KKPMT2_pertemuan1. - Universitas Esa Unggul

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TM SISTEM DIGESTIF
PERTEMUAN 1
DR MAYANG ANGGRAINI
PRODI RMIK, FAKULTAS ILMU-ILMU KESEHATAN
VISI DAN MISI UNIVERSITAS ESA UNGGUL
Materi Sebelum UTS
Materi Setelah UTS
KEMAMPUAN AKHIR YANG DIHARAPKAN
1.
2.
3.
4.
Memahami ejaan istilah struktur dan fungsi, berbagai akar kata (Root),
definisi/arti dan ejaan istilah medis umum, medis penyakit/gangguan,
berikut istilah diagnostik dan terapi-operasi sistem digestif, endokrine,
genitourinaria dan otot
Memahami Chapter ICD 10 Sistem digestif, endokrine, genitourinaria dan
otot dan kekhususannya
Menentukan nomor kode ICD 10 sistem digestif, endokrine,
genitourinaria dan otot dengan presisi, benar dan tepat sesuai yang
diderita pasien dan ditanggulangi di sistem pelayanan kesehatan yang
terkait
Menentukan nomor kode ICD 9CM yang berkaitan dengan sistem digestif,
endokrine, genitourinaria dan otot dengan presisi, benar dan tepat
sesuai yang diderita pasien dan ditanggulangi di sistem pelayanan
kesehatan yang terkait
SISTEM PENCERNAAN
• Sistem digestif disebut: Gastrointestinal Tract Canal atau Digestive tract
(sal. pencernaan)
• Sruktur anatomis sistem digestif terdiri dari:
mouth (mulut),
pharynx (tenggorokan),
esophagus (kerongkongan),
stomach [gaster] (lambung),
small intestine [intestinum tenue] (usus halus/kecil)
large intestine [colon] (usus besar), berikut: accesory organs (org.
penunjang,)
Sistem Pencernaan (Lanjutan-)
Organ penunjang yakni:
liver [hepar] (hati),
gallbladder [vesica felea] (kantung empedu), dan
pancreas ( kelenjar pankreas)
Sistem digestif menjalankan tugas:
1. mencerna makanan;
2. menyerap nutient ke dalam darah;
3. membuang sampah padat
Unsur Akar Kata (Word Roots)
Sistem Digestif
Akar Kata
abdomin/o-; ceil/oan/oappend/o; appendic/o
bil/o; chol/ebucc/ocec/ocheil/o-
Definisi
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
abdomen (daerah perut)
anus (dubur)
appendix (usus buntu)
bile, gall (empedu)
cheek (pipi)
cecum (usus cecum)
lips (bibir)
(Lanjutan-1)
Akar Kata
cholang/ocholecyst/ocholedoch/ocol/o-; colon/oduoden/oenter/oesphag/o-
Definisi
= bile duct (saluran empedu)
= gallbladder (kantung empedu)
= common bile duct (saluran empedu)
= colon (usus besar, kolon)
= duodenum (usus halus 12 jari)
= intestine (usus)
= oesophagus, esophagus (esofagus, kerongkngan)
(Lanjutan-2)
• Akar Kata
gastr/ogingiv/ogloss/ohepat/oile/ojejun/olapar/o-
Definisi________________
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
stomach (lambung)
gums (gusi)
tongue (lidah)
liver (hati)
ileum (usus halus, ileum)
jejunum (usus jejunum)
abdominal wall (dinding perut)
(Lanjutan-3)
• Akar Kata
lip/olith/oor/o-; stomat/opancreat/operitone/o-
Definisi
=
=
=
=
=
fat (lemak)
stone; calculus(i) (batu)
mouth (mulut)
pancreas (kelenjar pankreas)
peritoneum (selaput pembungkus bagian dalam perut)
(Lanjutan-4)
Akar Kata
Definisi
pharyng/oproct/o-; rect/osial/o-
=
=
=
sigmoid/o-
=
pharynx (faring, tenggorokan)
rectum (rektum)
salivary gland; saliva
(kelenjar ludah, ludah)
sigmoid colon (usus besar sigmoid)
READING: Disorders of the Stomach
Disorders of stomach have a variety of causes.
