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STA 5301 - Strat Mgt, Course Intro

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STA 5301
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
Course Introduction:
WHAT, WHY AND HOW IS
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
Faculty Member:
Prof. Sammy Kristamuljana, PhD
([email protected])
__________________________________________________________________________________
This material is developed solely for class lecture at
The Undergraduate Program of Finance – SBE Universitas Prasetiya Mulya
September 2019 – Januari 2020
1
Defining Strategic Management
• Strategic Management (David & David, 2017:33)
– the art and science of formulating, implementing,
and evaluating cross-functional decisions that
enable an organization to achieve its objectives
– Instead of separating in two steps David & David
(2017:42) combines the Strategic Analysis step
into the Strategy Formulation step
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-2
Comprehensive Strategic-Management Model
Copyright ©2017 Pearson Education,
Limited
1-3
Stages of Strategic Management
Strategy
formulation
1-4
Strategy
implementation
Strategy
evaluation
Defining Strategic Management
❖ Strategic Management is used to refer to Strategic
Analysis (the Internal audit and the External Audit: SWOT
analysis), Strategy Formulation, Strategy Implementation,
and Strategy Evaluation.
❖ Sometimes the term strategic management is used
synonymously with the term Strategic Planning
(Perencanaan Stratejik).
❖ Strategic Planning refers only to strategic analysis and
strategy formulation.
❖ The product of strategic planning that refers only to
strategic analysis and strategy formulation is called
strategic plan (rencana stratejik).
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-5
Stages of Strategic Management
• Strategist (terjmh: Strategis)
– The person(s) responsible for formulating and
implementing a firm’s strategic plan, including
the CEO, President, Owner of a Business,
Head Coach, Governor, Chancellor, and/or the
top management team in a firm (p.36, 664)
– Who are the persons responsible for
evaluating the performance of the strategist
that they have achieved or not achieved the
firm’s objectives through the implemented
strategy?
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-6
PRAKTEK MANAJEMEN STRATEJIK DEWASA INI
• Dewasa ini semakin banyak perusahaan yang dituntut memiliki dokumen
Rencana Stratejik (strategic plan) yang akan dijalankan oleh seluruh
anggota organisasi untuk mencapai tujuan jangka panjang perusahaan.
• Di industri perbankan misalnya Peraturan Bank Indonesia (PBI) mengharuskan setiap bank membuat Rencana Bisnis Bank (RBB), yang dhi adalah
dokumen Rencana Stratejik, menjalankan dan mengevaluasi pencapaiannya.
• Manajemen Stratejik (strategic management) adalah proses yang dijalankan
perusahaan untuk membuat rencana stratejik (terdiri dari proses analisis
stratejik lingkungan dan perumusan strategi), menjalankan strategi (terdiri
dari proses implementasi strategi oleh organisasi termasuk eksekusi-nya ),
dan penilaian atas hasil pencapaian strategi (proses evaluasi strategi).
TESIS DALAM KONDISI UMUM
PERUSAHAAN + MANAJEMEN → TUJUAN YANG
STRATEJIK
DISEPAKATI
MANAJEMEN STRATEJIK
=
PROSES “MANAJEMEN” STRATEGI
Buku-ajar (textbook) Manajemen Stratejik pada umumnya memakai kerangka:
“Proses ‘Manajemen’ Strategi yang terdiri dari Empat Langkah Baku”:
ANALISIS
STRATEJIK
FORMULASI
STRATEGI
PLANNING & ORGANIZING
IMPLEMENTASI
STRATEGI
→
ACTUATING
EVALUASI
STRATEGI
→
COTROLLING
PROSES “MANAJEMEN” STRATEGI
CONTOH SIKLUS MANAJEMEN STRATEJIK
• Bulan September–Desember: membuat dokumen Rencana Stratejik,
yang terdiri dari dua tahap yaitu: Analisis Stratejik dan Formulasi
Strategi untuk jangka waktu 1-3 atau 5 tahun ke depan.
• Karena jangka waktunya lebih dari 1 tahun maka dokumen Rencana
Stratejik itu disebut juga RJP atau Rencana Jangka Panjang. Bedakan
dengan Anggaran perusahaan (termasuk Neraca dan L/R).
• Bulan Januari–Desember tahun berikutnya adalah tahap Implementasi
dari Rencana Stratejik itu.
• Tahap Evaluasi atas dokumen Rencana Stratejik itu dilakukan pada
akhir bulan Desember tahun diimplementasikannya atau pada bulan
Januari tahun berikutnya.
