Chapter 4 - Physical Activity for Life Vocabulary Period 3 Lesson 1 - Physical Activity and Your Health 1. Physical activity - any form of body movement that causes you to use energy. 2. Physical fitness - the ability to carry out daily tasks easily and have enough reserve energy to respond to unexpected demands. 3. Sedentary lifestyle - a way of life that involves little physical activity. 4. Osteoporosis - a condition characterised by a decrease in bone density, producing porous, and fragile bones. 5. Metabolism - t he process by which your body gets energy from food. Lesson 2 - Fitness and You 6. Cardiorespiratory endurance - the ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to utilise and send fuel and oxygen to the body’s tissues during long periods of moderate-to-vigorous activity. 7. Muscular strength - the amount of force a muscle can exert. 8. Muscular endurance - the ability of the muscles to perform physical tasks over a period of time without becoming fatigued. 9. Flexibility - t he ability to move a body part through a full range of motion. 10. Body composition - the ratio of body fat to lean body tissue, including muscle, bone, water, and connective tissue such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons. 11. Exercise - p urposeful physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and that improves or maintains personal fitness. 12. Aerobic exercise - any activity that uses large muscle groups, is rhythmic in nature, and can be maintained continuously for at least 10 minutes three times a day or for 20 to 30 minutes at one time. 13. Anaerobic exercise - intense short bursts of activity in which the muscles work so hard that they produce energy without using oxygen. Lesson 3 - Planning a Personal Activity Program 14. Overload - working the body harder than it is normally worked. 15. Progression - the gradual increase in overload necessary to achieve higher levels of fitness. 16. Specificity - particular exercises and activities improve particular areas of health-related fitness. 17. Warm-up - an activity that prepares the muscles for work. 18. Workout - the part of an exercise program when the activity is performed at its highest peak. 19. F.I.T.T. - frequency, intensity, time/duration, and type of activity. 20. Cool-down - an activity that prepares muscles to return to a resting state. 21. Resting heart rate - t he number of times your heart beats in one minute when you are not active. Lesson 4 - Training and Safety for Physical Activities 22. Training program - a program of formalised physical preparation for the involvement in a sport or another physical activity. 23. Hydration - taking in fluids so that your body functions properly. 24. Anabolic steroids - synthetic substances that are similar to the male hormone testosterone. 25. Health screening - a search or check for diseases that an individual would otherwise not have knowledge of or seek help for. Lesson 5 - Physical Activity Injuries 26. Overexertion - o verworking the body. 27. Heat cramps - muscle spasms that result from a loss of large amounts of salt and water through perspiration. 28. Heatstroke - a condition in which the body loses the ability to rid itself of excessive heat through perspiration. 29. Frostbite - a condition that results when body tissues become frozen. 30. Hypothermia - a condition in which body temperature becomes dangerously low. 31. Muscle cramp - a spasm or sudden tightening of a muscle. 32. Strain - a condition resulting from damaging a muscle or tendon. 33. Sprain - an injury to the ligament surrounding a joint. Chapter 5 - Nutrition and Your Health Period 3 Lesson 1 - Nutrition During the Teen Years 1. Nutrition - t he process by which the body takes in and uses food. 2. Calories - u nits of heat that measure the energy used by the body and the energy that foods supply to the body. 3. Nutrients - substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply you with energy. 4. Hunger - a natural physical drive that protects you from starvation. 5. Appetite - a desire, rather than a need, to eat. Lesson 2 - Nutrients 6. Carbohydrates - the starches and sugars present in foods. 7. Fiber - a n indigestible complex carbohydrate. 8. Proteins - n utrients that help build and maintain body cells and tissues. 9. Lipid - a fatty substance that does not dissolve in water. 10. Vitamins - c ompounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients. 11. Minerals - substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and for regulating many vital body processes. Lesson 3 - Guidelines for Healthful Eating 12. Dietary Guidelines for Americans - a set of recommendations for healthful eating and active living. 13. Food Guide Pyramid - a guide for making healthful daily food choices. Lesson 4 - Food and Healthy Living 14. Food additives - substances intentionally added to food to produce a desired effect. 15. Food allergy - a condition in which the body’s immune system reacts to substances in some foods. 16. Food intolerance - a negative reaction to a food or part of food caused by a metabolic problem, such as the inability to digest parts of certain foods or food components. 17. Foodborne illnesses - food poisoning. 18. Pasteurisation - the process of treating a substance with heat to destroy or slow the growth of pathogens. 19. Cross-contamination - t he spreading of bacteria or other pathogens from one food to another. Chapter 6 - Managing Weight and Body Composition Period 3 Lesson 1 - Maintaining a Healthy Body Weight 1. Body image - the way you see your body. 2. Body mass index (BMI) - a ratio that allows you to assess your body size in relation to your height and weight. 3. Overweight - a condition in which a person is heavier than the standard weight range for his or her height. 4. Obesity - having an excess amount of body fat. 5. Underweight - a condition in which a person is less than the standard weight range for his or her height. 6. Nutrient-dense foods - f oods that are high in nutrients as compared with their calorie content. Lesson 2 - Fad Diets and Eating Disorders 7. Fad diets - weight-loss plans that are popular for only a short time. 8. Weight cycling - t he repeated pattern of loss and regain of body weight. 9. Eating disorder - a n extreme, harmful eating behavior that can cause serious illness or even death. 10. Anorexia nervosa - a disorder in which the irrational fear of becoming obese results in severe weight loss from self-imposed starvation. 11. Bulimia nervosa - a disorder in which some form of purging or clearing of the digestive tract follows cycles of overreacting. 12. Binge eating disorder - a disorder characterised by compulsive overeating. Lesson 3 - Nutrition for Individual Needs 13. Electrolytes - minerals that help maintain the body’s fluid balance. 14. Rehydration - restoring lost body fluids. 15. Vegetarian - a person who eats mostly or only plant foods. 16. Vegan - a vegetarian that only eats plant foods. 17. Dietary supplement - a non-food form of one or more nutrients. 18. Megadose - a very large amount of a dietary supplement. 19. Herbal supplement - a chemical substance from plants that may be sold as a dietary supplement.