study program of international science education mathematics and

Complied By:
Edy Hartono (10315244005)
1. Students are able to observe how a model of vulcano can erupt
process which cause by presure.
2. Students are able to observe the charateristic of chemical reaction
in a model of vulcano.
3. Students are able to observe explain process of a vulcano eruption
for the surounding area.
4. Students are able to observe explain process of a vulcano that
B. Backround
Earth's core contains is called hot liquid magma as a result of
physical and chemical reactions that formed millions ago, even some
scientists classify the magma chamber work (the core of the earth) as
an atomic of the reactor. The results of chemical and physical reactions
form of gases and liquids is a very hot lava stored in the deepest layers
of the earth. Reaction results in the form of gas and liquid magma lava
has a certain pressure at a time pressure that can not be held then
volcanic eruptions occur. Pressure caused by the gas and liquid from
chemical and physical reactions, but it also caused a layer of pressure
that moves the earth itself. Geologi expert is aware of movement of
Earth's plates are measured from the movement of a year by comparing
the distance between the layers that have been measured in the
previous year with the current year. The experts agree the average
movement of the plates is an average of 10 cm / year. Plate movement
itself caused differences in specific gravity of the plate to form a
subduction zone and gives rise to earthquakes. The theory of mountain
formation says that the mountain in a million years ago is an unstable
region on one side and on the other side is congested areas. Pressure
due to movement on the one hand stuck on the other side causes the
soil to be looming up and after it gave birth to the air cavities. Another
theory states the existence pressure from inside the earth are very
strong and the pressure will be issued by selecting the unstable region,
so that this pressure resulted in the movement of soil into towering.
After young mountains are formed, then the eruption after eruption out
of the volcano and lava issued some time later will be cold in the
ground millions of years into a dense and tends to be a rock mountain.
This is what encourages practician to prove that a strong pressure to
spew lava that so many of the volcano.
C. Basic Theory
Volcano or volcanoes in general is a term that can be defined as a
system of hot fluid channel (in the form of molten rock or lava) that
extends from a depth of about 10 km below the surface of the earth to
the earth's surface, including the accumulation of sediment material
issued on when erupted. Although it is rather difficult to define what a
volcano or volcanoes, but in general these terms can be defined as a
system of hot fluid channel (in the form of molten rock or lava) that
extends from a depth of about 10 km below the surface of the earth to
the surface of the earth , including the results of sediment accumulation
of material issued at the time he erupted. Furthermore, the term volcano
is also used to name the phenomenon of ice formation Volcanoes or ice
and mud volcanoes or volcanic mud Volcanoes. Volcanoes are found
worldwide, but the location of the most recognizable volcanoes are
volcanoes that are along the arc of the Pacific Ring of Fire (Pacific Ring
of Fire). Arc of the Pacific Ring of Fire is the shifting line between two
tectonic plates. Volcanoes are found in several forms throughout their
lifetime. Active volcanoes may be swapped into the active half, to be
outages, before becoming inactive or dead. However volcanoes capable
of being went out in time 610 years before the exchange becomes active
before. Thus, it is Difficult to determine the actual state of the volcano's
something, whether a volcano was in a state of failure or died. If the
volcano erupts, magma is contained in the room of magma under the
volcano erupted out as lava or lava.
In physics, pressure is defined as force per unit area, where the
direction of the force perpendicular to the surface area. Mathematically,
the pressure can be expressed by the following equation: P = F / A ; P =
pressure, F = force and A = surface area. Unit of force (F) is the
Newton (N), unit area is square meters (m2). Because pressure is force
per unit area then the unit of pressure is N/m2. Another name of N/m2
is the pascal (Pa). When we discuss Fluid, pressure becomes very
important concept. When the fluid is in a quiet, fluid exerts a force that
is perpendicular to the surface of contact. For example we review the
water in the glass; every part of the water exerts a force with a direction
perpendicular to the glass wall. so every part of the water exerts a force
perpendicular to each unit area of the container they occupy, in this
glass. Similarly, water in the tub or pool water. This is one of the
important properties of the fluid per unit alias static fluid is stationary.
