperti berikut ini.
ini dipilih lima verbs, yakni BE'
GIVE, MEND, CUT dan CAN untuk mewakili kata kerja
Sebagai ilustrasi, berikut
bahasa Inggris menurut variasi bentuknya.
FINI'IE
MEND
CU'T
CAN
grvc
mend
cut
Can
grYes
mends
cuts
Can
gavc
mendcd
cut
could
bc
grve
mend
cul
Steml
-ed
lbrm
been
glven
mended
cut
Stem-f
being
grv rng
mending
cuflrng
u!.
GIV
form
am
are
Stem+
IS
Stem
ts
-g form
Stem I
-ed
were
form
NONFINITE
Stcrl]
lbrm
Finite Verbs
Finite stem form
+
Finite stem +
Finite stem
-q form
-ed lorm
Non-Finite Verbs
Non-finite stem lorm
-aE
lorm
Non-finite stem + -ed form
Non-finite stem + -iz&form
The verb Be has eight forms (2 finite stem forms - arn and
are. I fnite stem + -s form - is , 2 finite slem+ -ed forms - was
4
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Verb Forms 5
were, 1 non-finite stem form - be, I non-finite stem+-gd
form -been, and I non-finite stem+ -izg form - being); the verb
GIVE has five forms( I identical form for both frnite and nonfinite stem form - give, I finite stem+ -t form - glves, I finite
stem form+ -ed form - gave, 1 non-finite st€m+ -g4l form glven, and I non-finite stem + -ing tbrm - giving) ; the verb
MEND has four forms ( I identical fbrm for both finite and nonfinite stem form - mend , I finite stem+ -! form - mends, I
identical form for both finite and non-finite stem+ -erl form mended, I non-finite stem+ -ins form - mending) the verb CUT
has three form ( 1 identical form for finite and non-finite stem
form, and for finite and non-finite stem+ -g4f form - cut,l frnile
stem+ -[ form - cuts, and I non-finite stem+ -ing form- cutting);
and the verb CAN has two forms (1 identical form for both
finite stem form and finite stem+ -q form- can, and I finite
stem+ -ed form- coulA
ar:.d
Most English verbs have lour lbrms, like those of MEND,
thal is mend. mend.s, mended, mentling. lv,lcnd is thc stem or base
form and therelbre it is called the stem lorm or the base form.
Mends is called the stem+ -I form because we add it with suffix
-[ to the base or stem form; mended is called the stem + -gd
form because we add it with suffix -a4f to the base or stem form;
and mending is called the stem + - ins forn because we add it
with suffix -ir?e to the base or stem tbrm. Since most English
verbs have four forms, like those of MEND, we call all the
English verbs having four forms -REGLILAR VERBS. and the
rest are called II{REGULAR VIIRBS.
In regular verbs, one fbrm that is the stemr -1 lorm is always
tlnite: one lorm that is the stem+ -lng firrrn is ulways non-lrnitc:
and two lbrms which are the stem lbrm and the stem-t -ccl lbrm
are sometimes finite and sometimes non-llnite.
A stem form is finite when it changes to slem+ -s form ilwe
change its subject to the third singular person (Dzaki or Rara) or
to the third singular subjective personal pronoun (he or she) or it
6
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
changes to stem+-e./
form if we change the time referred to the
past.
I like bananas.
I
)
Dzaki /itzs bananas, or He likes bananas.
jog every moming.
)
I
jogged yesterday moming.
A stem+ -g1!-form is flnite when it changes to stem lorm or
-{ fbrm when we change the time refern:d to the present.
I jogged yesterday moming. Mr. Rasyid jogged yesterday
moming, too. ) I jog every moming. Mr. Rasyid Togs
stem+
every moming. too.
Il'as, were, gave, and cut are called finite stem+-ed form
because they are in the corresponding parallel slot/column with
the finite stem + -ed form of mended. Likewise, becn, given, and
cut arc called non-finite stem+ -gd form because they are in the
conesponding parallel sloticolumn with the non-tlnite slem+ -9d
form of mendecl.
Kata kerja BE mempunyai 8 bentuk yakni am, ure is, was,
were (finite), be, been, dan heing (non-linite). Dalam bahasa
Inggris, BE adalah satu-satunya kata kerja yang mempunyai 8
bentuk. Kata kerja GIVE mempunyai 5 bentuk, yakni givc,.
gives, gave (finite), glven, dan giving (non-finite). Oxlord
'15'13-'1517)
mendaflar
Advanced Leamer's Dictionary (1991 :
sebanyak 263 kata kerja yang mempunyai lima bentuk sepe(i
GIVE termasuk 8 di anlaranya yang dapal pula digolongkan ke
dalam kelompok CUT. Kata kerja MEND rnempunyai empat
bentuk, yakni mend, mends, mcnded, dtrn mcnding. Sebahagiun
besar kata keria bahasa lnggris mempunyai 4 bcntuk seperti kata
keria NlliND. Kata keria CI l'l' memnttnvai 3 henlrrk. vakni r.rit.
cr.r/,i. dan r:uttinr,. Oxlhrd Advancerl Lertrncr's Dictionarv
mendaflar 36 kata kerja yang mempunyai 3 bentuk seperti CIJT
ra'",.^^,,1. O .l: ^^1^---.,-
.,--,'
r--^+
-,'l^,ti,'.'1,.6,'1,^-
l,^,1^l^'n
Verb Forms 7
can dan could. Kata kerja kelompok CAN jumlahnya hanya ada
sekitar l0 buah.
Menurut bentulnya, sebahagian besar kata kerja bahasa
Inggris mempunyai empat bentuk, seperti yang
direpresentasikan oleh bentuk MEND, yakd (l) stem form atau
bentuk dasar - mend, (2) stem+ -.r form yatni bentuk dasar
ditambah akhiran -q - mends, (3) stem+ -ed form yakni bentuk
dasar ditambah akhiran -g4l - meruled, dan (4) stem+ -14g lorm
yakni bentuk dasar yang ditambanh dengan akhiran -14g -
{orm, pasl purticiple, present Parliciple, atau kata kerja
irnruf prr,)^o,'kutu kerju bentuk kedua, dan katu kerja bentuk
stem+-g1! form, dan stem+-ing form secara demokratis
dapat diterima dalam peristilahan (walaupun ada sebahagian
kecil kata keria yang tidak mendapatkan imbuhan akhir lersebut)
kalau kita membicarakan bentuk-bentuk kata kerja.
Stem lorm ada dua macam yakni /inite stem.fbrm dan rutn.finile slem .fttrm. Stem + -q lbrm hanya ada satu maoam. yakni
.linite stem r -;./brm saja. Stem+ -9d lbrm ada dua macam. yakni
./inite stem t -edrttrm yang juga dinarnaken preleril(e)forl1 atau
p4.s/ form, dan non-Jinile stem+ -ed Jbrm, yang juga dinamakan
past pdrticipial form, yang sering disingkat penyebutaffrya
menjadi pasl participle. Stern+ -lryS form hanya ada satu macam
, yakri non-Jinile stem+-ins form saja, yang biasa juga
dinamakan presenl parlicipial Jbrm, yang sering disingkat
(finite/non-finite stem form), mends (finite stem+-{ form)'
iended (finite/non-finited stem+ -erl form), dan mending (nonfinite stem+ -rng forcn. Oleh karena itu, secara kuantitatif' kata
kerja yang te.golong dalam kelompok MEND dinamakan
,.gul* u"ib., dan yang lainnya dinamakan- irrcgular. verbs atau
ini dikemukakan
na"ma lain sesuai dengan keunikannya' Berikut
mending. Oleh karena imbuhan -E -ed, dan -14g dapat
ditambahkan pada akhir kata kerja dasar (stem) untuk
sebahagian besar kata kerja bahasa Inggris , istilah srem + -I
form,
penyebutannya menjadi pre s e nt pdrt ic ip le.
Kata kerja bahasa Inggris yang memiliki empat bentuk
seperti yang dikcmukakan di atas dinamakan kata kerja
beraturan bentuk (regular lerbs), dan sisanla dinanrakan kuta
kerja tak beraturan bcntuk (irregular verbs).
lstilah stem fbrm, stem+ -q lbrm, stem-r -crl lbrm, d,an steml
-gng./itrm lcbih tcpat digunakan dalam membicarakan bentrLkbentuk kata kerja karena mereka meru.luk langsung kepada
bentuk kata kerja daripada menggunakan istilah present form,
8
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
oast
ketiga,'yangtidak langsung merujuk kepada bentuk kata kerja'
C. Regular Verbs
There are more or less than 300 English verbs which are
with
classified into irregular verbs (BE, CIVE, CUT, and CAN
their respective members), the rest are all regular verbs'
Selain sekitar 300 kata kerja bahasa Inggris yang
tergolong dalam kelompok BE,GIVE, CUT, dan CAN' .semua
i.ui f."4'u uufr*a lnggds mempunyai empat bentuk seperti mend
contoh-t:ontoh regular verbs.
Examples of Regular Verbs
Stem
Stem+ -t
glsrn+-ed
form (FV &
Stem+-ing
Form(N FV)
Form (FV
&NFV
Form (FV)
accept
accepts
behave
behaves
accepted
behaved
oaress
0aresses
caressed
drill
drills
drilled
drilling
embrace
embraces
embraced
embracing
follow
fbllows
followed
gain
hu
gains
hu S
gained
hu ed
ibllowing gaining
hugging inventing
NFV)
accepting
behaving
caressing
un]
lt1
Verb Forms 9
invent
jurnp
invents
jumps
kiss
love
mend
negotiate
operate
queue
repent
negotiates
operates
queues
repents
seduce
seduces
touch
utter
vary
wither
touches
yield
ZI
kisses
Ioves
mends
utters
varies
withers
yields
7,1
S
invented
jumped
kissed
loved
mended
negotiated
operated
queued
repented
seduced
touched
uttered
varied
withered
yielded
kissing
loving
mending
negotiating
operating queuing
reienting
seducing touching
uttering
varying withering
yielding
zipping
ZI
Dictionary (1992:1513-1517), yang tergolong dalam kelompok
BE, GIVE, dan CUT. Jumlah tersebut akan bertambah kalau
diperhitungkan pula kemungkinan pengimbuhan awal seperti
un- dur re- seperti pada contoh - kata think menjadi
rethink.Kedua ratus delapan puluh tiga .kata kerja tersebut
dikatakan irregular verbs * kata kerja tak beraturan bentukkarena mereka tidak memiliki keseragaman atyuran dalam finite
stem+ -ed form, dan non-finitc stem
l -el fbrm mereka. Namun
demikian, kedua ratus delapan puluh tiga kata kerja tak
beraturan bentuk tersebut masih dapal dikolompokkan ke dalam
enam belas kelompok mcnurut kesamaan-kesamaan bcntuk yang
mereka miliki, sebagai berikut.
Group 1. No change in the spelling ol stem +- ed.form, or they
take the regular verb tbrms (42 verbs)
Tidak ada perubirhan cjaan dalam sleml- -gd lbrm atau
sama dengan regular verb lbrm
Examples in Context:
.
.
We must accepl the consequences ofour action.
He cares.yad his wife's hair gently, and then they huggett
and kissed.
She has repented of all her sins and begged forgiveness
from Allah.
Men are usually seduced by women,s beauty and wit.
A kiss on the lips does not always touch theheart.
The woman's dress zips up at the back.
.
.
.
.
Stem
Stem+ -
FV&NFV
FV
fbrd Advanced Leamer's Dictionary ( 1992: I 5 l3l5l7) listed 283 irregular verbs, those are ol'BE, GIVE, and
CUT.
Ada sebanyak 283 buah irregular verbs dalam bahasa
Inggris yang terdaftar dalam Oxford Advanced Learner,s
10
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Stem+-c,/
FV
Stem+-d
NF'V
Stem+-lr?s
NFV
besetting
betting
bidding
beset
besets
beset
beset
bet
bets
bid
bids
bet(ted)
bid
bade
bet(ted)
bid
bidden
broadcast
burst
bust
broadcasts
broadcast
broadcast
broadcasling
bursts
busts
burst
bust
busted
bursting
busting
casl
casts
cast
cost
costs
cuts
forecasts
cost
cut
lbrecast
burst
bust
busted
cast
cost
cut
fbrecast
forecasted
forecasted
hit
hit
D. Irregular Verbs
Ox
I
cut
forecast
hit
hits
casling
costing
culting
1'orocasting
hitting
Verb Forms LL
hurt
input
hurts
inputs
inset
insets
knit
knits
lets
let
miscast
mishit
misread
outbid
output
outbids
outputs
overbid
put
quit
overbids
puts
quits
read
recast
reset
reads
recasts
rid
set
shed
miscasts
mishits
misreads
hurt
input
inputted
inset
hurt
input
inputted
inset
knit(ed)
kni(red) ,knitting
let
miscast
mishil
misread
outbid
output
outputted
overbid
put
quit(ted)
let
miscast
mishit
misread
ourbid
output
hurting
inputting
rnsettrng
letting
miscasting
mishitting
misreading
outbidding
outputting
read
recast
resets
rcad
recast
reset
rids
rid
rid
sets
sel
sheds
set
shed
shed
shedding
shut
shuts
shut
shut
shutting
slit
spil
split
slits
spits
splits
slit
slit
spit/spat
split
split
spread
spreading
sublet
thrust
underbid
undercut
upset
subletting
thrusting
spreads
spread
sublet
thrusts
tkust
fZ
weds
wets
r(jset
spit/spat
sublets
underbids
undercuts
upsets
qui(ted)
slitting
spitting
splitting
sublet
thrust
underbid
undercut
upset
wed
wet
underbid
undercut
upset
wed
wet(ted)
.
.
.
.
.
Nashirah is not easily iart by unkindness.
Have you quilted smoking? I have tried many times, but I
have never been successful.
She has rudherself oiher illusion.
