sentences - sipadu isi surakarta

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Sentence
Pengertian:
Adalah satuan bahasa yang merupakan kesatuan pikiran lengkap
yang paling tidak terdiri dari satu subyek dan satu predikat.
1
Contoh
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1. The students are studying now.
The students studied yesterday.
The students study every Monday.
2. The campus is big.
3. They work in ISI Surakarta.
4. She is beautiful.
5. She was beautiful two years ago.
She works in ISI Surakarta.
He studies English every Monday.
2
• To be:
• Is, am, are
• Personal pronouns:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
3
1. Subject
• Adalah: unsur kalimat yang menjadi pokok
pembicaraan.
• Subject bisa berupa:
– orang
– benda
– binatang
5
Jenis Subject
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•
•
•
•
•
•
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1. Noun
2. Pronoun
3. Adjective used as noun
4. An infinitive used as a noun.
5. Participle used as a noun.
6. Noun phrase
7. Noun clause
8. Kata It dan There
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1. Noun (kata benda)
•
•
•
•
1. The woman sings a song.
2. The cat is funny.
3. They draw pictures.
4. The book is on the table.
7
2. A Pronoun
•
•
•
•
•
Adalah: kata ganti orang
1. She is telling a story.
2. We talk about a sentence.
3. He walks along the street.
4. He and she buy the food.
8
3. Adjective used as a noun
• Adalah: kata sifat yang digunakan sebagai noun
• Contoh:
–
–
–
–
1. The rich have helped the poor.
A rich man has helped the poor.
2. The employed are losing hope.
3. The poor have tried to find aid.
– She is rich.
– He is poor.
9
4. An infinitive used as a noun
• Adalah: infinitive yang digunakan sebagai kata
benda.
• Example:
– 1. To speak English is easy.
– 2. To sing is difficult.
– 3. To do is difficult.
– 4. To write a novel is interesting.
– 5. To write is interesting.
10
5. Participle used as a noun
• Adalah: participle sebagai kata benda.
• Contoh:
– 1. Smoking is a bad habit.
– 2. Reading is my hobby.
– 3. Swimming is my sister’s hobby.
11
6. Noun Phrase
• Adalah: frase kata benda
• Contoh:
–
–
–
–
–
1. The big tiger eats the other animal.
The foot tiger
2. The new book is on the table.
3. The new red car is very expensive.
4. The new red little car ....
• Mobil kecil merah yang baru
– 5. The new and expensive red little car ....
• Mobil kecil merah yang baru dan mahal
12
1.
All of these people have an important role in the theater.
13
7. Noun Clause
• Adalah: klausa yang berfungsi sebagai kata
benda.
• Contoh:
– 1. What he said makes his father angry.
– Apa yang dia katakan ....
– 2. Where I went is none of your business.
– 3. What he said wasn’t true.
14
• Exactly when theater began is a mystery
15
8. Kata It dan There
• Kata It dan There dianggap sebagai subject
apabila kalimat tersebut tidak ada subjectnya.
• Contoh:
–
–
–
–
–
1. It is a nice day.
2. There was a big snake in the garden.
3. It is my house.
4. that is my house
Those are my books.
– It, that, this, these, those
16
Predicate
•
•
•
•
•
•
Adalah : yang menerangkan perihal subject.
Predicate bisa berupa:
1. kata kerja (verb)
2. kata sifat (adjective)
3. kata keterangan (adverb)
4. kata benda (noun)
•
Article: a, an, the
–
–
–
–
•
•
•
A woman
An apple
A university
The women
Preposition: in, on, under, behind, beside, in front of, between, among, near, etc.
Woman—women
Man—men
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•
•
•
•
Dia belajar di sebuah universitas.
He studies in a university.
Dia belajar di universitas itu.
He studies in the university.
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example
• 1. kata kerja:
– I am studying English now.
– I study English every Tuesday.
• 2. kata sifat
– She is beautiful.
• 3. kata benda
– My father is a teacher.
– They are students.
• 4. kata keterangan
– We are in Solo.