Because the stomach is a reservoir, disorders in the process of emptying
the stomach contents occur.
Other problems relate to the stomach’s role in the preparation of ingested
food for digestion.
INFECTION
The large amount of hydrochloric acid secreted by the stomach protects
the stomach from some infections by destroying many of the bacteria,
viruses, and fungi that are taken in with food and drink.
When the protection power is insufficient, a variety of gastro-intestinal
infections may occur.
TUMORS
Stomach cancer causes about 15.000 deaths annualy in the US.
Early symptoms are often mistaken for
indigestion and diagnosis is often delayed
until it is too late for a cure.
TUMORS (Cont.-1)
Any change in the customary functioning of the digestive system is
important, especially after fitty.
A persistent feeling of fullness, or pain before or after meals, should
never be ignored.
Unexplained loss of appetite or frequent nausea should always be
reported.
TUMORS (Cont.-2)
A tumor in the upper part of the stomach, near the opening of the
esophagus, can cause obstruction and difficulty in swallowing.
Benign polyp can also develops in the stomach.
Sometime a stomach tumor remains “silent” and the first sign are due to
the appearance of secondary growth elsewhere in the body.
ULCERATION
The acid and other digestive juices secreted by the stomach sometimes
attack the stomach lining.
The healthy stomach is prevented from digesting itself mainly by the
protective layer of mucus secreted by the lining and by the speed with
which damaged surface cells are replaced by the deeper layers.
ULCERATION (Cont.-)
Many influences can upset this delicate balance.
One of the most important is excessive acid secretion. The resultng peptic
ulcers are probably the most common serious stomach disorder.
ULCERATION (Cont. -2)
Peptic ulcer are sometimes caused by stress,
or by severe injury, such as major burns, accidents, and after surgery and
severe infections, often they occur for no appeared reason.
The stomach lining can damaged by large amounts of aspirin or alcohol,
sometimes causing gastritis. This may lead to ulceration of the stomach
lining.
AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS
Pernicious anemia is caused by the failure of the stomach lining to produce
intrinsic factor, a substance whose role is to facilitate the absorption of
vitamin B12.
Failure to produce the intrinsic factor occurs if there is atrophy of the
stomach lining, which also causes failure of acid production.
AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS (Cont.-)
Tests that determine a person’s ability to absorb vitamin B12 are
important in the investigation of this condition.
Pernicious anemia is usually due to an autoimmune disorder.
OTHER DISORDERS
• Enlargement of the stomach may be caused when scarring from a chronic
peptic ulcer occurs at the stomach outlet.
It may also be a complication of pyloric stenosis. A rare but serious
condition caused by narrowing of the stomach outlet.
Rarely, the stomach may become twisted and obstructed, a condition
called volvulus.
INVESTIGATION
• Stomach disorders are investigated primarily by
barium x-ray examinations and/or
gastroscopy.
• Occasionally, a biopsy ( removal of a tissue sample for microscopic
analysis) is performed.
ISTILAH MEDIS SISTEM DIGESTIF
• Unsur Kata Bentuk Penggabung, Prefix dan Suffix
Contoh:
Kata/bentuk Penggabung
Prefix
polyp/oleuk/o-
polip (tonjolan bertangkai)
putih
Suffix
-algia
-itis
rasa sakit
radang
Arti
Kata Bentuk Penggabung, Prefix dan Suffix
Prefix
Arti
endo- = di dalam
retro- = ke belakang
Suffix
Arti
-centesis = punktur (tusuk)
-gram
= rekaman (gambar)
-iasis
= kondisi abnormal
-(o)stomy = membentuk
lubang keluar baru
- pepsia = digesti
- plasty = operasi plastik
- (r)rhaphy = menjahit
ISTILAH GANGGUAN SYSTEM DIGESTIF
1.
achalasia = menurunnya mobilitas 2/3 bagian esophagus bagian
bawah disertai konstriksi otot sphincter
2.
anorexia
anorexia nervosa
3.
aphagia
= tidak mampu menelan
4.