Don't upset yowself- no harm has been done.
A large wave upset our boat so we swam lbr miles to
reach the shore.
Group 2.
outputted
overbid
put
overbidding
putting
quiuing
reading
recasting
resctting
ridding
setting
spread
Examples in Context:
wed(ded)
wet(ted)
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
the stem tbrm, or change 'd' to .t' to lbrm
the t-rnite and non-finite stem+ -qd fbrm. Some may
vary taking the regular form (2 1 verbs)
Tambahkan 't' kepada stem form, atau ubah 'd'
menjadi 't' untuk membentuk the finite and non-finite
stem +-ed form. Ada juga yang bervariasi dengan
regular verb form.
Add't'to
I
Stem+-e./
FV
St0m+-sd Stem+-ing
NI.'V
NFV
T]V&NFV
Stem+ FV
bcnd
bends
bent
bent
build
builds
built
bu
burn
bums
dream
dreams
burnt
burned
dreamt
bunrt
burned
dreamt
dreamed
dreamed
Stem
gild
gird
ilt
gilt
gilt
gilded
gilded
girds
girt
girt
girded
leapl
girded
gilds
underbidd ing
undercutling
leap
leaps
upsetting
wedding
wetting
learn
lend
learns
lends
misspell
misspells
bending
bu
ilding
bu rn
ing
dreaming
gilding
gird ing
leaping
lcapcd
leapt
lcaped
leanrt
learnt
Iearning
Ieamed
learned
m isspelt
misspelled
m
m
isspelt
isspelled
misspelling
Verb Forms
1,3
misspend
misspends
misspent
misspent
misspending
outfight
outfights
rebuild
rebuilds
seeks
rent
teach
teaches
spells
spelt
spelled
spends
spent
think
work
thinks
works
sPend
spelt
spelled
spent
rebuilding
rending
spelling
seek
rends
rebuilt
rent
rebuilt
rend
spell
spill
spills
spoils
underbends
spilt
spilled
spoilt
spilling
spoil
underbend
spilt
spilled
spoilt
underbcnt
underbent
underbending
spending
spoiling
Examples in Context:
Can you louch your toes without bending your knees?
'Rome was not built in a day' means that time and hard work are
necessary for a difficult or importanl task.
'Look before you ledp' means before you take any aotion,
oonsider all the possible consequences.
A tiger can rend its prcy picces.
Group 3. Change the end part o1'the stsm lbrm into 'ought' or
'aught' to fbrm the finite and non-flnitc stcm+ - qd
tbrm ( l0 verbs).
Ubah bagian akhir stem fbrm menjadi 'ought', atau
'aught' untuk membentuk the finite and non-finite
stem+ - ed form.
Stem
FV&NFV
beseech
Stem+ - {
FV
beseeches
bring
bry
brings
buys
catch
oatches
fight
fights
74
.
'
.
.
.
thinking
working
Group 4. Change 'ca' and 'ee' representing thc phoncn.re /i/ into
phoneme /e/, and end it with letter't' or phoneme /V to
*rrm the linite and non-flnite stenr+ -9.d form (16
verbs).
Ubah 'ea' dan'ee' yang berbunyi /i/ menjadi bunyi /e/,
dan akhiri dcngan huruf '1' atau bunyi /t/ untuk
membentuk the finite and non_finite stem+ _cd lbrm
beseeching
FV&NFV
besceched
brought
bought
caughl
fought
brought
bought
caught
fought
bringing
ing
catching
fighting
A Better way of Mastering English Verbs
seeking
teaohing
brought lhem into a long oonflict
Fidelity in friendship is not bought, but 6uying presents fbr
friends demands fi delitY.
M. Nur was determined to leave his village to szak his
fortune in other Places.
Children should be taught lo pity the poor.
besought
besecchctl
NFV
outfighting
We hear<l her crying oul. be,;eec'hing Allah to save her
husband's life.
The two pa(ies finally realized that a small matter had
Stem
Stem+-ed
outfbught
sought
taught
thought
worked
Examples in Context:
Stem+-ilrs
NFV
Stem+-ed
FV
besought
outfbught
sought
taught
thought
worked
Stem+ FV
I
Stem+ed
FV
Stem+cd
Stem+-irg
NFV
NIIV
I
buy
creep
deal
oreeps
dwell
dwells
deals
crepl
dcalt
dwelt
crept
dcalt
dwelt
creeplng
dealing
dwelling
Verb Forms L5
t'eel
feels
keep
keeps
kneel
kneels
felt
kept
knelt
lean
leans
kneeled
leant
learn
leams
Ieave
mean
meel
leaves
means
mcets
lIol
misdeal
oversleep
sleep
sweep
weep
misdeals
oversleeps
sleeps
sweeps
weeps
misdealt
overslcpt
slept
swept
wept
leamt
leamed
leff
meart
t-elt
kept
knelt
feeling
keeping
kneeli-ng
kneeled
leant
learnt '
leaning
leaming
leamed
Ieft
meant
mct
misdealt
overslepl
slept
swept
wept
lcaving
meaning
mecting
misdealing
oversleeping
sleeping
sweeping
weeping
Examples in Context:
.
.
.
r
Group 5. Change the ( last) vowel of the stem lbrm into vowol
/e/ and end it with letter'd' or phoneme /d/ to fbrm the
tlnite and non-finite stem + -e,/ form ( I 3 verbs).
Ubah vowel (akhir) stem form menjadi vowel /e/, dan
akhiri dengtrn huruf 'd' atau bunyi /d/ untuk
membentuk the finite and non-finite stem + -ed fbrm.
Doubt and fear began to crcep slowly into the woman's
mind and heart after her husband had not come home for
days.
Her mind ofuen dwells on memories ol'her past suff'erings.
Don't say'yes'when you mean to say'no'.
She was weeping real tears when she kissed him goodbye.
Stem
F-V&NI'V
behold
bleed
breed
Stcm+ PV
beholds
bleeds
breeds
f'eed
l'eeds
flee
gainsay
flees
gainsays
hold
holds
leads
pleads
lead
plead
{
Stem+ed
!v
NFV
beheld
beheld
bled
bred
fed
fled
gainsaid
hetd
bled
bred
fed
tled
gainsaid
held
led
pled
pleadcd
said
unsaid
upheld
withheld
Ied
pled
sa)
unsay
says
unsays
pleaded
said
unsaid
uphold
upholds
withholds
upheld
withheld
withhold
Stem+-9d
Stem+-l4g
NITV
bcholding
blceding
brr:cding
lceding
fleeing
gainsaying
holding
lcading
plcading
sayrng
unsaying
upholding
withholding
Examples in Context:
.
.
.
r
16
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Mr. Rasyid baholds bearty and happiness in his wil'e's
eyes.
Teachers havc expertise that cannol be gain.suid.
llolding a wonran's hand doe s no1 meiln futltling her heart
as well.
What has been sald cannot be unsaid.
Verb Forms 17
Many villagers
in
South Sulawesi
still uphold
old
traditions.
Group 6. Change '-ind' into '-ound' to form the finite and nonfinite stem + -99! form (7 verbs).
Ubah
'ind' menjadi 'ound' untuk membentuk finite
dan non-finite stem+ -ed iorm.
Stem
FV&NFV
Stem+ FV
{
Stem+-9d
FV
Stem+-9d
NFV
51em l
-irg
NIIV
into
Change the last vowel lc11er of the stem form
Grouo
"'"-' 7.,,,*"l"letter'u'
the
fbrm
which is pronounoed /^/ ttl
finite and non-tinite stem + -ezl lbrm ( 17 verbs)'
Stem+ -
Stem
FV&NFV
I
binds
ll nds
grinds
rebinds
rewinds
unwinds
winds
bound
bound
fbund
ground
rcbound
rewound
unwound
wound
lbund
ground
rebound
rewound
unwound
wounci
binding
finding
grinding
rebinding
rewinding
unwinding
winding
.
.
.
.
18
clung
dug
fling
flings
fl
tlung
hurtstring
hamsfrings
ung
hamstrung
hangs
overhangs
hamstringcd
hung
overhung
slink
spin
shrinks
slings
slinks
spins
hamstrung
hanrstringed
hung
ovcrhung
shrunk
shrank
shrLtnk
slung
slunk
slu
spun
spun
a
clinging
digging
t)inging
hurlstringing
hanging
overhanging
shrinking
slinging
slinking
slunk
spinning
stuck
stung
stunk
stan k
stuck
stung
str.lnk
sticking
stinging
stinking
strikcs
strings
struck
struck
striking
StruIrg
stTurl!i
swings
swung
stringing
swinging
wrings
wrung
swun!!
wrunel
ick
sting
slink
sticks
stings
strikc
string
swing
wring
st
St€m+
NFV
ng
span
home.
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
NFV
clung
dug
sling
There are so many leelings that blnrl Mr.Rasyid to his
wife.
An old person usually puts things in a place where he can
Jind them quickly and easily.
Mr. Siratang Sround his cigarette in the ashtray, then leant
back on the sofa with thousands of unanswered questions
in his minds.
Mr. Muhayyang never unwinds his sarong when he is at
The staircase in the new building wlnds upwards round
big central pillar.
Stem+-gd
clings
digs
overhang
shrink
lixamples in (lontcxt:
.
Stem+-cd
FV
cling
dig
hang
bind
find
grind
rebind
rewind
unwind
wind
I
FV
stinks
wrin-qing
Examples in Context
husband is
The poor woman c/fug.s to the hope that her
day'
still alive, and will come back to her one
ilt. f-i*t was hamstrung by the tack of skilled workers
and funds.
fte potice tailed to seize thc thieves who 's/umk dawn the
dark alley
Verb Forms 19
'ow', 'aw', and'y'in the linite stem fbrm
into 'ew' to lbrm thc llnite stem+ -arl fbrm; thcn
change 'ew' in the finite stcm+ -e,/ firrm inlo 'own'
or 'awn' to tbrm thc non-finite stem+ -erl form (l I
Group l0: Change
verbs).
Ubah 'ow', 'aw', dan 'y' dalam the finite stem form
menjadi 'ew' untuk membentuk the finite stem+ -er/
fbrm; kemudian ubah 'ew' dalam the finite stem+ -g4l
fbrm menjadi 'own', atau 'awn' untuk membentuk
the non-finitc stem+ 4/ fbrm.
Stem
I,-V&NIIV
Stem+ -
{
F-V
blow
draw
draws
fly
flies
gow
grows
knows
blows
know
outgrow
overdraw
overfly
overthrow
throw
withdraw
outgrows
overdraws
overfl ies
overthrows
throws
withdraws
Stem+ed
FV
blew
drew
flew
Stem'l'-cr/
NFV
blown
drawn
flown
grew
Srown
knew
outgrew
outdrew
overflew
overthrew
threw
withdrew
known
outgrou'n
overdrawn
overflown
ovcnhrown
thrown
withdrarvn
.
.
.
2Z
NFV
blowing
drawing
flying
growing
knowing
outgrowing
overdrawing
overl)ying
overthrowing
throwing
withdrawing
When the wind b/ows softly, and the sky is blue, I always
remember you.
As your children arc growing into teenagers, they need
more of your time and attention.
Every child knows that one and one makes 1wo.
When Sakinah had read all the letters she threw lhem into
the bin.
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Realiz-ing that everybody disagreed
withdrew lrom the argument
to her idea,
Sherly
Croup I l: Change the vowel in the stem form but thc vowels in
initial and final position into vowel 'o' to lbrm the
finite stem+ -erJ form; then end ihe finite stem+ -9d
.n' to fbrm the non-finite stem+ -cr,/ fbrm (17
form in
verbs)
tJbah vowel stem lorm kecuali vowel pada awal dan akhir
kata menjadi vowel 'o' untuk membentuk the linite stem+
-9!! form: kenrudian akhiri thc tlnite stem+ -4! l'otn
dcngan 'n' untuk membentuk thc non-finite stem+ -9d
Stem+-ir?q
Examples in Context:
.
.
f'orm.
Stem
Stemf-J
beget
bespeak
break
choose
cleave
Stcm+ -q1
NFV
FV
FV&NFV
aflse
awake
Stcrn i -qd
anse
awake
beget
arose
aroscn
awokc
begot
bespeak
bespoke
break
choose
cleave
broke
awoken
begotten
bespoken
bespoke
broken
chose
chosen
clovc
c
cleaved
loven
cleaved
stem | -l!g
NITV
ansrng
awaking
begetting
bespeak
breaking
choosing
cleaving
cletl
Ibrgoften
llozen
torgetting
freezing
gettinS
forget
fieeze
forgets
lieezes
0left
clavc
tbrgot
froze
get
gets
got
gotten
interwove
interwoven
interwcaving
spoken
speaking
stealing
treading
interweaYe
interweaves
speak
steal
speaks
sleals
spoke
stole
tread
treads
trod
unfreeze
wake
unlieezes
wakes
urrlioze
wokc
weave
weaves
cleavcd
stolen
trodden
trod
waked
unfrozen
woken
waked
weaved
weaved
unfteezing
waking
weavlrlg
Verb Forms 23
Examples in (lontcxt:
r Problems usually arr.re out ol'the lack of conrnrunication.
. His polite manners and smiling tace bespeak the
.
.
.
ride
ridcs
rodc
ridden
riding
rise
rises
rose
shrive
slrrivcs
shrovc
risen
shriven
shriving
shrived
smitcs
gontleman.
smitc
Her husband's words and actions broke her heart into
stride
strides
strive
thrive
strives
thrives
underwrite
write
write
pieces.
The wife and husband's lives are interwoven. Destiny
inlerweaves their lives.
The incident woke memories
ol all
Kasmawati's past
underwrites
s
smote
strode
strove
throve
thrived
underwrote
wrote
rising
shrived
smitten
stridden
sm lt
strove
strivhg
throve
thrived
underwrote
wrote
thriving
ing
striding
undcrwriting
writing
sufferings.