19
• Ket waktu untuk present tense:
–
–
–
–
Every….. : every Monday
On ….. : on Mondays
Ket waktu untuk present continuous
Now, at this time, at this moment, etc.
1. Fitri sudah makan pagi selama 3 jam.
– Fitri has had breakfast for 3 hours.
2. Galang lulus SD sejak tahun 1995.
Galang has graduated from Elementary school since 1995.
Rumus present perfect tense: S+has/have+V3
Rumus past perfect tense: S+had+V3
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• 1. dia seorang sopir 2 tahun yang lalu.
– He was a driver 2 years ago.
• 2. Dia menjadi seorang sopir selama 2 tahun
pada waktu saya kecil.
– He had been a driver for 2 years when I was a
child.
– Future: S+will/to be going to/+Pred (V1)
21
1. Theatre is a collaborative form of fine art.
2. The word theater means a “place for seeing…
22
3. Object
• Adalah noun atau pronoun yang menjadi
sasaran predicate.
• Object diperlukan oleh kalimat yang
mempunyai kata kerja transitive (transitive
verb).
• Kata kerja transitive adalah kata kerja yang
memerlukan object.
23
Jenis Object
• Ada 2 macam object:
• 1. Direct Object (object langsung)
– Contoh: She reads a love story.
• 2. Indirect Object (object tak langsung)
– Contoh: He borrows me a book.
• A book = direct object
• Me = indirect object
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Catatan
• Indirect object bisa diletakkan di depan atau di
belakang direct object.
• Jika indirect object menggunakan preposition
maka diletakkan di belakang direct object.
• Susunan Object:
– 1. Direct Object + Prepositional Object
• He borrows a book to me.
– 2. Indirect Object + Direct Object
• He borrows me a book.
25
Example
• Direct Object + Prepositional Object
– 1. The woman tells a good story to her children.
– 2. The girl calls honey to her boy friend.
• Indirect Object + Direct Object
– 1. The woman tells her children a good story.
– 2. The girl calls her boy friend honey.
26
1. The performers may communicate this experience to the
audience …
2. Theatre today includes performances of plays and musicals…
27
4. Complement (pelengkap)
• Adalah: unsur kalimat yang berfungsi
melengkapi informasi tentang object.
• Complement hampir sama dengan object
karena keduanya memiliki kemiripan yaitu
sama-sama berbentuk nomina tetapi bisa juga
berbentuk adjective, adverb, atau preposition
with object.
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Pembahasan Complement
• Complement diperlukan oleh:
• 1. kata kerja transitive:
– Appoint, choose, consider, elect, find, make, name,
render,etc.
• 2. kata kerja intransitive
– Appear, come, look, fall, grow, remain,run, seem,
stand, stay, etc.
• 3. kata kerja bantu (helping verb)
– To be: is, am, are, was, were, will be, etc.
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Example
• Kata kerja transitive: untuk melengkapi
keterangan perihal objectnya:
– 1. He makes me happy.(compl)
– 2.The man makes a good design.(obj)
– 3. Her mother names her Susi. (compl)
• Kata kerja intrasitive: untuk melengkapi
keterangan perihal subjectnya:
– 1.She looks very happy
– 2.My mother came here yesterday.
• Kata kerja bantu: untuk melengkapi subjectnya
– 1. She is beautiful.
– 2. We are in this room.
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contoh
• 1. They elect him a President.
• 2. We choose her Putri Indonesia 2011.
• 3. The athlete runs fast.
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5. Adjunct
(keterangan tambahan)
• Adalah: kata-kata yang memberi keterangan atau
penjelasan tambahan tentang subject atau
object.
• Adjunct bisa berupa:
• 1. keterangan waktu (adverb of time)
• 2. keterangan tempat (adverb of place)
• 3. keterangan pembatasan
• Etc.
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Thank you
33
Contoh
• 1. They often come late.
• 2. We are leaving for Surabaya soon.
• 3. We calls her Miss Indonesia.
• 1. He makes the book clean.
• 2. They choose him a president in America.
34
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