This broad style known as pressure. When the fluid exerts a force acts
on the surface, where the direction of the force is not perpendicular,
then the surface will give the reaction force direction is not
perpendicular. This will cause the fluid to flow. But the fact still
remains fluid. So in conclusion, in fluids at rest, the direction of force is
always perpendicular to the surface of the container they occupy.
Another important property of fluids at rest is always fluid pressure in
all directions. To better understand this explanation, please input an
object that can drift into a glass or container (bucket et al) who sided
water. If the water is very calm, then you enter the object did not move
because the entire surface of the object of the same working pressure. If
water pressure is not as large then there will be a total force, which will
cause a moving object (remember Newton's second law).
Acetic acid, ethanoic acid or vinegar is a chemical compound of
organic acids known as the taste and aroma acids in the diet. Acetic
acid has the empirical formula C2H4O2. This formula is often written
in the form 𝐢𝐻3 -COOH. Pure acetic acid (glacial acetic acid is called)
is a colorless hygroscopic liquid, and has a freezing point of 16.7 ° C.
Acetic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acid, the formic acid.
Acetic acid solution in water is a weak acid, meaning that only partially
dissociates into ions H + and CH3COO-. Acetic acid is a chemical
reagent and industrial raw materials are important. Acetic acid is used
in the production of polymers such as polyethylene, cellulose acetate,
and polyvinyl acetate, as well as a variety of fibers and fabrics. In the
food industry, acetic acid is used as an acidity regulator. In households,
diluted acetic acid is also frequently used as a water softener. Within a
year, the global thirst for acetic acid reached 6.5 million tons per year.
1.5 million per year is obtained from recycled, the rest is obtained from
the petrochemical industry as well as from biological sources.
Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate and vinegar is a weak acid.
Mixture of both these chemicals will form gaseous carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide produced by trying to get out of the bottle. With the
liquid soap, it will form small bubbles. So that the eruption that
occurred resembles an actual lava. Carbon dioxide gas generated by the
model volcano is similar to processes that occur in the real volcanoes.
The more carbon dioxide, the greater the pressure, the more lava, the
greater the eruption. The following is the reaction between sodium
bicarbonate and Acetic acid:
NaHCO3(s) + CH3COOH(aq) β†’ CH3COONa(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
Volcano eruption is an event that occurs due to deposition of
magma in the bowels of the earth is pushed out by high-pressure gas.
Magma is the incandescent liquid contained in the layer of earth with a
very high temperature, which is estimated at more than 1,000 ° C.
Liquid magma coming out of the earth is called lava. The temperature
of lava which issued could reach 700-1200 ° C. Volcanic eruptions that
brought rock and ash can be sprayed as far as the radius of 18 km or
more, while the lava could flood as far as 90 km radius. This is the
content of the Earth, where the age of the Earth who has reached 4.5
billion years old. Earth is actually composed of a hot core of the Earth
and its rocks and soil. Because covered by rocks and soil, then the
surface is not hot. Then, heat from the core will be channeled to the soil
and rocks, so that the inside of the Earth will be turbulent because of the
heat. Heat generated by the core of the Earth will continue to burn part
of stones and soil that protects the Earth's surface. However, the coat
that protects it would not be able to withstand the magma core of the
Earth is too long. This resulted in deposition of magma from the Earth's
core is increased. This is what is called a strato volcano. If this magma
is not strong enough to hold, it will be ejected out along the rocks and
smoke from the volcano eruption. Magma erupted lava that will
generate some where if on an object, will make a fire on the object that
is passed. Lava ejected by the volcano can reach a considerable
distance, which is about 40km. In the distance, moving lava was still in
a fairly hot temperature. And if past the 40km distance, lava began to
cool down gradually. Not to forget also the smoke produced. This
smoke contains sulfur dioxide that can reach areas far enough. These
substances can stimulate the occurrence of an acid rain in the area
around the smoke. In addition, smoke can lead to the eruption of
shortness of breath for living things.