Croup 12. Add 'n' to tht: stem form to ltrrm the non-llni(e stem+
. She likes backbiting her neighbors.
. 'tf you want to marry her, I can't ./brbid
verbs).
t lt is sometimes very dilficult to./brgive ourselves.
. 'l cwr give you nothing but my true love,' said thc husband
Tambahkan 'n' pada stem lorm untuk membentuk
the non-finite stem+ -qd form. Dobel konsonan 't'
dan'd' yang mendahului vowel akhir'e' pada stem
form. The finite stem+ -er,/ lbrm bervariasi.
Stem+ -
Stem
r IjV
FV&NFV
backbite
bestride
bite
chide
backbites
bestrides
bites
chides
Stem+-gd
Stem+-gd
Steml
FV
NFV
NFV
backbitten
bestrode
backbitten
bestridden
binen
chidden
chided
backbiting
bestriding
biting
chiding
bit
chid
chided
drives
forbids
forgives
drove
hide
gives
hides
override
rewrite
overrides
rewrites
gave
hid
overrode
drive
forbid
forgivc
give
24
Examples in Context:
corrsonants:'t' and 'd'
preceding the vowel '0' at the final position in the
stem form. The finitc stcm+ - ed form varies (20
-q1 fbnn. Double the
forbade
forgave
rewrote
-LAg
chid
driven
forbidden
forgiven
given
driving
iorbidding
forgiving
giving
hidden
overridden
hiding
overriding
rewriting
rewritinq
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
yoLr,' said his
father.
to his wit'e.
r You must .r/rive to improve your tinglish perlbrmance.
. No business cur lhriYe without investment.
. l'll v'ritc you as so()n as I anive thcre.
Verb Forms 25
'n' to the stem lbnn to fbrm the non-finite stem+
-ed lbrm. 'l'he linite stem | -cd lbrm varies ( 14
Group 13. Add
stand
stave
verbs).
ll
think
te
nd
undersell
win
withstan
d
Stem
Examples I
. ooi
. Wha
'lunl
r
Therl
Stem+ -
FV&NFV
L
i
I
I
{
FV
Stem+-9d
FV
Stem+-cd
NFV
Stem+-irg
NFV
beat
beats
beat
beatco
beating
bcfall
befe
ll
browbeal
bel allen
browbeat
bet'alls
browbeats
browbeatcn
belalling
browbeating
eat
eatS
ate
eaten
eating
ll
thlls
ll
lbrsook
mistook
overtook
partook
llen
fbrsaken
mistaken
overeaten
overtaken
partaken
retook
shook
retaken
shaken
talling
fbrsaking
mistaking
overeating
overtaking
partaking
retaking
took
taken
undertaken
fa
Dael
gam'
bacll
Vowel pada stem form berubah mcnjadi vowel
lain(bervariasi) pada the stem+ -q4f fbrm untuk f inite and
dan non-finite form (34 verbs).
Tambahkan 'n' pada stem fbrm untuk mentbentuk
the non-finite stem+ -ed form. The finite stem+ -ed
form bervariasi.
understa
r
(iroup 14. l'he vowcls of tlrc stem fbrm chango to other vowels
to lbrm the flnite and r.ron-flnite stent-l- -erl lbrms.
forsake
mistake
overeat
overtake
partake
retake
lbrsakes
mistakes
overeats
overtakes
partakes
retakes
shake
shakes
takes
take
undertake
undertakes
ie
overate
undertook
Ia
shaking
taking
undertaking
Examples in Context:
r
The Indonesian govemment can hardly beat the high
.
.
:
inflation every year.
I shall never leave yo:u, whatever befalls.
'Don'tforsake me this time! I really need yow help'.
Muhammad Akbar Amin is determined to succeed.
whatever job he underlakes.
Stem
Stem+ - s
Stem+-d
Stem+-cd
FV&NF
FV
FV
NFV
Stem+-i!g
NFV
backslide
backslides
backslidin
floodligh
backslid
floodlighted
backslid
floodlights
floodlighti
lbretells
fbretold
floodlightcd
flood Iit
lbretold
foretc ll
hear
heavc
heirrs
heaves
heard
heard
hove/heaved
hove/heaved
loretelling
lights
lit/lighted
Iit/lighted
light
Ioses
mishears
misunderstands
lost
misheard
misunderstood
hearing
heaving
misheard
misunderstood
outsells
outsold
outsold
m
outshines
overhears
overshoots
outshone
overheard
oYershot
reheard
resold
outslronc
overheard
overshot
reheard
resold
g
resat
resat
lloodlit
I
lose
mishear
misunder
stand
outsell
outshin€
overhear
overshoo
A Betl
26
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
lighting
losing
ishearin
misunders
tanding
outselling
outshining
ovsrhcari
ng
overshooti
t
resells
resits
rehear
retells
retold
retold
resell
resit
retell
sells
sold
so
shines
shone
shone
shits
shitted/shat
shitted/shat
sell
shine
shoes
shod
shod
shoots
sits
slides
shol
sal
slid
shot
slid
retelling
selling
shoot
sit
slide
speeds
sped/speeded
sped/spcedcd
shining
spodights
spotlit
shitting
spotlighted
spotlit
spotlighted
speed
stands
staves
stood
stove/staved
stood
stove/staved
shooting
shit
shoe
S
28
rehears
Iost
ng
tl
ld
rehearing
reselling
resitting
sat
shoeing
sittin
Verb Forms 27
Examples in Context:
.
.
.
.
.
She y'ra.i everything she wants but tnre love
liom
a nran.
He always trics tct make his wifb happy.
I seem lo hava mislaid my glasses - lrave you seen thcm?
She ovcrlaidl'ter deep sadness with humour.
She lingered out
of the room to waylay h\m after the
lecture.
Group 16. Changes in vowels and consonants varies. Non-finite
stem+ - ed forms end in /m/ or in /n/ or in other
consonants.
Perubahan vowel dan konsonan bcrvariasi. Nonllnite stem+ - ed fbrm berakhir dengan bunyi /m/
atau /n/ atau bunyi konsonan lain (33 verbs).
kennsd
kenning
lain
mclted
molten
mown
mowed
outdone
overcome
overdone
lying
mclting
ken
kens
lie
melt
lies
melts
kenned
kent
lay
melted
mow
IIO\ryS
mowcd
outdo
overcome
overdo
oversee
prove
outdoes
overcomes
overdoes
oversees
proves
outdid
overcame
overdid
oversaw
proved
redo
redoes
redid
proved
proven
redone
saw
saws
sawed
SAWT)
overseen
mowing
outdoing
overcoming
overdoing
overseeing
proving
redoing
sawing
sawed
Stem
Stem+ - r
Stem+-ed
FV
FV
FV&NFV
Stem+-itt g
NFV
NFV
becomes
blesses
was.were
became
blessed
been
beome
blessed
blest
being
becoming
blessing
oomes
oame
orows
crowed
crew
dived
doved
did
foresaw
went
hewed
comc
crowed
comlng
crowing
dived
diving
done
foreseen
gone
hewed
hewn
doing
foreseeing
going
hewing
be,am,are
is
become
bless
come
crow
dive
dives
do
foresee
go
hew
does
foresees
30
Stem+-ed
goes
hews
A Better way of Mastering English Verbs
sew
sews
saw
sewed
shear
shears
sheared
see
S€ES
show
shows
showed
shrink
shrinks
shrank
slays
sows
strews
shrunk
slew
sowed
strewod
swell
swells
swelled
undergo
undergoes
underlie
undo
underlies
undoes
underwent
underlay
undid
slay
sow
strew
seen
seeing
sewn
sewed
sheared
sewing
shown
showed
shrunk
slain
sown
strewed
strewn
swollen
swelled
underwent
underlay
undid
shearing
showing
shrinking
slaying
sowing
strewing
swelling
undergoing
underlying
undoing
Verb Forms 31
Examples in Context:
.
.
.
.
l
He does everything he can to be a good man.
What has been dona cannot bc undone.
I-he students were ovcrcome by a scnse olf'ailure.
They had undergone almost every kind of sufl'erings in
their lives.
. A deep laith always underlies whatever work he does.
The suffixes: - s, - CSl, and - IZA added to the stem form
in the examples given above to some extent cause variation in
spelling. The suffixes: - t and - q! added to the stem form also
cause variation in pronunciation. The variation can be seen in
the following.
Imbuhan - s, - 9gl, dar, - WS yang ditambahkan pada kata
kerja dasar pada contoh yang diberikan di atas menyebabkan
variasi eiaan; Selain varia-si eiaan, imbuhan - .r, dan - ed yang
ditambahakan pada kata kerja dasar menyebabkan pula variasi
pelafalan. Variasi tersebut dapat dilihat pada contoh-contoh
berikut.
a. From Finite Stem X'orm to Finite Stem 4 - s Form
The suffix - g has - es as its variant. The suffix - 1 is
pronounced /s/ if it is suffixed to the stem forms ending in
voiceless consonants; it is pronounced lzJ if it is suffixed to the
stem forms ending in voiced consonants or vowels; and it is
pronounced /izl il il is suffixed to the stem forms ending in a
hissing sound. Study carefully the fbllowing illustration.
Imbuhan akhir -q dilafalkan /s/ kalau diimbuhkan pada
kata kerja dasar yang berakhir dengan konsonan tak bersuara; ia
dilafalkan lzl kalau ia diimbuhkan pada kata kerja dasar yang
bemkhir dengan konsonan bersuara; dan ia dilafalkan liz/ kalau
ia diimbuhkan pada kata kerja dasar yang berakhir dengan bunyi
desis. Kaji cermat ilustrasi berikut ini.
32
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
I
)
The finite stem lbrms which are directly suffixed
linite slem+ - ^r furm, in which -1 is pronounoed /s/
I
to form
Kata kerja dasar (finitc vcrb) yang langsung diirnbuhi akhiran
s untuk membentuk stcm + -s lbrm yang dilatalkan /s/
F'inite Stem
Form
Finite Stem+ - 1F'omr
cough
coughs
Iaugh
paragraph
laughs
paragraph
sniff
sniff
telegraph
telegraph
knock
look
mock
knock
look
mock
speak
speak
wreck
wreck
claps
claps
jump
jump
keep
leap
stop
keep
leap
stop
attract
attraot
insist
meel
sit
insist
visil
visit
meet
'Ihe Pronunciation of
sulllx - s
h\t
/ks/
/ps/
/ts/
sit
Verb Forms 33
Examples in Context:
.
She always teep.r a distance because shc
when she ,rpeakr.
I
.
toughs alot
When he meels her, hc always utlrdcls hcr attention.
[{er heart always lcaps with joy when he v,si/s her.
2)
The finite stem forms which are directly suffixed -g to form
finite stem+ -q form, in which -q is pronounced //
Kata kerja dasar (finite verb) yang langsung diimbuhi akhiran
-q untuk membentuk stem + -s form yang dilafalkan //
l'inite Stem
F
orm
rob
rub
snub
sob
sub
breed
comprehend
depend
need
pretend
34
Finite Stem+ Form
t
'fhe Pronunciation
of sufflx - s
robs
rubs
snubs
sobs
subs
breeds
comprehends
depends
/bzl
ldzl
lag
rag
snog
tag
lags
rags
boil
call
boils
calls
spoil
tell
te
spoils
lls
I
come
comes
dim
dims
dream
dreams
seem
seems
swim
swims
earn
earns
learn
mean
tum
win
leams
means
tums
wins
cling
fling
clings
flings
hang
hangs
ring
rings
lnzJ
lnrJ
Iryl
Examples in Conlext:
.
.
.
.
prelends
begs
drills
SI
needs
beg
drill
lg'zl
pretends thal he needs her help.
He often dream'^ aboul dealh.
lle mcans what he says.
When a woman tells lhe truth 10 a man, shc docs not
necessarily mean that she de2ends on him.
He
snogs
3) The finite
tags
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
stems ending
su|ixed with -g in
llzl
/sil
in -a9. -se, or --gq are directly
which -qq{ and -.!'er are pronounced
while -ggq is pronounced
/jil
Verb Forms 35
Kata kerja dasar yang berakhir dengan ,tqr -{g, or -gq yang
langsung diimbuhi dengan akhiran -! untuk membentuk
stem+ -s lbrm , yang -ces dan - ses dilafalkan /siz)
sedangkan -ges dilal'alakan /jizl
Finite Stem
Form
Finile Stem+ - {
advice/advise
dance
face
sacrifice
arise
choose
advices/advises
dances
faces
sacrifices
chooses
engage
engagcs
judge
lodge
judges
Iodges
manages
urges
manage
ulge
Form
Kata kerja dasar yang berakhir dengan hurul' -l yang
didahului oleh vowel langsung ditambahkan imbuhan akhir
-{. Kalau -2 didahului oleh konsonan, -y harus diubah
meniadi
'Ihe Pronunciation
of sulfix - .r
lsiil
ari ses
tjiil
-l
kemudian ditambahkan imbuhan akhir -<.s. -1u
dan -ic'.r dila{alakan
/izl
Finite Stem
Form
Finite Stem+ - {
Form
buy
lay
pay
relay
buys
lays
pays
relays
say
says
cry
cries
fly
flies
intensifiss
justifies
tries
inlensifu
justi!
try
The Pronunciation
of suffix - ^s
/-iz/
Examples in Context:
r
,
.
.
4)
Examples in Context:
The teacher 4dvises the students to use their time wisely.
The dancer always dances gracefitlly
He always./aces facts bravely.
A feeling ofbeing responsible fbr the matter zrges him tcr
take every action that he.judges to bc important.
The linite stems ending in -1 preceded by a vowel are
directly suffrxed with -{. However, if -2 is preceded by a
consonant, -y changes into -l and then suffrxed with -q-
14 and -ies are pronounced
36
/izl
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
.
.
.
.