CONTOH LAIN DENGAN PERIODE WAKTU BERBEDA
Siklus Manajemen Stratejik
Dalam Bentuk Diagram Lingkar
Okt
Penilaian & Review
Nop
Sep
Ags
Des
Jul
Usulan
Konsolidasi
Evaluasi/
Kompilasi
Koordinasi
Perencanaan
Jan
Implementasi/
Pelaksanaan
Feb
Jun
Mei
Mar
Apr
Proyeksi Laba / Rugi
dan Proyeksi Neraca
STAGES OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
Strategy
formulation
Strategy
implementation
Copyright © Pearson Education Limited 2015
Strategy
evaluation
1-11
Stages of Strategic Management
• Strategy formulation
– includes developing a vision and mission,
identifying an organization’s external
opportunities and threats, determining internal
strengths and weaknesses, establishing longterm objectives, generating alternative
strategies, and choosing particular strategies
to pursue
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-12
Strategy Formulation
❖Deciding what new businesses to enter,
❖What businesses to abandon,
❖How to allocate resources,
❖Whether to expand operations or diversify,
❖Whether to enter international markets,
❖Whether to merge or form a joint venture,
❖How to avoid a hostile takeover.
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-13
Stages of Strategic Management
• Strategy implementation
– requires a firm to establish annual objectives,
devise policies, motivate employees, and
allocate resources so that formulated
strategies can be executed
– often called the action stage
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-14
Stages of Strategic Management
• Strategy evaluation
– reviewing external and internal factors that
are the bases for current strategies,
measuring performance, and taking corrective
actions
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-15
Key Terms in Strategic Management
• Vision statement
– answers the question “What do we want to
become?”
– often considered the first step in strategic
planning
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-16
Key Terms in Strategic Management
• Mission statements
– enduring statements of purpose that
distinguish one business from other similar
firms
– identifies the scope of a firm’s operations in
product and market terms
– addresses the basic question that faces all
strategists: “What is our business?”
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-17
Key Terms in Strategic Management
• External opportunities and external
threats
– refer to economic, social, cultural,
demographic, environmental, political, legal,
governmental, technological, and competitive
trends and events that could significantly
benefit or harm an organization in the future
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-18
MODEL EMPAT DIMENSI LINGKUNGAN BISNIS
DEMOGRAFI
LINGKUNGAN UMUM
LINGKUNGAN PASAR/
BERSAING
SOSIAL
BUDAYA
LINGKUNGAN INDUSTRI
PENDATANG
BARU
POLITIK
/HUKUM
A
PEMASOK
B
PEMBELI
C
LINGKUNGAN PERUSAHAAN
PRODUK
SUBSTITUSI
A,B,C : Perusahaan
MAKROEKONOMI
TEKNOLOGI
GLOBAL
(Sumber: Kristamuljana, 2001)
EMPAT DIMENSI LINGKUNGAN BISNIS
UNTUK PERUSAHAAN YANG BEROPERASI DI DUA NEGARA
DEMOGRAPHIC
SOSIAL
BUDAYA
DEMOGRAPHIC
POLITIK
HUKUM
PENDATANG
BARU
SOSIAL
BUDAYA
PENDATANG
BARU
A
PEMASOK
B
D
PEMBELI
PEMASOK
E
C
A
PRODUK
SUBSTITUSI
PRODUK
SUBSTITUSI
MAKROEKONOMI
POLITIK
HUKUM
TEKNOLOGI
PEMBELI
MAKROEKONOMI
TEKNOLOGI
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
Negara I
(Home Country Co. A)
Negara II
(Host Country Co. A)
A,B,C,D, E : COMPANY
Some Opportunities and Threats
❖Computer hacker problems are increasing.
❖Intense price competition is plaguing most firms.
❖Unemployment and underemployment rates
remain high.
❖Interest rates are rising.
❖Product life cycles are becoming shorter.
❖State and local governments are financially weak.
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-21
Key Terms in Strategic Management
• Internal strengths and internal
weaknesses
– an organization’s controllable activities that
are performed especially well or poorly
– determined relative to competitors
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-22
Key Terms in Strategic Management
• Objectives
– specific results that an organization seeks to
achieve in pursuing its basic mission
– long-term means more than one year
– should be challenging, measurable,
consistent, reasonable, and clear
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-23
Key Terms in Strategic Management
• Strategies
– the means by which long-term objectives will
be achieved
– may include geographic expansion,
diversification, acquisition, product
development, market penetration,
retrenchment, divestiture, liquidation, and joint
ventures
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-24
Sample Strategies in Action in 2011
Copyright ©2013 Pearson
Education
1-25
Key Terms in Strategic Management
• Annual objectives
– short-term milestones that organizations must
achieve to reach long-term objectives
– should be measurable, quantitative,
challenging, realistic, consistent, and
prioritized
– should be established at the corporate,
divisional, and functional levels in a large
organization
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-26
Key Terms in Strategic Management
• Policies
– the means by which annual objectives will be
achieved
– include guidelines, rules, and procedures
established to support efforts to achieve
stated objectives
– guides to decision making and address
repetitive or recurring situations
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-27
Key Terms in Strategic Management
• A strategic plan is a company’s game plan.
