islamic values construction on novel “negeri 5

October 2015
Muhammad Rosyid Husnul W
English student at State Islamic University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang
This research discusses social construction on literary works. Literary works such novels
on the study of sociology represents ‗real‘ society. Berger and Luckmann (1990) stated
that social construction is based on externalization, objectification and internalization.
Those three relates simultaneously to create society. Through that theory, this paper
focuses on Islamic values on novel ―Negeri 5 Menara‖ written by Ahmad Fuadi. As a
result, Fuadi (an Islamic scholar) describes Islamic values on his novel in some
Literary works which has many variants is an element of culture. Some of literary works
written in modern period are novel, short story, drama, and poem. Novel is an interesting
Indonesia literary works which is enable to reflect some phenomenon happening in society, in
the past, present, or future. In the development of Indonesian literature, a novel in every
decades has its own characteristics following the development of era. Indonesian novels
during 21st century are mostly based on constructing Islamic values including faith, islam,
charity, morals, and relationship individually or socially.
According to Berger and Luckmann (1990: 221-225), there are three simultaneously
understandable points to know social construction theory; externalization, objectification,
internalization. Those three things have a basis relationship and could be understood as a
dialectic process. Each has expediency with essential characterization in social world.
Through externalization, a society is human products. Through objectification, a society is sui
generis reality; unique. And through internalization, human is society‘s product. Output
process exists pretending to be outside but continuously it will be internalized until what in
outside pretending to be innate.
Muhammad Rosyid Husnul W
ISBN 978-602-73769-1-5
October 2015
According to Berger and Luckmann (1990), human activity products described as social
products are born from human externalization. Externalization is a kind of effusing human
self into the world physically or mentally. It is an anthropologist must because human
existence unlikely continue in an environment with closed interior or without movement. His
existence must continuously effuse his self in activity. This anthropologist must is rooted
from unstable human biological completeness to face his environment (Berger and
Luckmann, 1990).
Society is human products rooting from externalization phenomenon. Human products
including his worlds exists outside his self then, producing many things as reflection out of
his self. . Although all cultural products come from human consciousness, but it can‘t be
reserved inside consciousness an sich. Culture presents out of human subjectivity becoming
its own world. World which human produced has realistic objective characteristic (Berger,
1994). All human activities happening in externalization, according to Berger can experience
habituation process that experience institutionalization then.
Internalization is processing because the existence of aim to identify. A child imitates roles
and great people natures. Then, he internalizes and make those as a role for his self. By
identifying great people, child is able to identify his self to get an identity completely and
logically. Self is an entity reflected and mirrored natures taken from great people towards the
entity of its self. Primary socialization creates inside child consciousness an abstraction which
become higher from the roles and natures of certain people to common people.
Hanafi and Shobirin (2002) states that Islam values place human as creature and kholifah at
the same time. Human concept as creature is a totality of obedience toward The Creator to be
the choosen one. Worship is a dedication toward God and other human creating. Human
position as kholifah is an attribute to prosecute human to be independent, free, mastering all
his action and having objective ability in actuating his self as a part of God‘s duty to build and
prosper the world. Two positions that human bear lead to base division concept about
knowledge studies in Islam.
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Muhammad Rosyid Husnul W
October 2015
Faith, Islam, and charity is a unity which can‘t be separated. Faith is someone belief spoken
by mouth, reflected by hearth, and done by action. There are six foundations of faith; God,
angels, holy books, messengers, prophet, and fate.
Islam has very wide meanings. It can simply divided into three parts; aqidah, syari‘ah and
akhlaq. Terminologically, islam is a religion brought by Muhammad based on God‘s vision.
The principles of Islamic values are Koran and Hadith.
What are being discussed in Islamic morality is human actions; bad or good. Moral is about
the relationship between God and human, and human and human (social). Moral is on the
concept of charity meant as a full comprehend of God‘s existence and a facing hearth toward
Him while worshiping. Following that, moral socially relates to the worldly activity such as
buying, renting, borrowing, planting, helping and etc.