5)
The lecturer always says things that make his students feel
important.
The woman crles a lot when she is sad.
The chairman .iusliJies things on the grounds of efficiency
and effectiveness.
'l'he leacher always lrie.i 10 imswer evcry qtrestitrn a^s well
as possible his students ask
The finite stem forms ending
-q is pronounced
/-/
in a
are suflixed with
-4,
and
Verb Forms 37
Kata ke{a dasar yang berakhir o diimbuhi dengan --es, dan
- s dilafalkan l-zl
Finite Stem
F'orm
do
go
overdo
undergo
undo
Finite Stem+ F orm
I
'I'he Pronunciation
ol' sulfix - s
does
l-zl
goes
.
.
6)
The finite stem forms ending in a hissing sound are suffixed
with -g! and -€[ is pronounced /-izJ
Kata kerja dasar yang berakhir bunyi desis diimbuhi dengan
alhiran -+s dan --es dilafalkan /iil
38
Finile Stem+ - 1
F-orm
F'orm
brush
wish
match
watch
brushcs
mix
wishes
matches
watches
mixes
pass
passes
bruz
buzzes
A Better Way of Mastering Engllsh Verbs
The carpet matches the curtains perfectly.
She never successfully mixes her career and marriage.
Rahmat is the brightest student in the class. lle always
pa,s.se.s his subjects excellently.
Form
He is disciplined and responsible; he drles every job well.
He always leaves home early in the nroming and goes
back late in the evening.
She often overd<tes sympathy.
She always undergoes grcat hardship, but she never gives
up.
Finite Stem
.
.
.
b, From Finite Stem Form to Regular Finite Stem+ - ed
overdoes
undergoes
undoes
Examples in Contexts:
.
.
Examples in Context
'l he Pronunciation
o1' sullix -e.r
l-izl
In general the finite stem forms can directly be sutfixed with qgl. However, for certain cases, the finite stem lbrms are suffixed
with -gl, the variant form of -91!. The - 9!! is pronounced /-rV il'
it is suffixed to the finite stem forms ending in a voiced
consonant or a vowel; it is pronounced lV if it is sutlixed to
finite stem forms ending in a voiceless consonant: and it is
pronounced /-id/ if it is suffixed to finite stem fbrms ending in /t or -d/sounds.
Pada umumnya kata kerja dasar ( Jinite stem .lbrm) dapal
ditambahkan langsung imbuhan -<41 Namun dalam hal-hal
tertentu ada finite stem lorm yang ditambahkan imbuhan -rl
yakni bentuk alternative imbuhan akhir -ed. Imbuhan [email protected]
dilafalkan /-d/ kalau ia diimbuhkan pada kata kerja dasar yang
berakhir dengan bunyi konsonan bersuara (voiccd consonanl)
atau bunyi vowel; ia dilafatkan /-tl kalau ia diimbuhkan pada
kata kerja dasar yang berakhir dengan bunyi konsonan tak
bersuara (voicelcss cotlsonanl); dan ia dilalalkan /.id/ kaluu ia
diimbuhkrur pada kata kerja dasar yang berakhir dcngan bunyi /t atau -dl. Aturan ini hanya berlaku untuk regular./itt ilc stem + q!./brms.
Verb Forms 39
I)
Examples offinite stem forms ending in a voiced consonant
which are direclly sullxcd with - ad.
Finite Stem Forms ending in
a voiced consonanl
F'inite Stem+ - ed Form
act
aid
acled
aided
boil
bt,z,
clean
enjoy
fill
enjoyed
filled
gained
inform
join
kick
informed
joined
kicked
kiss
laugh
kissed
laughed
missed
headed
ZI
neighbors.
They hugged and kjssed before they parted.
They viewed lhe matter from a dift'erent point ol' view
The children enjoyed the party very much.
Example s of finite stcrn fbrms ending in vowe
directly suf]ixed with - d.
c which arc
Finite Steml' - e./ liorm
accelerate
bchave
accelerated
ached
behaved
bribe
bribed
ceasc
chase
ceased
ache
die
dine
embrace
face
chased
hospitalize
impede
invite
jumble
jangle
jumbled
jangled
kedge
lace
kedged
laced
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
I
Finite Stem Forms
ending in vowel -e
temptsd
unohained
viewcd
wantod
xeroxed
yielded
ztn
oared
packed
quashed
remembered
yield
.
.
.
stal'l'ed
seemed
oar
pack
quash
remember
tempt
unchain
view
want
xerox
His diary aitled his memory to remember his past.
There seemed to be a long conflict between the two
grade
handle
needed
seem
2)
.
.
died
dined
embraced
iaoed
gazed
graded
handled
hospitalizcd
impedcd
invited
need
staff
40
boiled
buzzed
cleaned
gain
head
miss
Examples in Context:
gaz.e
Verb Forms 41
manage
name
managed
opine
mpe
smoke
opined
prepared
queued
raped
smoked
tease
use
teased
used
validate
waste
yoke
validated
wasted
yoked
zoned
prepare
queue
mne
nzrmed
Examples in Context:
.
.
.
.
The witness was bribedto give false evidence.
The two brothers embraced each other warmly when they
met.
She gazed at him in disbelief when he told her that he
wanted to marry her.
A marriage has successfully ceased the con{'lict between
the two clans.
Finite stem forms ending in leuer -lwhich is preceded
by a vowel letter is suffixed directly with suffix -a4f. If the finite
stem forms end in letter -7 which is preceded by a consonant
Ietter, the letter -y is changed to leffer -i thcn the stem finite
forms are suffixed wirh -tll.
L'inite stem forms yang berakhir dengan huruf -/ yang
didahului oleh huruf vowel diimbuhi lzurgsung dengan ed.
Kalau finite stem lorm terscbut didahului oleh hurul' konsonarr.
huruf -y diubah menjadi huruf - I kemudian diimbuhi dengan ed.
42
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Finite Stem Forms
ending in letter - y
Finite Stem+ - s./ Form
apply
beautify
applied
beautified
certified
dried
delayed
emptied
employed
enjoyed
envied
certify
dry
delay
empty
employ
enjoy
envy
justiS
falsified
gratified
horrified
implied
j ustified
key
keyed
Iiquefy/liqufy
lirhiry
magnify
notily
liquelied/liqulicd
lirhify/lirhilied
falsifr
gratilY
horrifr
imply
ossifu
overplay
oversimplifu
pacify
puri
ly
qualiB/
quantily
rare
ly
magnilieci
notified
ossitied
overplayed
oversimplified
pacified
purified
quatilied
quantified
rarefied
ratil.v
ratified
satisly
saponily
satisfied
saponilied
simplifu
tern
simpliiied
terrified
Verb Forms 43
testify
uglify
verifu
versify
testified
uglified
verified
versified
grab
grabbed
plan
stir
wed
planned
stirred
wedded
Examples in Context:
.
.
.
.
.
Examples in Context:
They delayed their departure until the weather improved.
She beauttJ'ied herself with good conduct.
The results of the research will be applied to toaohing
second language to young learners.
The death ofhis only daughter empried his heart.
We have always envied your good luck.
.
a
The final consonant of monosyllabic finite stem forms of
consonant-vowel-consonanl (cvc) construction, or of consonanl-
consonanl-vowel-consonant
construction (ccvc)
is
geminated(doubled) but those ending in -w, -x, or -1,. belbre it
is sutfixed with 1d.
Finite stem yang bersuku satu (monosylluhit)
dan
terbentuk dalam konstruksi konsonan-vorvel- konsonan (kvk)
atau konsonan-konsonan'vowel-konsonan (kkvk) harus didobel
huruf konsonan akhimya sebelum ditambahkan imbuhan akhir gql., kecuali mereka yang berakhir dengan horul konsonan -)r, x, atau -y.
Finite Stem Forms
(Monosyllabic = cvc or
ccvc construction)
ohat
ohop
dam
dog
M
Finite Stem+ - ed Form
chatlcd
chopped
dammed
dogged
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
He approached the woman and grabbed the bag from her
hand and ran off.
. The old man wedded a girl tiom lndia.
. His career wa s dogged by severe misfortune.
. The woman looked more beautiful when the wtnd stirred
her hair.
Monosyllabic or dissyllabic finite stems ending in
consonant letttr -/ which are not preceded by a sequenoe ol
vowel but the word diat.'Tlte consonant letter -/ is doublcd
belore the suffix 14f is added.
Kata kerja dasar (inite stem.r) yang bersuku kata satu
(monosy'llubic) atau yang bersuku kata dua (dissyllabic) yang
bemkhir dengan huruf konsonan -/ yang tidak didahului oleh
dua vowel secara berturul{urut , kecuali dalam kata dial, huruf/ didobel sebelum ditambahkan imbuhan akhir -erl'
Finite Stem Forms
(Monosyllabic and
dissyllabic ending in
consonant letter -1)
F-ini1e Stem+ - cd Form
conrpcl
control
dial
compelled
oontrolled
dialled
lulli l/lulll Il
fulfilled
parallel
arallclled/ aralleled
Verb Forms 45
rival
travel
rivalled
travelled
Note: American English spells controled, traveled, fulfiled, and
Examples in Contcxt:
.
.
.
The lecturer referred 1o his previous lecture on
.
centrality of memory in learning.
The jury acquitledher of murdering her husband.
the like).
.
.
'
.
.
Examples in Context:
FIis wise words compelled our admiration.
His achievem ents./ulJilled his parents' expectation.
His love to his Creator ,,ivalled (rivaled) nothing.
No one has parallelled @aralleled) his dedication to this
country.
She travelled (traveled) a lot to enrich her experience.
,
Dissyllabic fini1e stems having the primary stress on the
second syllable require the doubling of the last oonsonant letter
before they are suffixed with -e4- Dissyllabic finite stems
ending in a consonant cluster and having the primary stress on
the first syllable are directly sutfixed with --g4l
Kata kerja dasar yang bersuku dua dengan tekanan suara
jatuh pada suku kedua didobel konsonan akhimya sebelum
ditambahkan imbuhan akhir -qd. Kata kerja dasar yang bersuku
dua yang berakhir dengan gugus konsonan, atau tckanan suara
jatuh pada suku pertama tidak didobel konsonannya, dan
langsung ditambahkan imbuhan akhir -94!
Finite Stem Forms (Dissyllabic)
Finite Stem+ - ed Form
acquit
concur
in fer
quit
acqu itted
rel'er
ref'crrcd
ob.jected
ob'ject
c()vcr
opcn
46
Their opinions concurred in many aspects.
We look at his uniform and inferred that he was an army.
the
Finite stems ending in -lc are added with letter t belbre
they suffixed -{4!
Kata kcrja dasar yang berakhir dengan -ic ditambahkart
huruf -& sebelum diimbuhkan akhiran --cd
Finite Stem Forms
ending in -it'
Finile Stcm+ - s./ Fornr
frolic
lrolickcd
panic
panickod
picnickcd
tralll c kcd
picnic
traflic
.
.
.
'
.
lixamples in context:
The tourists./i ol icked itr thc sun un(il they all got sunburn
The gurrlire panicked the crowd.
The iamily picnicked\nthe woods last week.
She traflicked in opium.
concurred
in ferred
q
uiltcd
covcrcd
opened
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Verb Forms 47
c. From Finite Stem Forms to Non-Finite Stem + -j4g
Forms
Generally, finite stem forms are directly suflixed with
uc.
Finite Stem F-orms
Finite Stem+ - ing l'orm
act
buzz
bleed
bring
catch
do
actlng
buzzing
bieeding
bringing
catching
doing
eating
eat
fall
fix
go
hear
interview
ju-p
aolng
hearing
lnteryrewrng
staff
.jumping
k issing
lcading
mcaning
missing
needing
opening
questioning
repeating
risking
saying
seeming
slceping
staffing
tel I
telling
kiss
lead
mcan
miss
need
open
question
repeat
risk
say
seem
sleep
4a
falling
fixjng
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
undoing
vanishing
waiting
xenotransplanting
yielding
zerofilling
undo
vanish
wait
xenotransplant
yield
-
zerofill
Examples in Context:
.
.
.
Seeing is more reliable than heuring.
Fulling in love is a beautiful cxperience.
Suying is easicr lh:an doing.
Finite stem forms which are not diroctly sul'lixcd with -!ng are
exemplified in the following.
Finite stems ending in vowel letter + preccded by a
consonant letter but consonant lener -y require us to drop the
vowel letter -z before we suflix them with -lng. Finite stems
ending in vowel letter -z preceded by the consonant le11er - lr,
and the word be, are directly suffixed with -iirg.
Kata kerja dasar yang berakhir dengan hurul'vowel -z
yang didahului oleh lrurul'konsonan kecuali hurul'konsonan -y
dan huruf -e pada kata kerja dasar be, diburing sebelum
ditambahkan imbuhan akhir ins.
Finite Stem Forms
Finite Stem+ - lrq Form
admire
come
hope
improve
live
make
admiring
coming
hoping
inrproving
living
mnking
I
Verb Forms 49
I
bet
dye*
)
being
dyeing
Finite stoms ending in -le require us to change -ie
before they arc sulfixed with lng.
Kata kerja dasar yang berakhir dengan
Examples in Context:
.
r
.
.
I
The tourists couldn't stop admiring the beauty of
panorama.
Are your parents coming here, too?
The gangsters enjoy making people angry.
They keep hoping to see their country in'peacc again.
dahulu -ie
atchir -14g
but vowel letter -a are directly sufi,ixed with
Finite
stems
ending in vowel letter __e p.""Ld"d by vowel
-14g.
letter -a require us to drop the vowel letter __s before
we sufiix
them with -14g
K{a kerja dasar yang berakhir dengan hurul vowel _e
yang didahului oleh huruf vowel lain kecuali vowel _r.r
langsung
ditambahkan imbuhan akhir -lng. Kata kerja dasar yang
berakhir dongzrn hurul'vowel -r yang didahuiui oleh vowel _a.
huruf vowel -c tersebut dibuang sebelum ditambahkan imbuhan
akhir -149
Finite Stem Forms
I,-inite Stem+ - rns
agree
agreelng
seeing
argue
continue
issue
pursue
queue
arguing
continuing
issuing
pursuing
queuing
lorm
Finite Stcm Form
Finitc Stem+ - iny Form
die
lie
tie
untie
dying
lying
tying
untying
Examples in Contexls:
.
