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Unit 4 & 5

B. Using Expression of plan, Intention, and Purpose
T he following words can be used to express plan, intention, and purpose:
 I plan to...
 She wants to ...
 They will ...
 In order to ...
 In order not to ...
 He intends to ...
1. My mother intends to go to the bank to cash a chcek.
2. My mother goes to the bank in order to cash a check.
3. The little girl cries very loud so that her parents can hear parents.
C. Reading Narrative Texts
Narrative text is often a story. A story is exploring participants thought, act and
feeling.The narrative text is structured as:
1. Orientation
Orientation tells us about the scene and introduces the participants.
2. Complication
Every narrative text must consists of conflict or problem.
3. Resolution
A problem must be resolved. It can be succed or fail.
D. Linked to Grammar: Conditional Sentence
The type of conditional sentence are as follow:
1. Type I (Future Conditional)
Pattern: If + S + V(1), S + M(1) + V(1)
2. Type II (Present Conditional)
Pattern: If + S + V(2), S + M(2) + V(1)
3. Type III (Past Conditional)
Pattern: If + S + had + V(3) + , S + M(3) + have + V(3)
B. Using Expressions of Possibility and Regret
1. Expression of Possibility/Impossibility
Pay attention on the following example:
a. Expressing Possibility
- She will probably get the job.
- Probably, she will get the job.
- It’s likely thet she will get the job.
- There is a chance that she will get the job.
- I think, she will get the job.
- There is a possibility that she will get the job.
In informal situation, you may say:
- I assume ....
- I think, there is very
possibility ....
- I suppose ....
- I find it possible that ....
- I’m pretty certain ....
b. Expressing Impossibility
- It’s impossible that Catherine will get the job.
- I don’t think Catherine will get the job.
- Probably not.
- It’s very unlikely.
In a formal situation, you may say:
- It is very doubtful ....
- It is improbable ....
- I think there is a little chance ....
- I suppose, she could not get the job ....
- There is a chance he won’t be able ....
- I find it impossible ....
2. Expression of Regret
Study the following expressions of regret:
a. To express regret, we use:
- Honestly regret ....
- I am so sorry to have missed it.
- I’m deeply regretful ....
- I didn’t mean it.
- I really must express my regret ....
- Don’t worry, it’s not like what you think.
- There are still more chances, you know.
- You must watch your words next time.
b. Expressions used to criticize are
This is crazy.
I don’t thing that was a good idea.
I don’t like it.
It was poor.
It is not as good as I expected.
It’s not good enough.
You should have looked at the notice board
Why haven’t you looked/didn’t you look at
- Know it was a mistake.
- I’ve/we’ve been very buzy.
- We didn’t realized that ...
- Sorry, I’ve been so careless
I think so.
I didn’t have time, really.
I forgot to look at the board.
You are right.
c. Reading Review Texts
The social function of review text is to criticize an art work or event for a public audience.
Such work of art includes movies, TV shows, books, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions,
concert, and ballets.
Social function
Generic Structure
To critique an art
work or an event for
public audience.
- Orientation: Places the work in its
general and particural context,
often by comparing it with others
of its kind or through analogue
with a non-art object or event.
Such works of art
include movies,
books, plays, operas,
exhibitions, concert,
and ballets
- Interpretative Recount:
Summaries the pot ang/or
provides an account of how the
reviewed rendition of the work
came into being; is optional, but
if present, often recursive.
- Evaluation: provides an
evaluation of the work and/or its
performance or production; is
usualy recursive.
- Evaluative Summatio: provides a
kind of punchline which sums up
the reviewer’s opinion of the art
event as a whole; is optional.
D. Linked to Grammer: Present and Past Subjuctive
1. Present Subjunctive
Pattern : subjunctive
Past simple
present simple
1. The old dresses as it if were winter.
Fact: it is not winter
2. He walks as though he studied modeling
Significant Lexicogrammatical
- Focus on particular participants
- Direct expression of options
through use of Attitudinal Epithets
in nominal groups; qualitayive
attributes and Affective mental
- Use of elaborating and extending
clause and group complexes to
packege the information.
- Use of metaphorical language (e.g.,
The wit was there, dexterously
ping ponged to and fro ...).
Fact: he doesn’t study modeling
2.Past Subjunctive
Pattern : subjuntive
Past perfect
past simple
1. Sherly talked about the contest as if she had won the grand prize.
Fact: she didn’t win the grand prize.
2. Ita looked as if she had seen a ghost.
Fact: she didn’t see a ghost.
E. Writing Invitation Letters
Study the following writing plan before you start to arrange an invitation letter:
1. Greeting
2. Opening paragraph (say why you are writing)
a. Why are you writing this letter?
b. What are you going to celebrate?
3. Main part (describe what you are going to do)
a. What do you plan for celebration?
b. What are the details of the celebration?
4. Clossing paragraph (restate your invitation and ask for reply)
Do you want the reader to reply your invitation?