• A strategic plan results from tough
managerial choices among numerous
good alternatives, and it signals
commitment to specific markets, policies,
procedures, and operations.
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-28
The Strategic-Management Model
Where are we now?
Where do we want to go?
How are we going to get there?
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-29
Benefits of Strategic Management
❖Historically, the principal benefit of
strategic management has been to help
organizations formulate better strategies
through the use of a more systematic,
logical, and rational approach to strategic
choice
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-30
Benefits of Strategic Management
• Communication is a key to successful
strategic management
• Through dialogue and participation,
managers and employees become
committed to supporting the organization
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-31
Benefits to a Firm That Does
Strategic Planning
Copyright ©2013 Pearson
Education
1-32
Why Some Firms Do No
Strategic Planning
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lack of knowledge in strategic planning
Poor reward structures
Firefighting
Waste of time
Too expensive
Laziness
Content with success
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-33
Why Some Firms Do No
Strategic Planning
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fear of failure
Overconfidence
Prior bad experience
Self-interest
Fear of the unknown
Honest difference of opinion
Suspicion
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-34
Pitfalls in Strategic Planning
• Using strategic planning to gain control over
decisions and resources
• Doing strategic planning only to satisfy
accreditation or regulatory requirements
• Too hastily moving from mission development to
strategy formulation
• Failing to communicate the plan to employees,
who continue working in the dark
• Top managers making many intuitive decisions
that conflict with the formal plan
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-35
Pitfalls in Strategic Planning
• Top managers not actively supporting the
strategic-planning process
• Failing to use plans as a standard for measuring
performance
• Delegating planning to a “planner” rather than
involving all managers
• Failing to involve key employees in all phases of
planning
• Failing to create a collaborative climate
supportive of change
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-36
Guidelines for Effective Strategic
Management
Copyright ©2013 Pearson
Education
1-37
Comparing Business and
Military Strategy
❖A fundamental difference between military
and business strategy is that business
strategy is formulated, implemented, and
evaluated with an assumption of competition,
whereas military strategy is based on an
assumption of conflict
❖Both business and military organizations
must adapt to change and constantly improve
to be successful
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-38
Excerpts from Sun Tzu’s The Art of
War Writings
• War is a matter of vital importance to the
state: a matter of life or death, the road either
to survival or ruin. Hence, it is imperative that
it be studied thoroughly
• Know your enemy and know yourself
(according to the Chinese: “Know yourself and
know your enemy”), and in a hundred battles
you will never be defeated
• Skillful leaders do not let a strategy inhibit
creative counter-movement
Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education
1-39
Persistence:
Four guys are standing on a street corner ...
an American, a Russian, a Chinese man, and an Israeli …
A reporter comes up to the group and says to them:
“Excuse me. … What’s your opinion on the meat shortage?”
The American says: “What’s a shortage?
The Russian says; “ What’s meat?
The Chinese says: “What’s an opinion?
The Israeli says: “What’s “Excuse me”?.
Source:
Senor, D. and S. Singer. 2011. Start-Up Nation: The story of Israel’s Economic Miracle,
New York: Hachette Book Group
40
Sumber Kepustakaan:
David, F.R. and F.R. David. 2017. Strategic Management. Concepts and Cases,
16h ed., Pearson International, Ch.1.
Kristamuljana, S. 2001. “Definisi Bisnis yang Up To Date sebagai Pengungkit
Keunggulan Bersaing”, Journal Manajemen Prasetiya Mulya, Vol. VI (11),
Maret, h. 9-16.
41
SEKIAN
TUGAS MAHASISWA DAN KELOMPOK BANK
(untuk Senin, 9 September 2019)
1. Segera mendapatkan buku ajar: David, F.R. and F.R. David. 2017. Strategic
Management. Concepts and Cases, 16h ed., Pearson Global Edition.
2. Membaca dan mempelajari dari buku ajar David & David (2017) Ch 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
3. Membaca dan mempelajari materi PPt slides “Course Introduction” dari FM yang telah
dikirim ke semua mhs oleh Ketua Kelas.
4. Membaca peraturan OJK – Otoritas Jasa Keuangan - (terakhir) tentang Rencana Bisnis
Bank (RBB) dan memahami isinya.
5. Mengunduh (down load) Annual Report 2018 dan 2017 bank OCBC NISP dan
menyimpannya di storage notebook / USB masing-masing dan mempelajari isinya untuk
memperoleh pemahaman tentang isi RBB.
6. Menyiapkan buku atau kertas catatan kuliah + kalkulator untuk berlatih membuat laporan
keuangan bank dan memahami bisnis bank.
7. Setiap Kelompok telah menentukan pilihan bank yang akan dimanajemeninya dengan
persyaratan: (1) bank yang go public, (2) dibatasi hanya untuk bank Buku IV dan Buku III
dengan proporsi jumlah kelompok yang sebanding untuk masing-masing golongan buku.
43
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