.
.
.
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
The woman is dying; the doctor couldn't do any'thing to
save her life.
'fhe girl was lying lirst asleep when a thiel'broke into her
room.
Stop lyingl We know you are not lcliing lhe truth.
She began unlying lhe parcels when we arrived.
'['he hnal consonanl o1'monosyllabic finitc stem forms of
consonanl-vowe l-consonunl (cvc) conslruction,
or ol' consonantconsonunt-vowel-consonanl construction (ccvc) is geminated
(doubled) but those ending in -,r, -.r, or -y, belore it is suffixed
with -14g.
Finite stem yang bersuku satu (monosyllabic)
dan
terbentuk dalam konstruksi: konsonan-vowel- konsonan (kvk)
atau konsonan-konsonan-vowel-konsonan (kkvk) harus didobet
huruf konsonan akhirnya sebclum ditambahkan imbuhan akhir q4g, kecuali mereka yang berakhir denga.r huruf' k<)nsonan -w. .r, atau
50
-le terlebih
-y
diubah menjadi
sebelum ditanrbahkan imbuhan
the
Finite stems ending in vowel le(er _-c prccetied by
.
another vowel letter
see
lo -y
-r.
Verb Forms 51
Irinite Stem Fomt
bid
plug
put
rub
stir
stop
swim
win
Finite Stem+ - jng Form
bidding
plugging
putting
rubbing
stirring
stopping
swimming
wtnnin
He scnt letters to his sisters. bidding lter inrprove her mind
with good books.
. She likes.rwlzming. ln facl, swimming
. Our team is winning the game. I am sure.is her hobby.
. A gentle breeze is stirring her hair that makes her look
more attractive.
Monosyllabic or dissyllabic finite stenrs ending in
-/ which arc not preccded by a sequence o1,
vowel but the word diol. 'I-he consonant letter / is doubled
consonant lctter
bef<rre the sufhx -14g is addcd.
Kata keria dasar (/inite s/ozis) yang bersuku kata satu
(morutsyllubic) atau yang bersuku kata dua (dis:;yllabiL.) yang
berakhir dengan huruf konsonan
-/ yang tidak ,lidaf,ului oleh
dua vowel secara berturut-turut , kecuali dilam kata dial.
huruf _
/ didobel sebelum ditambahkan imbuhan akhir _14g
Fini te Stem Form (Monosyllabic
and dissyllabic ending in
consonant letler *l)
Finite Stem+ - lre Form
compel
control
compolling
52
fulflVtulfitl
fulfilling
parallel
rival
travel
paral lell ing/parallel i ng
rivallcd
travelled
Note: American English mengeja controling, traveling, Iulfiling,
dan semacamnya tanpa mendobel huruf-/
Examples in Context:
Examples in Contcxls:
.
dialing
dial
cr.rntrollin
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
.
.
.
.
'fhe necd for fbod is compellingLhe man to rob.
Do you love travelling'l
Please tell me the best way of controlling cnotion.
The best way of .fuffilling our desircs is to feel that we
have everything we need.
Dissyllabic finite stems having the primary stress on the
second syllable require the doubling of thr: last consonant letter
before they are suffixed with -14& Dissyllabic finite stems
ending in a oonsonant cluster and having the primary stress on
the lirst syllable arc directly sufllxcd with -4g
Kata kerja dasar yang bersuku dua dengan tekanan suara
jatuh pada suku kedua didobel konsonan akhirnya sebelum
ditambahkan imbuhan akhit -!!C. Kata kerja dasar yang bersuku
dua yang berakhir dengan gugus konsonan, atau tekanan suara
jatuh pada suku pertama tidak didobel konsonannya,
dan
langsung ditambahkan imbuhan akhir -1ag.
Finite Stem Form (Dissyllabic)
Finite Stem+ -
acqurt
concur
acquitting
concuring
in f'er
inltrling
ult
I
in g
Form
qv!!!t!8
Verb Forms 53
r'
refer
rc
ob'iect
cover
'rp9n
oblecting
covering
opgning
The news on the school bus accidont is panicking the
l'crring
parents.
TralJicking opium is illegal in this coun1ry.
3.
Examples in contexts:
. They are still conferring seriously on the matter.
r I wonder il you could suggest a way of inferring
two
different conclusions tiom the sanre data.
.
The team leader is thinking
players into his team.
t
ctl'
trunsferring more new
Rc/brring to what you havo just said,
you agreed to our proposal.
Finite stems ending
they are suffixed with -I4g
in
ln
sav that
-jc are added with letter _/r before
Kata kerja dasar yang berakhir dengan
[.'initc Stem [,ornrcnding
I would
-ic
Derivative Verbs
Derivative verbs are those which are derived fiom nouns,
adjectives, and verbs by affixation. AII derivative verbs ane also
grouped undcr regular verbs.
Kata kerja derivatil'adalah kata kerja bcntukan nrclalui
atiksasi pada kata bcnda, kata silat dan kata kerja. Kata kerja
derivatif digolongkan pula kodalam regular vcrbs.
a. From Nouns to Verbs (Suffixation)
Nouns
hyphenatt:
-cn
frolic
liolicking
panic
picnic
panicking
picnicking
lrafficking
heart
heartcn
height
Iength
strength
heighten
lenglhen
slrengthcn
-(i)ry
Examples in Context:
The children were.frolicking about the swimming pool
when the rain started to pour down.
54
chlorinate
chlorinc
hlphcn
tc'
traffic
Derivative Verhs
-ate
ditambahkan
Finitc Stom+ - lns frorm
Suffixos
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
beauty
code
class
glory
beautity
codify
classily
glorify
Verb Forms 55
I
.
.
modify
mode
person
sign
personil,v
signily
apologize
authorize
characterize
computerize
criticize
democratize
dramatize
harnronize
critic
democrat
drama
harmony
-lz,e
Children should
memorrze
patronize
philosophize
revolutionize
summarize
symbolize
sympathizc
terrorizc
victim
victimizc
Examplcs in ('ontcxts:
.
.
.
56
lbr
their
In the old time, children never crilicizad Lheir parents.
.
'Ihe misunderstanding betwecn thc two partics has beon
What charuclerizes a good wil-e?
The students were assigned lo summariza the last chapter
of a thiok book.
dramalized in the newsPaPers
b.
From Nouns to Vcrbs (prefixation)
Nouns
Derivative Verbs
de-
bristle
bug
cokc
curtain
leather
fiost
gut
house
ice
ink
Has the swimming pool been chlorinated?
louse
The teachcr played somo music to heighten the students'i
spirit to study.
'l'he old woman was very much heartened by her son's
succcss in the clection.
mist
mud
oil
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
upttlog,izc
r
.
.
Prehxes
memory
patron
philosophy
revolution
summary
symbol
sympathy
terror
be taught to
mistakcs.
-tze
apology
author
character
computer
Smiles do not always ,rigril).' liiendship.
sand
scale
de-bristle
debug
de-coke
de-curtain
de-lcather
deliost
de-gut
de-house
de-ice
de-ink
delouse
de-mist
de-mud
de-oil
de-sand
de-scale
Verb Forms 57
skill
winc
dc-skill
de-wine
em-/enbalm
camp
embalm
embed
embody
encamp
case
encase
circle
closure
encircle
enclosure
encode
encourage
encrust
endanger
bed
body
oode
courage
crust
danger
em-/enI
fold
I
force
lranchise
gulf
jov
plane
enlbld
enforce
enlianchise
engulf
enjoy
emplane
rage
enragc
slave
ens lave
throne
tomb
trap
trench
enthrone
entomb
entrap
entrench
Examples in Contexts:
58
compuler
program. Shc had to look fbr the laults and corrcct thcn).
You musl de-nud the windscrecn. We can't see what's
in I'ront.
Thar terrible momenl
will be l'trrever
amht'dcled
in
her
memory.
You
will
never stop endangering your health
if
you
always smoke.
Fle said he had bcen enlrappad into marrying
the
woman.
c. Thc Final Consonant of Verbs and Nouns arc pronounced
differently. The spelling may be thc same or diffcrent
Same Spelling, Different Pronuncialion in the Final
I
.
'l'he secretary was busy dchugging thc
We must dqfo.r/ the frozen chicken before wc cook it.
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Consonant
Verbs
h.t
Nouns
lsl
abuse
abusc
advice
devise
excuso
housc
license
practice
advice
devisc
excuse
housc
license
practice
use
use
tft
believe
halve
believe
halve
live
live
prove
prove
Verb Forms 59
relieve
shelve
Different Spelling,
different pronunciation
t6t
breathe
clothe
teethe
wreathe
at'tribute
com'bine
oom'press
con'cert
con'duct
tsl
breath
teeth
(Stress
ol
the
if
his
cont-erence room; he always makes such an cxcuse
idea is not acoepted by the lloor.
You will forget your English
if
you do not usc it. I'm
sure-
What's the use
of worrying of
making grarnmatical
mistakes in English?
She can't breathe especially
if
she wants to take a deep
breath.
d. Verbs and Nouns havc the samc spelling but thcy have
diffcrent stress. Verbs are stressed on the second syllable
while nouns are stressed on the first syllable
on
the
con'verse
con'vert
'converse
'oonvert
con'vict
'convict
de'crease
'decrease
de'sert
dic'tate
di'gest
dis'count
dis'course
en'trance
en'velop
es'cort
es'say
'deserl
'dictale
'digest
'discount
'discourse
'cntrance
'envelop
'csoort
'essay
Verbs
Nouns
(Stress on the second syllable)
(Stress on the first syllable)
ex'tract
ab'stract
ac'cent
ad'dict
'abstract
'accent
'addict
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
second
'conscript
'contest
'contract
'contrast
Nouns
(Stress on the first sYllable)
syllable)
ex'ploit
ex'port
60
'conflict
con'test
con'tract
con'trast
Vcrbs
wreath
himsell- and walked out
'comprcss
'cQncert
'oonduct
con'flict
con'script
cloth
Examples in Contcxts:
Ile stood up, excused
'ally
'attribulo
'oombine
al'ly
rclieve
shclve
Different Spelling, different
pronunciation
im'port
im'press
in'cense
'exploit
'export
'extract
'import
'impress
'incense
Verb Forms 61
in'sult
'increase
'insu lt
obJect
pcr'funrc
'pcrl ume
in'crease
'o bj ect
(Stress on the second syllable)
'produce
'progress
'project
'prospect
rotesl
Nouns
(Stress on the first syllable)
re'bel
re'cord
re'tail
re'fuse
su'bject
sur'vey
suq'pect
tor'ment
trans'fer
trans'port
'rebel
'record
'retail
'refuse
'subject
'survey
'suspect
'torment
'transfer
'trdnsport
Verbs
e.
'permit
'frcsent
per'mit
pre'scnt
pro'duce
pro'gress
pro'j ect
pros'pect
'test
Don't take it as an insult becausc I didn't mean to insull
you. I was joking.
Adjectives
.
bright
broad
chcap
datnp
oheapen
dampcn
deaf
deali:n
deep
deepcn
fat
flat
fatlen
l'latten
fresh
hard
hardcn
f'reshen
Iighten
loosen
quicken
quieton
reddcn
shortgn
sicksn
stiffen
straighten
thioken
widen
light
Ioose
quick
quiet
red
to
conduct themselves inside the mosque.
.
blacken
brighten
broaden
black
Since the accent of the nouns above falls on the first
syllable, we do not accenl the second syllable.
The Imam taught the young people thoroughly how
Verbs
Sullixes
-cn
Examples in Contexts:
.
From Adjectives lo Verbs
We believe that people leam to adapt to the rules of
cotrduct of the society in which they live and are
short
sick
stiff
straight
thick
wide
-t79
exposed.
62
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Verb Forms 63
I
equal
familiar
general
legal
modem
neutral
tender
Adjectives
Suffxes
equalize
familiarize
generalize
legalize
modemizc
neuiral iz.e
tenderize
Verbs
i
(iXv
just
pure
simple
solid
Prefixes
simplift
solidifo
Adjectives
Many people brouden their experiencc by travelling
a
lo1.
Is it true that the sr:as deepen gradoally?
His mind and feeling hardened as hc bccame used to
difficulty, and he bccame impatient of weaker people.
She has familiorized hersell with a great deal of the
native customs.
amplifu
diversifu
falsity
intensifu
justify
pudly
ample
diverse
false
intense
Examples in Contexts:
Verbs
I don't think you can generulize
about the matter. You
just don't have representative sarnple.
It will take years lct modcrnizc the transportation
systcm
in this country.
He is trying to /iilsifv the lacts by tclling people thal he
was not there when the accidcnl happenetl.
Her anger intensi/ied when she knew he had pretendcd to
be nice to her.
The instructions have been simplified, so everybody can
follow them easily.
em-/enable
enable
Her life was embitteredby repeated failures.
bitter
embitter
close
enclose
Many women believe that contraception will enuble
dear
endear
lecble
enfceble
enlarge
ennoble
large
noble
rich
sure
them to plan their families.
