UNIT 4 B. Using Expression of plan, Intention, and Purpose T he following words can be used to express plan, intention, and purpose: I plan to... She wants to ... They will ... In order to ... In order not to ... He intends to ... Example: 1. My mother intends to go to the bank to cash a chcek. 2. My mother goes to the bank in order to cash a check. 3. The little girl cries very loud so that her parents can hear parents. C. Reading Narrative Texts Narrative text is often a story. A story is exploring participants thought, act and feeling.The narrative text is structured as: 1. Orientation Orientation tells us about the scene and introduces the participants. 2. Complication Every narrative text must consists of conflict or problem. 3. Resolution A problem must be resolved. It can be succed or fail. D. Linked to Grammar: Conditional Sentence The type of conditional sentence are as follow: 1. Type I (Future Conditional) Pattern: If + S + V(1), S + M(1) + V(1) 2. Type II (Present Conditional) Pattern: If + S + V(2), S + M(2) + V(1) 3. Type III (Past Conditional) Pattern: If + S + had + V(3) + , S + M(3) + have + V(3) UNIT 5 REVIEW B. Using Expressions of Possibility and Regret 1. Expression of Possibility/Impossibility Pay attention on the following example: a. Expressing Possibility - She will probably get the job. - Probably, she will get the job. - It’s likely thet she will get the job. - There is a chance that she will get the job. - I think, she will get the job. - There is a possibility that she will get the job. In informal situation, you may say: - I assume .... - I think, there is very possibility .... - I suppose .... - I find it possible that .... - I’m pretty certain .... b. Expressing Impossibility - It’s impossible that Catherine will get the job. - I don’t think Catherine will get the job. - Probably not. - It’s very unlikely. In a formal situation, you may say: - It is very doubtful .... - It is improbable .... - I think there is a little chance .... - I suppose, she could not get the job .... - There is a chance he won’t be able .... - I find it impossible .... 2. Expression of Regret Study the following expressions of regret: a. To express regret, we use: - Honestly regret .... - I am so sorry to have missed it. - I’m deeply regretful .... - I didn’t mean it. - I really must express my regret .... Responses: - Don’t worry, it’s not like what you think. - There are still more chances, you know. - You must watch your words next time. b. Expressions used to criticize are - This is crazy. I don’t thing that was a good idea. I don’t like it. It was poor. It is not as good as I expected. It’s not good enough. You should have looked at the notice board Why haven’t you looked/didn’t you look at Responses: - Know it was a mistake. - I’ve/we’ve been very buzy. - We didn’t realized that ... - Sorry, I’ve been so careless - I think so. I didn’t have time, really. I forgot to look at the board. You are right. c. Reading Review Texts The social function of review text is to criticize an art work or event for a public audience. Such work of art includes movies, TV shows, books, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions, concert, and ballets. Social function Generic Structure To critique an art work or an event for public audience. - Orientation: Places the work in its general and particural context, often by comparing it with others of its kind or through analogue with a non-art object or event. Such works of art include movies, books, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions, concert, and ballets - Interpretative Recount: Summaries the pot ang/or provides an account of how the reviewed rendition of the work came into being; is optional, but if present, often recursive. - Evaluation: provides an evaluation of the work and/or its performance or production; is usualy recursive. - Evaluative Summatio: provides a kind of punchline which sums up the reviewer’s opinion of the art event as a whole; is optional. D. Linked to Grammer: Present and Past Subjuctive 1. Present Subjunctive Pattern : subjunctive Past simple fact present simple Example: 1. The old dresses as it if were winter. Fact: it is not winter 2. He walks as though he studied modeling Significant Lexicogrammatical Features - Focus on particular participants - Direct expression of options through use of Attitudinal Epithets in nominal groups; qualitayive attributes and Affective mental processes. - Use of elaborating and extending clause and group complexes to packege the information. - Use of metaphorical language (e.g., The wit was there, dexterously ping ponged to and fro ...). Fact: he doesn’t study modeling 2.Past Subjunctive Pattern : subjuntive Past perfect fact past simple Example: 1. Sherly talked about the contest as if she had won the grand prize. Fact: she didn’t win the grand prize. 2. Ita looked as if she had seen a ghost. Fact: she didn’t see a ghost. E. Writing Invitation Letters Study the following writing plan before you start to arrange an invitation letter: 1. Greeting 2. Opening paragraph (say why you are writing) a. Why are you writing this letter? b. What are you going to celebrate? 3. Main part (describe what you are going to do) a. What do you plan for celebration? b. What are the details of the celebration? 4. Clossing paragraph (restate your invitation and ask for reply) Do you want the reader to reply your invitation?