Volcano type based shape
1. Strato volcano
Like a cone with steep sides. This type of volcano is formed on a
large eruption of lava flows, tefra, and pyroclastic flows. Major eruption
occurs because magma is very viscous composition. Rhyolitic magma
rich in silica distributed on the continental shelf areas, especially in
subduction zones. At the time of formation of this volcano on the
continental shelf in the area
2. Shield Volcano
Type of volcano is the largest in the world. This type is formed from
basalt lava flows and has a slope of the ramps. This volcano does not
produce a large eruption due to magma issued a watery nature. With low
viscosity basaltic magma is commonly appears in the middle of the
ocean hotspots and divergent plate boundary region. This type of
volcano is more often appear in the middle of the ocean.
3. Cinder Cone Volcano
Is volcanic ash and small fragments of volcanic rocks spread around
the mountain. Most of the mountains of this type form a bowl on
top. Rarely are high in the upper 500 meters of land in the vicinity.
4. Caldera Volcano
A collapse of the volcano area. A collapse was triggered by the
emptying of the magma beneath the volcano, usually as a result of a huge
volcanic eruption. This collapse can occur at the time of eruption or
eruption gradually from a series of eruptions. The ruins of the magma
will cover the path before, so the magma will seek a new path and
fracture-fracture which usually leads to the circular edge of the ruins
(Caldera) is. So there is a secondary volcanic vents around the caldera.
1. Clay/sand/soil
2. Hose
3. Injection
4. Tray
5. Acetic Acid (CH3 COOH)
6. Sodium Bicarbonat (NaHCO3 )
7. Red dye
Make a model of vulcano in the tray and make a hole in center of
imitation mountain as a creater.
2. Put a hose under a clay.
3. Pour a Acetic Acid into beaker glass and give red dye.
4. Pour a sodium bikarbonat into crater of model a vulcano
5. Suck a acetic acid with the injection.
6. Push th injection with slowly and to be carefull.
7. Observe it.
Hose mounted from the bottom of the crater out past the bottom of
the mountain, then connected with a shot that has been filled in red
vinegar. The crater is filled with baking soda, and then shot in the
press so that the injection of acid in vinegar will flow through the hose
into the crater and then the explosion occurred due to acetic acid reacts
with baking soda. The explosion is accompanied by froth.
G. Explanation
Pada percobaan simulasi erupsi gunung berapi ini bertujuan untuk
mengamati bagaimana model dari proses erupsi pada gunung berapi
yang disebabkan oleh tekanan, observasi karakteristik reaksi kimia
dari percobaan model gunung berapi ini, menjelaskan efek dari erupsi
merapi pada wilayah sekitarnya, serta menjelaskan proses erupsi
gunung merapi yang sebenarnya. Model gunung berapi dibuat dari
tanah liat yang dibentuk menyerupai gunung. Pada tengah atau pusat
gunung, dari puncak sampai dasar, dibuat lubang sebagai saluran
magma. Magma dimodelkan menggunakan campuran asam cuka
(CH3COOH) dan soda kue (NaHCO3). Asam cuka dimasukkan dahulu
ke dalam suntikan bekas yang ujungnya dihubungkan dengan selang.
Sebelumnya, asam cuka diberi pewarna makanan merah agar nantinya
pada simulasi dapat terlihat menyerupai warna magma yang berwarna
merah. Selang ini dihubungkan ke saluran gunung melalui lubang
dasar gunung. Soda kue diletakkan di dalam (saluran) gunung.
Selanjutnya suntikan ditekan sampai dapat mendorong asam cuka
melalui saluran sehingga dapat bertemu dengan soda kue yang berada
dalam gunung. Akhirnya terjadilah muntahan lahar yaitu campuran
soda kue dan asam cuka. Lahar muncul dari puncak gunung (kawah)
dan menyebar ke area sekitar gunung. Asam cuka yang keluar dari
selang bercampur dengan sodium bikarbonat yang sudah ditaburkan
didalam kawah buatan. Asam cukapun bereaksi dan membentuk
gelembung-gelembung. Reaksinya adalah sebagai berikut.