His kindness and gentleness endear him to everyone.
enrich
ensure
I
64
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Verb Forms 65
in'crease
'increase
in'sult
ob'ject
'insult
'object
'pcrlume
'permit
'present
'produce
'progress
'project
'prospect
per' lume
per'mit
pre'scnt
pro'duce
pro'gress
pro'j ect
pros'pect
'test
Verbs
,
re'bel
re'cord
re'tail
re'fuse
su'bject
sur'vey
'rebel
'record
'retail
'refuse
'subject
'survey
'suspect
'torment
'transfer
:transport
trans'port
Adjectivos
I
I
deaf
dealtn
deep
deepen
fat
latten
bright
flat
llalten
fresh
hard
freshen
harden
liCht
lighten
loosen
quicken
quieten
redden
shortsn
sicken
stiffen
straighten
thicken
widen
loose
quick
quiet
red
sho(
Since the accent ol'the nouns abovc lalls on the fir$
syllable, we do not uccent lhe second syllable.
The Imam taught the young people thoroughly how
,'rlndlcl themselvcs inside the mosque.
broad
cheap
darnp
blacken
brighten
broaden
cheapen
dampen
black
Examples in Contexts:
,
Verbs
Suflixcs
-en
Nouns
(Stress on the tirst syllable)
tor'glent
trans'fer
e.From Adjectives to Verbs
tcst
(Stress on the second syllable)
sus'pect
Don't take it as an insult because I didn't mean lo insult
you. I was joking.
sick
stiff
tol
:
We believe that people learn to adapt to the rules of,
conduct of the socicty in which (hey live ald arel
straight
thick
wide
-t7s
exposed.
62
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Verb Forms 63
i
equal
familiar
general
legal
modem
neulral
tender
Adjectives
Suffixes
equalize
familiarize
generalize
legalize
modernizc
ncirtralizc
tenderize
Verbs
Examples in Contexts:
.
Many people brouden their experience by travelling
lot.
. ls it true that the sca-s deepen gradually')
. Ilis mind and fecling hardened a-s he becamc used to
.
(i)ly
amplifu
diversifo
just
justify
purify
simplify
solidify
lalsifr
. I don't think you aan generulize
.
.
&
bitter
embitter
close
dear
feeble
large
noble
enclose
endear
enfeebll:
en
to Jatsify the facts
by tclling people that
he
.
I-ler anger intensi/ietl when she knew hc had pretended lo
be nice to her.
.
The instructions have been simplifiad, so everybody can
follow them easilY.
.
r
Her life was embitteredby repeated tbilures'
Many women believe that
contracepti
on will
enable
them to Plan their families.
.
His kindness and gentleness endear him to evsryone'
large
rich
ennoble
enrich
sure
ensure
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Ile is trying
was not there when t'he ascident happened'
em-/enenable
It will take years to modernize the transpo(ation system
in this country.
Verbs
able
about the nlatter' You
just don't have representative sample.
intensifo
Adjectives
dilficulty, and he bccame impaticnt ol'wcakcr people'
She has Jitmiliarized hersell with a grcat deal of the
native customs.
ample
diverse
false
intense
pure
simple
solid
Pre fixes
a
Verb Forms 65
f.
From Verbs to Verbs
Prefixes
Verbs
materialize
moralize
naturalize
personalize
politicize
register
lcgulatc
Verbs
autocook
detiost
dial
play
record
redial
reverse
rotate
autocrook
aulodcfiost
autodial
autoplay
autorecord
autoredial
autoreverse
rcpress
stabilize
direct
cdit
codirecl
coedit
educate
coeducate
exist
habit
coexist
cohabit
cooperate
coopt
coproduce
costar
opt
produce
star
deactivate
centralize
certily
classily
oolonize
grade
humanize
65
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
dcpoliticize
deregistcr
dcregulatc
de-repress
destabilizc
Examples in Context:
autorotate
co-
operate
dematerialize
demoralize
denaturalize
depersonalize
deactivate
decentralize
decertily
declassity
decolonize
degrade
dehumanize
The soldiers carefully deactivated lhe bomb placed under
the tank.
Don't tlegrade yourself by doing such a dishonest aclion.
You must be strong; you may not be demorulizad by
your previous failure.
Verhs
Prefixes
Verhs
disagree
disagree
allow
disallow
appcru
disappear
approve
arm
associate
band
believe
connect
embark
disapprove
d isarnr
disassociale
disband
disbelievc
disconnect
disembark
Verb Forms 67
hearten
like
dislike
obcy
organizc
please
disobey
disorganize
llisplease
disqualify
quali$'
No one can/bretell whal will happen to the world in
I 000 year's time.
dishearten
disintegrate
integrate
Prefixes
gather
go
ordain
see
shadow
shorten
stall
swear
tell
wam
forebear
forebode
forecast
foreclose
foregather
forego
foreordain
foresee
foreshadow
fbreshorten
lbrestall
foreswear
foretell
fbrewarn
Examples in Contcxt:
.
.
.
.
.
68
I oan't find any good reason to disagree to your plan.
fler anger soon disappaarerl whcn she sau,him coming
r.r ith a lot ol'presents.
Shc is easily di.>-heartenerl bv ditliculty.
His angry lhceJbrahode,- a real confiontation.
She knows well that her smile can always./irestall him
to be angry with her.
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Verbs
act
breed
change
lnteract
interbreed
interchange
intercommunicale
interconnect
inler-
fore
bear
bode
cast
close
Verbs
commtrnicate
connect
lock
marry
mingle
mix
nationalize
penetrate
pose
relate
weave
interlock
intermarry
intermingle
intermix
internationalize
interponetratc
interpose
interrelate
interweave
mrs-
apply
apprehend
behave
calculate
conduct
direct
hear
infbrm
interprct
judge
lay
lead
misapply
misapprehend
misbehave
miscaloulate
misconduct
misdirecl
mishear
misinlbrm
misinlcrprel
mis.judge
mislay
mislead
Verb Forms 69
manage
mlsmanage
place
misplace
misprint
mispronounce
misquote
misread
misrepresent
mistake
type
misunderstand
misuse
print
pronounce
quote
read
represent
take
type
understand
use
compensate
do
.
.
.
.
.
.
Can buffaloes and cows interbreed?
Many Buginese families still intermarry.
In many countries in the world, wages and prices
inlerrelate.
Should parents be angry if their r:hildrcn misbehave?
He misleads her into thinking he is reach.
The students sometimes misundersland lhe leacher's
explanation.
Prelixes
Verbs
Verbs
aot
awe
balance
overacl
overawe
overbalancc
overbid
overbook
overburdcn
overcapitalize
overcharge
I
over-
bid
hook
burdcn
aapitalize
charge
70
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
estimatc
overdo
ovcrdose
ovgreat
overestimate
flow
overflow
hear
lay
load
look
pay
react
ride
ovgrhear
overlay
overload
overlook
overpay
overreact
override
see
see
simplify
work
oversimplifo
overstay
overtake
overwork
aITangc
date
prearrange
predate
determine
digest
dispose
dominate
exisl
fabricate
predetermine
predigesl
dispose
predominate
preexist
prefabricate
preheat
prejudge
prcoccupy
preread
prcserve
preset
dose
eat
Examples in Context:
ovcrcomPensate
staY
take
pre-
heat
judge
occ up
!'
tul
scrve
re
set
su
SC
rcs u
SC
Verb Forms 71
teach
preteach
teach
re-teach
write
prewrite
visit
revisit
Examples in Context:
.
.
.
.
Examples in Context:
Don't let me overburder you with my problems.
She overdosed on sleeping pills and died.
Please don't overestimute my ability.
She has every good reason that predispses me to lovr
her.
! A wish to become rich always predominates in her mind
r A true scientist will never presuppose the truth o
unproved facts.
Prefixes
Verbs
Verbs
re-
'
.
.
How did she reacl to your commenti?
I bsB you to reconsider your dcoision. [t will hurt both of
us, if you do it.
Nothing c:ur replace a mother's lovc.
Once you have been to Bali, you will always want to
revisit il.
The government should rcbuild lhe society for the
information age.
Prefixes
Verbs
Verbs
balance
unbalance
bar
bett
bend
bind
block
dress
unbar
unbelt
unbend
unbind
unblock
unbolt
unbrace
unburden
unbutton
unchain
unclasp
uncoil
un0()ver
undo
undress
lbtd
unlbld
unact
address
react
readdress
allocale
reallocale
iuTange
rearTange
build
call
consider
rebuild
recall
reconsider
create
recreate
brace
distribute
deploy
do
elect
explain
examine
fresh
place
redistribute
redeploy
redo
re-elect
rc-explain
re-cxamine
refresh
replace
reread
burden
button
chain
clasp
read
72
.
'
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
bolt
coil
oover
clo
Verb Forms 73
freeze
learn
load
screw
stop
tie
unheeze
unleam
unload
unlock
unmask
uirpack
unplug
unravel
unsay
unsorcw
unstop
untie
veil
urveil
lock
mask
pack
plug
ravel
say
Stem
Form
Stem+
Form
(FV)
(FV
6. Non-Derivative Verbs
Non - derivative verbs are thosc which do not lake anyi
derivativc affixes. 'l'hcy can bc regular or irregular in lom.
Non-derivative verbs adalah kata kerja murni yang tidirk
mendapatkan imbuhan derivative (derivative afllxes). Mereka
ada yang tergolong kc dalarl bentuk regLrlar verbs darr ada pula
yang tergolong ke dalam irregular verbs.
74
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
glsm+-ed
glsrn+-jnra
tbrm
Form
(1.-v
& NI]V)
(NFV)
&NFV)
act
add
acts
acted
added
asked
begged
acting
adding
asking
begging
bcginning
beg
adds
asks
begs
begin
begins
cut
do
cuts
does
end
ends
finish
finishes
go
goes
hug
hugs
.jumped
know
jumps
knows
Iike
likes
liked
make
name
open
queuc
makes
opens
queue
made
named
opened
queue
read
reads
read
sec
sees
saw
takc
takcs
took
taken
taking
usc
uses
used
t-lst l1
ask
Examples in Context
The mystery was uncovered by a little inquiry.
Patience, perseverance, and sincere prayers will unloclr
doors to success.
You are free to unsoy what you may not say.
What has been said cannot be unsuid: what has becn
done cannot be undona.
Many young people are now chained to the computer all
day. lt is not easy to unchain them.
It is diflicult to zzveil something that has been hidden or
kept secret.
-.!
ju-p
nzunes
bcgiut
begun
cut
did
done
ended
finished
went
gone
hugged
knew
known
cuttrng
doing
ending
finishing
going
hugging
.jumping
kr.rowing
Iiking
making
naming
opening
queue
reading
sceing
soen
Verb Forms 75
vote
yield
votcs
yields
voted
yielded
II
voting
yielding
Examples in Context:
.
.
.
.
t
Rezky often as,ts herself why she does things
that she
does not really like.
She will never begin to like him because she
knows that
he will never /ifte her either.
It is very dark inside! We cannot .ree anything but
darkness
Open your eycs, take a <leep brealh, andjump
forward.
Take_your reading book, open page ten, and
then read
the first paragraph three times.
VERB FORMS AND THEIR USAGE
BENTUK KATA KERJA DAN
PENGGUNAANNYA
Finite Stem Form
Finite stem tbrm is used as a cornplett: predication or an
incomplete predication o1'a clause or a sentence in present tense
having the subject: lirst person singular or plurai ( I or We),
second person singular or plural (You), and other plural subjects
(They, Nabilah and Nailah, or people).
Finite stem form digunakan sebagai predikat (complete
predication) atau bagian utama predikat (incomplete predication)
suatu klausa atau kalimat yang ber kala kini dengan subjek
orang pertrama tunggal atau jamak (l atau We), oriurg kedua
tuinggal atau jamak (You), dan subjek jamak lainnya (They,
Nabilah and Nailah, or people).
Examples in Context
t
.
I
76
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
We speak lndonesian and English at homc.
You may borrow the book ifyou want to.
Verb Forms and Their Usage 77
.
.
.
'fhey 6zrilr/ houses.
Nabilah and Nailah are sisters.
I am a Moslem
Finite Stem + -ed Form
Finite Stem * -s Form
Finite stem+ - q form is used as a complete predication
an incomplete predication of a clause or a senlence in pre
tense having the subject: third person singular, for examp
Maemuna Muhayyang (she) Akbar (he), Dhiah (she), Ibrahi
(he), Fatimah (she), Rahmat (he), my f'ather (he), my mother
(she), education (it).
Finite stem form digunakan sebagai predikat (complete
predication) atau bagian utama predikat (incomplete predication)
suatu klausa atau kalimat yang ber kala kini dengan subje}
orang ketiga atau nomina ketiga tunggal, misalnya Maemuna
Muhayyang (she) Akbar (he), Dhiah (she), Ibrahim (he),
Fatimah (she), Rahmat (he), my father (he), my mother (she),
education (it).
Examples in Conlext
.
.
.
.
.
:
Program.
Kelara.
dengun semru jen is suhjek'
ExamPles in Context
.
'
.
'
'
'.
.
'
lhe lecrure startci'l late yestcrday'
l ?r(' y Ll ''
You $erc not here 3t that timc'
ifr" fuu week's lesson )trls vcry interesting'
and neYer returned'
The woman's husband wcnl away
iir",*" p*ies tinally ugrtetl to cease their conlllct'
lecture'
ManY students did not attend the
The witness /ied in the court'
be a spy'
The polir;e uccused the old man to
accusation
The old man prolesled rhe police's
Non-Finite Stem Form
Dr. Maemuna Muhayyang l.r a lccturer.
Muhammad Akbar Anin /rve.r in Jakarta.
Radhiah Mardhiah Amin fta.s two children.
Muhammad lbrahim Amin is a civil servant.