dysphagia
= gangguan menelan/rasa sakit menelan
= kehilangan nafsu makan
= kehilangan nafsu makan disertai penurunan
berat badan dan rasa takut yang berlebih
terhadap obesitas
ISTILAH GANGGUAN SYSTEM DIGESTIF (Lanjutan-1)
5.
bulimia
= kondisi makan banyak kemudian
dimuntahkan kembali
6.
cholecystitis
choledocholithiasis
= radang kantung empedu
= batu empedu di dalam saluran (common
bile duct)
= batu empedu
cholelithiasis
7,
8.
cirrhosis hepatis
hepatoma
= penyakit kronik hati disertai destruksi sel
jaringan hati
= tumor ganas sel hati (tumor primer)
ISTILAH GANGGUAN SYSTEM DIGESTIF (Lanjutan-2)
9.
colerectal carcinoma = kanker colon (usus besar) dan rectum(dubur)
10.
Crohn’s disease = penyakit peradangan kronik ileum disetai ulserasi
(memborok) dinding usus dan terbentuknya jaringan parut (cicatrix) =
regional ileitis = regional enteritis.
11.
diarrhea
= pengeluaran feces cair yang berulang-ulang
(> 3-4x)
12.
13.
diverticulitis
diverticulum
= radang diverticulum
= tonjolan kantung di dalam dinding usus
(>> di usus colon)
ISTILAH GANGGUAN SYSTEM DIGESTIF (Lanjutan-3)
14.
duodenal ulcer = tukak duodeni
15.
dysentry
= infeksi usus oleh bakteri, virus dan mikroba lain disertai
radang mukosa dan feces cair berkali-kali, berlendir dan berdarah.
16.
17.
dyspepsia
dysphagia
18.
emaciation = keadaan terlalu langsing/ kurus/ceking
= rasa sakit menelan
= sulit menelan
ISTILAH GANGGUAN SYSTEM DIGESTIF (Lanjutan-4)
19. eructation
20. flatus
= sendawa/mengeluarkan udara dari mulut
= buang angin/kentut
21. gastrodynia/gastralgia = sakit bagian perut/lambung
22. gastroenteritis
= radang lambung dan usus
23. (GERD) Gastro-Enteritis Reflux Disease
= reflux (aliran balik) atau gerak mundur kembali
isi lambung ke dalam esofagus
24. Gingivitis
= radang gusi
ISTILAH GANGGUAN SYSTEM DIGESTIF (Lanjutan-5)
25. hematemesis
= muntah darah
26. hepatitis
= radang hati
27.
hernia
= tonjolan ke luar suatu organ dalam melalui
lubang suatu rongga yang dindingnya lemah (burut)
28. herpetic stomatitis = radang mulut akibat infeksi herpes virus (= cold
sore, blister)
29. melena
= feces berwarna hilam
30. hematechezia
= perdarahan rectum
ISTILAH GANGGUAN SYSTEM DIGESTIF (Lanjutan-6)
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
peritonitis = radang peritoneum
sialolithiasis = batu saliva (air ludah)
pruritis ani = rasa gatal pada dubur
(IBS) Irritable Bowel Syndrome = peningkatan motilitas usus kecil/besar,
disertai rasa sakit, kembung, mual dan colon spastik
polyposis chronic = tonjolan polyp di dalam usus besar (colon)
oral leukoplakia = palque berwarna putih pada selaput lendir dalam
mulut.
ileus
= obstrukri usus
volvulus
= usus terbelit-belit.
LATIHAN (1)
•
Tulis/sebutkan arti: …
1.
cholecys/o- =
2.
duoden/o- =
3.
enter/o- =
4.
proct/o- =
5.
sigmoid/o- =
6.
lapar/o=
7.
lith/o=
8.
gastr/o=
9.
chol/e=
10. hepat/o=
Latihan (2)
•
Bentuklah unsur kata penggabung istilah di bawah ini dan sebut
artinya:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
abdomen
appendix
anus
bile
gaster
cheek
common bile duct
Fat
jejunum
lips
 abdomin/o…
…
…
…
…
…
…
 ,,,
…
=…
=…
=…
=…
=…
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=…
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