NaHCO3 + CH3COOH β†’ CO2 + H2O + CH3COONa (gas)
Bisa melihat bahwa pada saat asam cuka dan sodium bikarbonat
dicampur(direaksikan), maka akan menghasilkan gas CO2. Gas
tersebut kemudian membentuk gelembung gelembung yang keluar dari
air campuran asam cuka dengan sodium bikarbonat. Dengan adanya
gelembung yang keluar dari kawah, maka model gunung berapi
tersebut tampak lebih nyata.
Simulasi erupsi gunung berapi menekankan aspek fisika yaitu
pada tekanan yang menyebabkan adanya erupsi atau keluarnya magma
ke permukaan bumi. Gunung meletus, terjadi akibat endapan magma
di dalam perut bumi yang didorong keluar oleh gas yang bertekanan
tinggi. Panas yang dihasilkan oleh inti dari Bumi akan terus
membakar bagian bebatuan dan tanah yang melindungi permukaan
Bumi. Namun, mantel yang melindungi tersebut tentunya tidak
sanggup untuk menahan magma inti Bumi terlalu lama. Hal ini
mengakibatkan endapan magma dari inti Bumi tersebut naik. Dari
letusan-letusan seperti inilah gunung berapi terbentuk. Letusannya
yang membawa abu dan batu menyembur dengan keras sejauh radius
18 km atau lebih, sedang lavanya bisa membanjiri daerah sejauh
radius 90 km. Magma yang mengandung gas dalam kabin magma
berada dalam kondisi di bawah tekanan batu-batuan berat yang
mengelilinginya. Tekanan ini menyebabkan magma meletus atau
melelehkan conduit (saluran) pada bagian batuan yang rapuh atau
retak. Magma bergerak keluar melalui saluran ini menuju ke
permukaan. Saat magma mendekati permukaan, kandungan gas di
dalamnya terlepas. Gas dan magma ini bersama-sama meledak dan
membentuk lubang yang disebut lubang utama (central vent).
Sebagian besar magma dan lubang ini material vulkanik lainnya
kemudian menyembur keluar melalui lubang kepundan.
Hal ini lah yang disebut dengan Stratovolcano. Apabila magma
ini sudah tidak kuat untuk ditahan, maka akan tersembur keluar
bersamaan dengan bebatuan dan asap letusan dari gunung tersebut.
Magma yang tersembur keluar itu akan menghasilkan suatu lava
dimana jika mengenai suatu objek, akan menjadikan api terhadap
benda yang dilewati tersebut. Lava yang disemburkan oleh gunung
tersebut dapat mencapai jarak yang cukup jauh, yaitu sekitar 40km.
Dalam jarak tersebut, lava yang bergerak masih berada dalam suhu
yang cukup panas. Dan apabila melewati jarak 40km, lava berangsur
mulai menjadi dingin. Lava ini dinamakan dengan Lahar. Tidak
ketinggalan pula dengan asap yang dihasilkan. Asap ini mengandung
sulfur dioksida yang dapat menjangkau area yang cukup jauh. Zat ini
dapat menstimulasi terjadinya suatu hujan asam di daerah sekitar asap
tersebut. Selain itu, asap hasil letusan ini dapat mengakibatkan sesak
napas bagi makhluk hidup.
Dari segi aspek biologi lebih ditekankan pada efek yang terjadi
akibat erupsi gunung berapi terhadap area di sekitar gunung yang
menganggu vegetasi, fauna maupun air. Lahar yang dihasilkan
mengakibatkan hancurnya vegetasi di sekitar gunung bahkan bisa juga
sampai ke vegetasi yang jauh akan tetapi terjangkau oleh materialmaterial karena ada media yang membawa ketempat tersebut.
Vegetasi akan sulit tumbuh lagi di daerah tersebut sampai kurang
lebih 1 tahun untuk bisa kondisi tanah tumbuh vegetasi baru.
Ekosistem yang ada juga akan rusak bahkan rantai makanan yang ada
akan terputus yang akan berimbas pada punahnya fauna yang ada.
Kebersihan air juga akan terganggu apabila lahar mengalir melalui
sungai yang ada di sekitar gunung berapi. Dampak sekunder terjadi
karena akibat setelah erupsi terjadi, seperti perubahan iklim,
perubahan kondisi tanah, dan juga peningkatan karbondioksida
sehingga akan merubah iklim, suhu dan menghambat pertumbuhan
vegetasi yang akan tumbuh di daerah yang terkena erupsi.
