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Health Vocab

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Chapter 4 - Physical Activity for Life Vocabulary
Period 3
Lesson 1 - Physical Activity and Your Health
1. Physical activity -​ any form of body movement that causes you to use energy.
2. Physical fitness - ​the ability to carry out daily tasks easily and have enough reserve
energy to respond to unexpected demands.
3. Sedentary lifestyle - ​a way of life that involves little physical activity.
4. Osteoporosis - ​a condition characterised by a decrease in bone density, producing
porous, and fragile bones.
5. Metabolism - t​ he process by which your body gets energy from food.
Lesson 2 - Fitness and You
6. Cardiorespiratory endurance - ​the ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to
utilise and send fuel and oxygen to the body’s tissues during long periods of
moderate-to-vigorous activity.
7. Muscular strength - ​the amount of force a muscle can exert.
8. Muscular endurance - ​the ability of the muscles to perform physical tasks over a period
of time without becoming fatigued.
9. Flexibility - t​ he ability to move a body part through a full range of motion.
10. Body composition - ​the ratio of body fat to lean body tissue, including muscle, bone,
water, and connective tissue such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons.
11. Exercise - p
​ urposeful physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and that
improves or maintains personal fitness.
12. Aerobic exercise - ​any activity that uses large muscle groups, is rhythmic in nature, and
can be maintained continuously for at least 10 minutes three times a day or for 20 to 30
minutes at one time.
13. Anaerobic exercise - ​intense short bursts of activity in which the muscles work so hard
that they produce energy without using oxygen.
Lesson 3 - Planning a Personal Activity Program
14. Overload - ​working the body harder than it is normally worked.
15. Progression - ​the gradual increase in overload necessary to achieve higher levels of
fitness.
16. Specificity - ​particular exercises and activities improve particular areas of health-related
fitness.
17. Warm-up - ​an activity that prepares the muscles for work.
18. Workout - ​the part of an exercise program when the activity is performed at its highest
peak.
19. F.I.T.T. - ​frequency, intensity, time/duration, and type of activity.
20. Cool-down - ​an activity that prepares muscles to return to a resting state.
21. Resting heart rate - t​ he number of times your heart beats in one minute when you are
not active.
Lesson 4 - Training and Safety for Physical Activities
22. Training program - a
​ program of formalised physical preparation for the involvement in
a sport or another physical activity.
23. Hydration - ​taking in fluids so that your body functions properly.
24. Anabolic steroids - ​synthetic substances that are similar to the male hormone
testosterone.
25. Health screening - ​a search or check for diseases that an individual would otherwise
not have knowledge of or seek help for.
Lesson 5 - Physical Activity Injuries
26. Overexertion - o
​ verworking the body.
27. Heat cramps - ​muscle spasms that result from a loss of large amounts of salt and water
through perspiration.
28. Heatstroke - a
​ condition in which the body loses the ability to rid itself of excessive heat
through perspiration.
29. Frostbite - ​a condition that results when body tissues become frozen.
30. Hypothermia - ​a condition in which body temperature becomes dangerously low.
31. Muscle cramp - a
​ spasm or sudden tightening of a muscle.
32. Strain - ​a condition resulting from damaging a muscle or tendon.
33. Sprain - ​an injury to the ligament surrounding a joint.
Chapter 5 - Nutrition and Your Health
Period 3
Lesson 1 - Nutrition During the Teen Years
1. Nutrition - t​ he process by which the body takes in and uses food.
2. Calories - u
​ nits of heat that measure the energy used by the body and the energy that
foods supply to the body.
3. Nutrients - ​substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself, and to
supply you with energy.
4. Hunger - ​a natural physical drive that protects you from starvation.
5. Appetite - ​a desire, rather than a need, to eat.
Lesson 2 - Nutrients
6. Carbohydrates - ​the starches and sugars present in foods.
7. Fiber - a
​ n indigestible complex carbohydrate.
8. Proteins - n
​ utrients that help build and maintain body cells and tissues.
9. Lipid - a
​ fatty substance that does not dissolve in water.
10. Vitamins - c​ ompounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including the
digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients.
11. Minerals - ​substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming
healthy bones and teeth and for regulating many vital body processes.
Lesson 3 - Guidelines for Healthful Eating
12. Dietary Guidelines for Americans - ​a set of recommendations for healthful eating and
active living.
13. Food Guide Pyramid - ​a guide for making healthful daily food choices.
Lesson 4 - Food and Healthy Living
14. Food additives - ​substances intentionally added to food to produce a desired effect.
15. Food allergy - ​a condition in which the body’s immune system reacts to substances in
some foods.
16. Food intolerance - ​a negative reaction to a food or part of food caused by a metabolic
problem, such as the inability to digest parts of certain foods or food components.
17. Foodborne illnesses - ​food poisoning.
18. Pasteurisation - ​the process of treating a substance with heat to destroy or slow the
growth of pathogens.
19. Cross-contamination - t​ he spreading of bacteria or other pathogens from one food to
another.
Chapter 6 - Managing Weight and Body Composition
Period 3
Lesson 1 - Maintaining a Healthy Body Weight
1. Body image - ​the way you see your body.
2. Body mass index (BMI) - a
​ ratio that allows you to assess your body size in relation to
your height and weight.
3. Overweight - ​a condition in which a person is heavier than the standard weight range for
his or her height.
4. Obesity - ​having an excess amount of body fat.
5. Underweight - a
​ condition in which a person is less than the standard weight range for
his or her height.
6. Nutrient-dense foods - f​ oods that are high in nutrients as compared with their calorie
content.
Lesson 2 - Fad Diets and Eating Disorders
7. Fad diets - ​weight-loss plans that are popular for only a short time.
8. Weight cycling - t​ he repeated pattern of loss and regain of body weight.
9. Eating disorder - a
​ n extreme, harmful eating behavior that can cause serious illness or
even death.
10. Anorexia nervosa - ​a disorder in which the irrational fear of becoming obese results in
severe weight loss from self-imposed starvation.
11. Bulimia nervosa - a
​ disorder in which some form of purging or clearing of the digestive
tract follows cycles of overreacting.
12. Binge eating disorder - ​a disorder characterised by compulsive overeating.
Lesson 3 - Nutrition for Individual Needs
13. Electrolytes - ​minerals that help maintain the body’s fluid balance.
14. Rehydration - ​restoring lost body fluids.
15. Vegetarian - ​a person who eats mostly or only plant foods.
16. Vegan - a
​ vegetarian that only eats plant foods.
17. Dietary supplement - ​a non-food form of one or more nutrients.
18. Megadose - a
​ very large amount of a dietary supplement.
19. Herbal supplement - ​a chemical substance from plants that may be sold as a dietary
supplement.
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