Fatimah Hidayahni Amin lectures at Business English
Muhammad Rahmat Amin teaches
a oomplete predication
Finite stem+ - ed tbrm is used as
in past
., #;;;;" predication of a clause or a sentence
",
all kinds
'."*tof subjects'
tense
-'* with
"
predikat
- "d tot* digunakan s.ebagai
il;;
(inco.mplete
Jama predikat
f.".pf .*'p."a"l-"",ion; atau bagian
lampau
Hi:;il"; suatu klausa atau kalimat vang bcr kala
al SMA Negeri
elemcnt ol vcrbs of
Non-finite stem tbrm is used as the
selltence' It comes alier
ir.o.pia,"-p."aication of a clause or a
stem to
;;fi;I;veib. Certain tinite verbs require the non-flnite
be oreceded bY ro
"'"'" J;;-i';iie
predikat
stem lbrm digunakan sebagai unsur
finite
mengikuti
form
.uat tiar."u uta,, kalimat' Non-inite stem predikat Ada finite
utama
sebagai bagian
"non-finite
slem fbrm tersebut
"JV^rg-t".f,ngsi
verbs yang mempersyaratkan
didahului oleh lo'
ExamPles in Conlext
78
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Verb Forms and Their Usage 79
I
.
.
.
i
.
.
Children musl rcspecl thcir parents.
You might r5e there at that time, but I did not rec you.
'l-he delegates will arrive the day alier tomorrow.
Most birds can/y.
We used to go to lhe same elementary school.
We are ,o mee, there tomorrow.
Non-finite stem form biasa juga disebut infinitive form.
Selain digunakan sebagai unsure predikat, adakalanya ia
memerankan fungsi noun (fungsi subjek, objeok, atau
komplemen), dan adakalanya ia memerankan fungsi adjeclive
(sebagai subject modil\er alau object modifrer'1 yang pada
umumnya dalam bentuk fiase yang disebut in/initive phrase.
Examples in Context
As subject:
.
.
.
To be a teacher is a good ambition.
To make everybody happy is not easy.
To begin is often difficult.
As Object:
. I always want to be a lrue bclicver d lshm.
. The soldiers promise /o dia .fbr the ir country.
. fhey have promised to gel murried this ycu.
As Complemenl:
. -fhe purposes
.
.
.
of the meeting
were tu cttnsolidate the
members oJ the club aru) to make lhc club active aguin.
To respect other people is in fact tu respect ourselves.
The first objective of the lesson is to get the students
familiar wilh lhe time expression in English.
The best way lbr a womar to handle a man is to love
him.
As Subject ModiJier (Penjelas Subjek):
are all in this
litllow in the L'ompetilion
.
r
head'
'view in detail is the village
The first Persor, b intet
;;i; s to quit in vour tiJb is smoking'
booklet'
: iil ffi
As obiect ModiJie'.e*!"^':-?uui:{!direcrions to Jbtktw \n the
. One grouP has not rei
comPetitlon'
in deloil ihal we
. We assured the first Perso n bainleNiew
bout his wife'
would not ask him a questlon
lilc thal
best thl ng t(, Lluil in |'ttur
thc
know
to
have
You
is smoking.
Form
Non-Finite Stem* -ed
form is used as the elemen::'::
Non-finite 51e6+ -ed
i. p,"a i. * 3; J."j i:il :illl;' L1J' ill
i;';*r
"i
".:
stem + -gd
voices. and past condltlona'_ l(ji"1"r",l.
"
N"n-finitc
ur
,.,b,
i
"
stem
rlerivcd from non-finite
* td past particrplc l'orm,ligunnLrn
i#1. "it"
0,.0,*,f,llilli';",,,liT.kt';
seh.gai unsur
;l;i;' :i;" p*st condirionar
Present Perfect AsPect
ExamPIes in Context:
. Thc students have suAm
'[hs profess"t h^'
il(',/ their tepUrt
;',#';J-'lL:""'l "tt thL- sludents'
'
rePorts'
. iti'n* Juu''l many ncw ideas in the reports'
Past
Perlect AsPect
ExamPlcs in Context:
Wc had bear here bofore
'
80
to
The direction s
'
Usage 81
Verb Forms and Their
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
After we had had dinner, we watohed TV for
a sccond,
then wenl out.
r. lhe.show had already sturted bclbre we got
there.
^
Passive
Voites
Examples in Context:
.
The village head is admired, respected, and.loved
by the
village people.
. The village head was inlemiewed
by a
yesterday.
r The interview will be released on T.V next
reporter
week.
Derivalive Adjectives
Examples in Conlext:
.
r
.
.
The man is handsome, reach and well_educatetl.
He has a very faithful and tledicatetl wife.
As a teacher I should always be well _preparetl.
The most preferred leaming activity in ,ny
task.
"ils
i.
pal.
Past Conditionql
IJxamples in Context:
.
r
r
She would have
maried you ifyou hacl proposed her.
The students would have knuv,i it it.theteacner
haa lolrl
them.
Had you informed us earlier, we would have
taken the
necessary steps.
Non-Finite Stem* -inq Form
Non-finite stem+ - inq lorm is used as the
eiement ol.
verbs of incomplete precliciiion ut' pr,rgr"rrir"
1;; ;;;;;,,,rr.
82 A Better Way of Mastering English
Verbs
aspects, both in active and passive construction.
present participle.
It
is often called
Non-finite slem + -ing tbrm is also used as a noun
denoting an activity or action which is commonly known as
gerund. As a noun it may function as subject, object,
complement, or appositive in a clause or sentence. It may be
considered concrete, abstract, countable or uncountable. If
considered countable, it can take the plural sufllx. Non-finite
stem+ -ing form belonging to transitive verb which functions as
noun retains its main lbature as verb that is it requires an object.
Non-f,rnite stem+ -inq lbrm is also use d as an adjectiv,.'.
Most derivative adjectives arc derived liom non-flnitc stem+ !4 fbrm. As an adjectivc, it ma1' l'unction as a.r attributive
adjective (it precedes the noun it modilies), a predicative
adjective (it lbllows thc linking verbs). or as a qualilicr (it
lollows the noun it qualifies). Ccrtain non-flnite stem + -inu
form f'unctioning as adjective carnot be preceded by intensitiers
(very or too) and do not have comparative degree forms.
Non-finite slsm + -ing form digunakan sebagai unsur
predikat yang menyatakan kegiatan sedang berlangsung, baik
dalam konstruksi kalimat aktil' maupun clalam konstruksi
kalimat pasiL la.juga biasa disebut prescnt participle.
Non-finitc stcm * -ing firnn juga digunakan sebagai
noun yang biasa diistilahkan dengan (ierund Sebagai noun,
non-finite stem + -inq fbmr dapat bertungsi sebagai subjek,
ohjek, komplemen atau apositil) dalam suatu klausa atau
kalirn:rt. Sama halnya dengan kata benda pada umumnya, gerund
ada yang beruj ud(konkret), abstrak, dapat dihitung sehingga
daoat oula memiliki benruk iamak. darr ada.,,ane tidak danal
dihituns substansinva. Non-finite stem * -inu ftrrm vanu
termasuk transitive verbs dwt berfungsi sebagai noun tetap
^,,li
. Arhh,.re\,.,"af l,.rn L,oh",li""-
^Hiat.
c,..,,,l.Lh\,.,
NL,--llhir- "r-r- r -;^,' l:',.," ;,,,,,, ,l;,,',.,.,t.,.' .-h-,'.,; L.,r"
silat (adjectives). Sebagai kata silat, ia dapat berl'ungsi atributil'
Verb Forms and Their Usage 83
yakni mendahului kata benda atau nomina yang diterangkannya;
ia dapat berfungsi predikatil, yakni nrenjadi pelengkap prcdikat
dan menempati posisi sesudah linking verhs; dan ia dapat pula
berfungsi penerangkan, yakni mcnempati posisi sesudah kata
benda atau nomina yang diterangkannya. Sebagai derivative
adjectives, non-finite slsyt- -!4g.lbrm ini ada yang tidak dapat
diterangkan oleh intensiliers (very aldu too), dan ada yang tidak
dapat dibandingkan (non-compar dt ive de gr e es).
Gerund (Objoct):
Examples in Contexl:
.
.
.
lies'
We love telling lhe rrulh' and we hate telling
We praotice speuking English every day'
No one can avoid making mistakcs'
Gerund (Object of PrePosition):
Examples in Context:
Progress ive /C onti n uo us Aspe cts :
Examples in Conlext:
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
I am rcading now.
I was huving dinncr when somr;one knocked at the door.
Our tcam is playing now, and it u'ill be pluying'again
tomorrow belbre 9.
The students have been learning English fbr fbur ycars;
they will have been /earnlzrg it for six years.
The teacher entered the room. The students had been
waiting for him.
Why are you playing'7 You should be sludying.
The artist is Deirg interviewed.
Gerund (subject):
Examples in Context:
.
.
.
.
Gelling up early is a good habit.
Urulerslanding someone's ideas is not always easy.
Reading 600 words per minute in a foreign language
usually does not go along with high comprehension.
Her comings and goings are not known to us.
'
'
'
lhank You ltrr t'r'rl/irzg'
She leli wilh<tttl suyinl4 u word.
I drrn't ohject ttr dun''inY'
Gerund (ComPlement):
Examples in Context:
My hobbies ate iogging in the moming and playing
tennis in the aftemoon.
it .,"p" of."" were persuatling the girl tu go home ond
"
home'
assurin'g hare parenls lhat she is coming
point is crossing the border in the evening'
it
" "*"iut
Gerund (Sutrject APPosition):
Example s in Clontcxt:
makes
Her job, teaching English us u.fbreign languuge'
her Iit'e meaningftl.
Th"-"*"rair., itriting the same senlcnce one hundred
,imss, demotivated the students to study'
The gane, Jighting an angry bul/, is very dangerous'
Gerund (Object APPosition):
Examples in Context:
84
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Verb Forms and Their Usage 85
She likes her job, teaching English as
a
'
.
The students did the exercise, writing the
.
sentence one hundred times.
We watched the game, fighting an angry bull.
foreign
language.
.
sesame
Gerund (Modifier):
Examples in Context:
.
.
.
.
ExamPles in Context:
The girls are swimming in the 'swimming pool.
We waited inthe' waiting room for two hours.
Where is Fatimah? She is in the 'changing room.
The workers are putting on their 'worlring clothes.
.
the floor is looking lor a
The old worfi$ kneeling on
n""af" .f'" dropped unintentionally'
will have to be
A student learning a foreign language
oersevering'
. fiJ.;rl;;Z head met the tearn surveving the location
vesterdav moming'
' i;;;;"
wom; si/'ins
bY the
window'
Note: Cerund functioning as modifier got nuclear stress in
pronouncing it.
(lerund yang yang bertungsi penjelas rnendapat
penekanan (nuclear stress) pada pelalalannya.
Present Participle (Attributive Adjective):
Examples in Context:
,
,
.
.
Thefollowing examples are all true sentences.
Harcl-working sfudents always work hard to get success.
The charming girl is smiling at us.
['hilosophy is a/csclnatlng subject.
Present Participle (Predicative Adjective):
Examples in Context:
.
.
.
The story was very inleresting.
Your words are very discouraging.
Sedentary work is often very boring.
Present Participle (Qualifi er):
86
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
87
Verb Forms and Their Usage
III
THE STRUCTURE OF VERB GROUPS
STRUKTUR KELOMPOK KATA KERJA
The verb order is viewed from two points of view,
namely the order of the verbs in a phrase tbrm, and the order of
the verbs in a clause.
Urutan kata keria ditinjau dari dua sudut pandang, yakni
urutan kata kerja dalam frase dan urutan kata kerja dalam
klausa.
Phrasal Order ofVerbs
Urutan Frase Kata Kerja
Sequences of vcrbs within
phrases are grouped into 14
orders or sequenoes using criteria of position and form. The
sequences include the catenative construction as in They try to
like to learn to begin to askJbr help from the King, and the twoword verbs as in She loolc after the house well.
The Structure of Verb
groups 89
Each verb phrase must have one verb headword and
one or more (at the most four) other verbs. The position of the
verb headword within the phrase form is occupied by any
lexical verb which is always in the last position and in the nonfinite form. A verb headword is not always preceded by other
verbs. [t may stand alone, and when it starids alone it is always
finite.
Urutan kata kerja dalam frase dikelompokkan kedalam
14 kelompok urutan berdasarkan kriteria posisi dan bentuk,
termasuk konstruksi katenatif (c at e nal ive cons lruc I ion) seperti
dalam They try to like to learn to begin to askJbr help liom the
King, dan two-word uerb.r, seperti dalam She looks aJier the
house well.
Setiap frasc kata kcrja terdiri atas satu vcrtr headword
dan satu atau lebih (paling banyak empat buah) kata kerja
Iainnya. l)osisi verb lreadword dalam Iiasc kata kcrja dapat diisi
oleh kata kerja leksikal apa saja dan selalu menempati posisi
terakhir dalam urutan fmse kata kcrja tersebut selalu dalam
bentuk non-finite. Sebuah verb headword tidak mutlak selalu
didahului oleh kata kerja lainnya; ia dapat berdiri sendiri; dan
kalau ia berdiri sendiri, ia selalu dalam bentuk finite. Berikut ini
disajikan keempat belas konstruksi frase kata kerja tersebut.
applicants yesterday
Some interviewe $ intervie\)ed male
momlng.
PhrasalOrder5-1
Urutan Frase 5- I
shall interview
will inlerview
can inlerview
may inlerview
musl inlervieYr
should interview
would inlerview
could inlerview
mighl inlerview
do inlerview
does intervieY'
di<J intcrview
had better intervie wwould ralher interview
oughl ttt inlerview
used to interview
ExamPles in context:
Phrasal Order I
Urutan Frase I
inlertiev)
interviews
interviewed
Examples in context:
.
.
90
The interviewers inlerview lhe applicants.
Each intewiewer interviews an applicant.
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
. We shall inleryiev) the applicants early lomorrow
.
.
moming.
now'
The interview ers cun interview the applicants
ago'
days
two
fhe boss tlitl inlarvicw thc applicants
PhrasalOrder
Urutan Frase
4-l
4- I
huve inlerviewed
has inlerviewed
The Structure of Verb grouPs 91
Examples in context:
had interviewed
.