Peningkatan konsentrasi gas-gas atmosfer seperti karbon dioksida
hasil dari letusan gunung berapi dan memiliki dampak pada tanaman
di daerah setempat atau bahkan seluruh dunia.
Yang pertama adalah aspek fisika yaitu tekanan.
Yang kedua adalah kimia yaitu reaksi antara asam cuka (CH3COOH)
dengan sodium bikarbonat (NaHCO3) dan menhasilkan gelembunggelembung pada kawah karena gas CO2 yang dihasilkan. selanjutnya
adalah aspek biologi yang meliputi ekosistem gunung berapi itu
sendiri. Walaupun pada percobaan ini mengunakan tanah liat sebagai
model gunung berapai, tetapi tanah liat yang sudah dibentuk menjadi
gunung berapi tersebut menjadikan sebuah model ekosistem gunung
H. References
Abidin, H.Z.dkk. 2003. Ground Deformation Volcano Eruption
Bandung: ITB PRESS
Dogra, SK. 1990. Kimia Fisika. Jakarta : UI-Press
Volcanoes.Tokyo: Tokyo Univ.
Sukardjo. 1997. Kimia Fisika. Jakarta : PT Rineka Cipta
Suminar Achmadi. 2004. Kimia Dasar : Prinsip dan Terapan Modern,
Jilid 1. Jakarta : Erlangga
Accessed from at Tuesday, October 18th
Accessed from http:// at Tuesday, October
18th 2011
I. Conclusion
1. Pressures stemming from the injector pressure so that the vinegar
acid gush out as if it looked like a volcano eruption.
2. The reaction is the reaction between acetic acid with sodium
NaHCO3 + CH3COOH β†’ CO2 + H2O + CH3COONa (gas).
3. Affected area around the volcano lava coming out of the crater
model volcano and cause damage volcano ecosystem it self.
4. At really volcano, eruption occurs because magma surfaced but
depressed by solid surrounding rocks. When the magma to the
surface, the magma that mixes with the gas spurt out and cause an
1. Why react between asetic acid and sodium bicarbonate can produce
like molten lava ? write reaction !
2. What the caused eruption as chemical reaction in a model of volcano
3. What caused eruption of really volcano ?
4. What comes out of the crater of a volcano that actually ?
5. What happens to objects that have been issued by the bowel of the
6. Explain the effect of volcanic eruptions for surrounding area
(including ecosystem and vegetation)
1. The reaction is the reaction between acetic acid with sodium
NaHCO3 + CH3COOH β†’ CO2 + H2O + CH3COONa (gas)
2. Result of reaction is gas an make crater like really.
3. Chemical reaction in model volcano not make an eruption, but
pressure with injection make volcano eruption.
4. At really volcano, eruption occurs because magma surfaced but
depressed by solid surrounding rocks. When the magma to the surface,
the magma that mixes with the gas spurt out and cause an eruption
5. Objects are out and about the objects around it so damaged the
surrounding area
6. Mountain which erupted usually have an impact on the surrounding
environment. The area around the volcano will usually be exposed to
heat wan, incandescent lava, and volcanic material that comes out of
volcanoes. This certainly will affect the ecosystem that existed at the
volcano. Undeniably, the ecosystem will be damaged when exposed to
volcanic eruptions. The eruption of the buffer to make the trees and
the living organisms including humans around them also die.
Experiment Design of Science Lab Work Activity
A. Title: Checking Chlorophyll in Leaves
B. Goal:
1. students can explain the function of chlorophyll in the leaves
during photosynthesis.
2. students can explain the mechanism of photosynthesis.
C. Tools and material
1. Spinach leaves
2. Heater
3. Pan 2 pieces
4. ph meter / litmus
Observe and measure the color, texture and ph spinach leaves
before heated.
Heat water and enter the spinach leaves.
One pot was closed and the other pot was left open.
Observe and measure the color, texture and ph spinach leaves
after heated.
Noting the results of observations
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