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Name : Andi Hikmah
NIM : F22192010
The purpose of Need Analysis: “To collect information about a particular problem learners
are experiencing”. (Jack C Richard, 2001: 52)
In teaching language, every learner has their own problems, especially in learning
English. They may have problem that cause the teaching learning process become ineffective.
To solve this problem, teacher should do an analysis to know what the basic problem that
learners are experiencing in order to make they are able to understand what they need, what their
difficulties and what their suggestion in solving their problem. Mehmet (2015) stated that needs
analysis is an important means of conducting research prior to designing and evaluating
lessons/materials/syllabus and it helps draw a profile of students/course in order to determine and
prioritize the needs for which students require English. When teacher know what the learners
problem, it will be easy for him/her to design what kind of learning that he/she want to apply in
the classroom.
There are some situations shows us that need analysis in collect information about a
particular learner’s problem is very important in teaching language. For example in teaching
writing, learners may have different difficulties that must be known by teacher. The difficulties
can cause by internal and external problems. The internal problem that commonly occurred is
grammatical, capitalization, spelling, content, and problem of word choice. The external problem
can be Lack of knowledge about writing stages, lack learner’s motivation and practice, and
inadequate time or teachers’ feedback. These problems both internal and external should be
analyzed by teacher before the teaching learning process begin, teacher needs to know what the
learner’s need by asking their problem in writing. After collect the problem, teacher know what
kind of appropriate teaching and learning materials will be taught to the students because “Needs
to be understood as something that teachers can see and do as part of teaching” (Hedgcook and
Ferris, 2009: 118).
Related to this issue, when I conduct my research for my thesis in teaching speaking, I
did an interview before conducting my research. After doing that, I can collect some information
about student’s problem in speaking, why they were not fluent in speaking, why they were
difficult to tell their opinion, and why they were not confidence when speak in front of the class.
Therefor I can design the teaching learning process with appropriate method and material that
can solve my student’s problem. I used problem solving method because the student’s problem
generally unconfident to speak in front of the class so that this method is appropriate for them
because they work in group. In that time, the school used Kurikulum 2013 as a trial for the
teachers and students. So that I made lesson plan based on syllabus in Kurikulum 2013. One of
the basic competences in the syllabus is analyzing social functions, text structure, and linguistic
elements in expressing opinions and thoughts, according to the context of their use. I taught them
giving opinion by using problem solving method and used audio visual as the media. I gave them
theme about bullying and show them some cases about it. Thus they were interesting to discuss
with their friend about the case. When they discuss in group, they feeling free to tell their
opinion and they can correct each other about their friend pronunciation or asking their friend
about vocabulary. Therefor this method is very appropriate for my students because it can solve
their problem naturally. In this context, if I did not do an analysis by doing interview before
conducting my research, I do not know what my students need based on their problem.
Accordingly, Need analysis plays an important role in teaching language. It is
important because through needs analysis teachers, learners, teaching materials, teaching
procedures more directed. One of the purposes which are to collect information about a
particular learner’s problem is the way to decide teacher’s action, because there are external
problem faced by learners that cannot be expressed by the students in the result of the test. Thus,
teacher must do an analysis to identify the learner’s problem and know how the teaching learning
process organizes. According to Richard (2001,p. 54) need analysis may take place prior to,
during or after a language program, it means that as long as the target learning have not been
reached,teacher can still analyze the learner’s need so that it can be a specific ground for future
development of the academic activities.
References
Hedgcock, J.S. & Ferris, D.R. (2009). Teaching Readers of English: Students, Texts, and
Context. New York: Rutledge.
Novariana,S., Sumardi, Tarjana,S.S, (2018). Senior High School Students’ Problems in Writing:
Proceedings – (ELLiC Proceedings Vol. 2, 2018). jurnal.animus.ac.id.
Richards, J. (2001). Curriculum Development in Language, Teaching.Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press
Ürün, M.F, Yarar,G. (2015). A Study on Needs Analysis in English Language Teaching: ECER
2015 Education and Transition. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mehmet_Ueruen
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