.
.
inlerviewing
were inlerviewing
r,ras
I um inlerviewing
Lrn
applicant right now.
'l-he director wus inlerviewing the applicants at this
time
yesterday.
The interviewers were interviewing the applicants when
the manager entered his room.
Order2-l
Urutan Frase
ycstcrdaY
oon.
on" was interviewcd yesterday atlern
opplicants were inlcrvicv'ad herc
*o*ing,
shall hav e int e rv i ew e tl
will have interYiewed
can have inlerYiewed
muy have interviewel
musl have inlervicw(d
should huve inle rY icwed
would have inlerviewcd
could have inlcrvicwed
might httvc inlcrvitu'ctl
ought to huve inttrviewcd
.
Examples in context:
Phrasal
i*o
PhrasalOrder5-4-l
UrutanFrase5-4-l
am interviewing
are intemiewing
is inlerviewing
.
are
interviewe d bY the team'
We hqve interviewed lhe applicants.
The director has intervicwed the applioants.
lle had interviewed the applicants befbre he lelt
PhrasalOrder3-l
Urutan Frase3- I
.
.
is interviewed by the boss; others
One applicant
Examples in context:
2-
I
ExamPles in context:
r If we sta( the
'.
interview earlier' we shall
have
interviewed lhe appticants by two o'clock'
last week'
We should huve inlerviewctl all the applicants
fn. ,"unl musl have intervicu'etl the applicants by ten
iomorlow.
am intemiewed
ure inlerviewed
is inlerviewed
was inlerviewed
were inlerviewed
92
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
PhrasalOrder5-3-l
Urutan Frasc 5 - 3 - I
shall be interviewrng
will be inlerviewing
can be interviewing
The Structure of Verb groups 93
may be interviewing
must be inlerviewing
The applicants ought to be interviewed individually in
separate rooms.
should be interviewinp
would be intcrviewing
t'ould be intervicwing
might he intervitwiry4
ought to he iuervicwing
The applicants used lo be inlerviewed in this room.
PhrasalOrder 4-3-l
Urutan Frase4-3- I
Examples in context:
y:^t!*,
he intlviewing rhe applicanrs
ar lhis
tomorrow-
x:;:#il;';T"T:i,:;,:I:;l;:':;,ii:*3::iffi
Phrasat Order5_2 - I
Urutan Frase 5-2 _ I
shull be interviewcd
will he interviawetl
can be inlerviewetl
may be interviewetl
must be interviewed
should be interviewed
would be interviewed
could be interviewctl
might be interyiewad
had befter be interviawul
would rather bc interviev,ed
lught b he interviewetl
u,red to be inlerviewcd
Examples in context:
.
94
lime
:."T-
hove been interviewing
has been inlerviewing
had been interviewing
Examples in context:
r
.
.
'tN
e have been interviewing the applicants for twenty
minutes.
The director has becn intcrviewing the lirst applicant for
one hour.
We hud been interviewing the applicants lbr two hours
when it staned to rain.
Phrasal Order
4-2-|
UrutanFrase4-2-l
hove been interviewed
has been inlerviewed
had been interviewed
Examples in context:
.
.
'
All
the applicants huve baen interviewed.
The last applicant has becn intcrviawed by the boss.
'l'wo applicants had been intcn,iewed before.
The applican ts can be interviewetl
now.
A Better Way of Mastering
English Verbs
The Structure of Verb groups 95
Phrasal Order 3- 2 -
I
might have been intertiewing lhe applicant for hours
by lunch break.
She
UrutanX'rase3-2-l
am being interviewed
are being inlemiewed
is being interviewe d
was being interviewed
were being interviewed
Examples in context:
.
.
r
The applicants are being inlerviewed in Room 201.
The first applicant wos being inlerviewe<J in Room 201 at
this time yesterday.
The last two applicants were being interviewed at 9:00
p.m. yesterday.
PhrasalOrder
5-4-3-t
UrutanFrase5-4-3-l
shall have been interviewing
will have been interviewing
can have been interviewing
may hove been intemiewing
must haven been interviewing
should have been interviewing
would have been inte rviewing
could have hcen inlerviev)ing
might have been interviewing
Examples in context:
.
.
96
We shall have been interviewing the applicants for two
hours by lunch time.
The director must have been interviewing the applicants
for hours by the aftemoon tea-break.
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
*4-2-l
Urutan Frase 5 -4-2-l
Phrasal
Order
5
shall have been inlerviewed
will have been inlerviewed
can have been inlarYiewed
may have been inlerviewed
musl have been interviewed
should have been inleruiewed
would have been interYiewed
could have been inlerviewed
might have been interviewecl
Examples in context:
'.
r
The applicants may have been interviewed'
The lrrst applicant musl have been inlerviewed'
The last applicutt shoultl have been interviewed as well'
Phrasal
Order
5' 4 - 3 * 2' l
UrutanFrase5-4-3-2-l
shall huve been being inlerviewed
will huve been being inlerviewed
can huve been being inlerviewed
muy have been being intervicwcd
musl have been being inlerviewed
should have been being inlerviewed
would have been being interviewed
could hove been being interviewed
might hove been being inlerviewed
The Structure of Verb grouPs 97
The structure of verb grouPs
Examples in context:
.
.
.
The applicant may have been being interviewed.
The first applicant must have been being inleryiewed at
8:00 this morning.
The last applicant should have been being interviewed at
9:00 this moming.
The examples given above show us that the simplest lbrm of
verb phrase (VP) in English is Phrasal Order I which is
occupied by one lexical verb which function as headword (H);
and the most complex one is Phrasal Order 5 - - 3
- 2 - I which
consists of five verbs of which four of them function as modifier
(M) and one as headword (H). The headword always occupies
the last position in each group and this last position is called
position l. Since the most complex construction of verb phrase
is constituted by five verbs, the verbs which are closest Io
position I are callcd verbs of position 2, then followcd by verbs
of position 3, verbs of position 4, and vcrbs of position five,
contoh yang diberikan menunjukkan bahwa lrase kata kerja
yang paling sederhana terdiri atas satu kata keria leksikal yang
sekaligus berperan sebagai headword (l'l); dan konslruksi tiase
kata kerja yang paling kompleks terdiri atas lima buah kata kerja
dengan ketentuan bahwa empat buah kata kerja dari yang lima
buah itu berperan sebagai penjelas (modifier) dan satu yang
berperan sebagai headword. Headword selalu menempali posisi
terakhir dalam konstruksi frase kata kerja dan posisi ini disebut
sebagai posisi I (untuk penyama:n persepsi). Kata kerja yang
dapat menempati posisi terdekat ke posisi I disebut kata kerja
kelompok posisi 2, dan seterusnya. Rangkuman struklur frase
kata kerja diskemakan sebagai berikut:
.r q]
-7>
.i
lr..l
5<
Za
o
qf,
o
o-
a
o
o-
will
havc ( I&nl)
would
shalt
should
has (1)
219
aad.
;o<
a=
can
could
may
might
must
z<d,
i(iu.r
6
o
o-
a, 2'
9
F
tr
had(t)
having (n{)
.r gJ
[email protected]
z
am
non-finite
stem lbrm
are
is
nonlinite
bc
am
aIe
is
was
were
be
boen
(n1)
becn(nf)
being(nt)
was
were
do
-"s
oE
dc
.-o
.o'
!.) +
te
,e
q+
(E
dor
(io
gt
c,
oo;
tr9
9<c
EF
(, >.;
51em+ -ing
or non-finite
stem + -ed
form
D
.-=
oL
E.o
:/->
-o
E o€
=.o ol
:.o
.o
50g
_9
.=diE
E 6d
.: -o orl
q)Q_
?a
E60
0,9
oi:
(Adapted from McComish 1919:63)
98
A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
The structure of Verb grouPs 99
'r
. Ifl had known this before, I would have studied it.
. [Iad I known this before, I would have studied it.
Catatan: Present subjunctive lebih banyak menggunakan
dalam American English daripada British English. Dalam gaya
nonfbrmal, pas subjunctive dapat digantikan oleh hypothetical
past atau past indicative.
Examples in context:
Past Subjunctive
I wish she were not married.
If only I
were not
so
Hypothetical past
or Past indicative
I wish she was not married.
Il'only I was not so anxious.
anxlous
lf
he were here, he would
speak on my behalf.
Suppose sho werc losl.
If he was here, he would speak
on my behalf.
Suppose she wlrs lost or
Supposc she is lost (what
woulcl ou do'l
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alexander, L.A., W.Stnffrard Allen, R.A.
Close,'St)iur
and R.
O'Neill. 1975. Engli.th (irammarical
London: Longman.
Amold
John and lloger Scott. lglig.
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Pruclit'e
Focus; :;tudent
lJook,l w,o. l,ondon: Ildward Arnold.
Close, R.A.. I 97 8. Refi::renc.c Grammar
.fbr Srudent,s. oJ.
fi ng I i.s h. London: l.ongman
Clark, Raymond C., Moran patrick It., and
Bunows, Artht
A. 2004. The ESt. Miscellany. Ilrattleboro, V;";;,
Pro l,ingua Associates, publishcrs.
Fuchs, Martjorie; Miriam Westheimer; Margaret
Bonner
It)94. Focus on ( jrummut.. I{cading: ad-<tison-Wcste
Pu hlish ing ( on)pun)
.
Jupp, l .C). and
,1976.
J. Milne.
tingli;th Sentence Struclurt
[,ondon: I-leinemann []ducational Uooks Ltd.
I{omill,.ll.t- 1980. Elfuc.rivc English in Nutshell. Toronto
Key Book publishing Company.
Leech, G. and J. Svartvik. 1979. A Communicative
Grammul
oJ English. London: Longman.
Lindell, Anne. 1985. tntensive Engli.sh
./br Communication
Ann Arbor: 'l-he University ot'Michigan press.
Littlejohn, l. E. 1977. [/ntlersluruling the Struclure
o.1
English. Cambridgc: Winrhrop I,ublishers,
Inc.
McComish, Johanne. 1979. English Orummar
for Secona
Language Teacher. Wellington: Victoria
U"ir"r.ity
of Wellington.
Bibliography 187
186
A Better way of Mastering English Verbs
O'Neill, Robert. 1973. Kernel Lessons p/r.rs.
Nurdin Noni. doscrr pada Jurusan
London:
Barru Sulawesi Sclatan pada 22
Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoflrey Leech, and
Jan Svartvik. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the
Engl ish Language. London: Longman.
Rasyid, Muhammad Amin Rasyid. 2009. A Better lltay of
Mu.rtering English Noun.t. Makassnr: Badan penerbit
I
I
UNM
------. 1995. Build Up your
Word Power. Ujung Pandang: Badan penerbit IKIP
Ujung Pandang.
Maemuna Muhayyang lahir di Ma'rang Ka
l)angkcp pada tang{lal 5 Juli 1974 anak kcdelal
pasitngrn ll. Muhayyang dtn lli. t.Jksimuha.
Madrasalr Aliyah Negeli di Pangkep lahun 1993.
I'endidikan (S.Pd) llahasa Inllrrris, I'akultas Bah
1976. English Grammar. London:
Lleinemann Educational Books Ltd.
Wright, Aufdrey L. 1960. Pructice Your linglish. New york:
American Book Company.
Seni lKlt' Ujung I'andang tahun
Zandvoorl, R.W. 1977. A Handbook oJ Dnglish Grammar.
London: Longman Group Limited.
l'{
':,
188 A Better Way of Mastering English Verbs
Pandang (1985), Sl bidang Pen
Bah;rsa lnggris (1987), 52 bidang Linguistik/
Language Studiss di tJNtlAS (1994), dan 53 bidang Linguistik/
Language Studies di tlnhas (2004). Pada tahun 1995, ia mem
senilikat "Language Curriculum and Material Development" di
Singapura. Pada tahun 1999, ia mcngikuli "Oversease Attachment on
l-ingkage" di La I'robe tJniversity. Auslralia dengan sponsor Proyek
Pada yahun 2002. ia mernperoleh bantuan dari Al-Diaz F-ellows
IKIP tliung
Victoria, Australia.
Publisher.
et al.
Desember
Pendidikan yang tclah diselesaikannya adalah b
turut: SD di Barru ( I 975), St,'tP di tlaIru ( 1979), S
Barru (1982). D3 bidang Pendidikan Bahasa In1
Trobe Uniyersity untuk melakukan penelitian tentang pem,
Multimedia dalam kelas bahasa asing di beberapa lembaga pendic
Sinclair, John, et al (Eds.). 1991. Collins Cobuild English
. Usage: Word Formation. London: Harper Collins
Scott, F.S
Bahasa
Universitas Negeri Makassar, lahir di Lompengen
Longman.
]T
1997.M
I'rogranr Sarrdwich tlniversitas Negeri Makassar
dan [.a I'nrbe lJniversity Australia tahun 2001.
Magisrer Pendidikan (M.Pd) Kckhususan Pendidikan Bahasa lnggris
predikat Cumlaude di PPs UNM pada tahun 2003. Pada tahun
diangkat menjadi tenaga pendidik di Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni yang i
bernama Fakultas Bahasa dan Sastra (FBS) Universitas Negeri M
Buku Learning English through Dialogues adalah buku pertama yan
bersama dengan Dr. Kisman Salija. Buku A Better Way of Mastering
Verbs adalah buku kedua yang ditulis bersama dengan Prof. Dr. Mu
Amin Rasyid, M.A. dan Dr. Nurdin Noni, M.Hum. Selain aktif mel
Jurusan Bahasa Inggris dan dj PPs UNNI Prograrn Pendidikan
Kekhususan Pcndidikan Bahasa lnggris. ia juga mengemban tugas ti
sebagai Ketua Prodi Pendidikan Bahasa lnggris, FBS LINM seiak tah
dan scbagai anggota Panitia Sertifikasi Dosen UNM tahun 201L
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