Based on what already explained above, this paper will analyze Islamic values (islam, iman,
ihsan, morality, human relationship) constructed in Novel ―Lima Menara‖ by using Berger
and Luckmann‘s social construction theory. In a great hope that we can categorized and
characterized the constructed values in 21st century‘s Indonesian novels.
Research Method
This research uses qualitative research method meant as a research procedure resulting
descriptive data. The data will be written or spoken words and observed actions (Nasution,
The object of this research is an Indonesian literature novel in 21st century; Lima Menara
written by Ahmad Fuadi. The novel is chosen because it contains Islamic values regarding to
faith, islam, charity, moral, and human relationship.
Method to collect data in this research uses document or book method. To analyze the data,
this research uses descriptive and content analysis (Supratno, 2010).
Muhammad Rosyid Husnul W
ISBN 978-602-73769-1-5
October 2015
Discussion and Findings
On above explanation, it‘s already stated that this research will use Berger construction theory
objectification and externalization. Those three have base relationship and be in mutual
accord with essentially social world. Through externalization, a society is human products.
Through objectification, a society is sui generis reality; unique. And through internalization,
human is society‘s product.
a. Externalization
Based on externalization, society is human products. If people live in certain society are
good, it will create good society, and vice versa. If people live in certain society are bad, it
will create unhoped society.
Alif as the main character in this novel are born in very religious family. Although they have
simple life and rather poor, but they live happily as a small family. This family will contribute
to create better society with strong religion.
It‘s quoted from the novel that,‖ Amak memang dibesarkan dengan latar agama yang kuat.
Ayahnya atau kakekku yang aku panggil Buya Sutan Mansur adalah orang alim yang
berguru langsung kepada Inyiak Canduang atau Syekh Sulaiman Ar-Rasuly. Di awal abad
kedua puluh, Inyiak Canduang ini berguru ke Mekkah di bawah asuhan ulama terkenal
seperti Syeikh Ahmad Khatib AlMinangkabawy dan Syeikh Sayid Babas El-Yamani.
Mata Amak menerawang sebentar.‖
Alif‘s mother was grown in religious family, as consequence she wants Alif to study Islam in
Boarding school or Islamic Senior High School. She had a dream that his son would be Buya
Hamka, doing amar ma‘ruf nahi munkar, to ask in goodness and prohibit badness. She said,
―Jadi Amak minta dengat sangat waang tidak masuk SMA. Bukan karena uang tapi supaya
ada bibit unggul yang masuk madrasah aliyah.‖
So, Alif‘s mother wants his son to know Islam because her mother educate her as the same. It
will also influence on Alif‘s life. After studying Islam, it can be denied that he will also order
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October 2015
his children to do so. It will vertically descend towards their generation. Horizontally, it will
also influence society‘s life. This family will affect the surrounding to know Islam and do
religiously. Here, externalization plays a role that society is built on individual individual
living in society.
In a large era, Madani boarding school where Alif studying Islam has great purpose to build
civil society in Indonesia. It is proven by that Madani means civil society. Every student
studying in Madani boarding school will learn about Islam, common knowledge, discipline,
Arabic language, English language, moral and etc. Those things are the indication of civil
Kyai Rais, the leader of Madani Boarding Scholl, stated that ―Menuntut ilmu di PM bukan
buat gagah-gagahan dan bukan biar bisa bahasa asing. Tapi menuntut ilmu karena Tuhan
semata. Karena itulah kalian tidak akan kami beri ijazah, tidak akan kami beri ikan, tapi
akan mendapat ilmu dan kail. Kami, para ustad, ikhlas mendidik kalian dan kalian
ikhlaskan pula niat untuk mau dididik. So, Madani Boarding School gives the spirit to
student to always learn, learn and learn. This will lead to religious and literacy society in the
frame of externalization Bergerian theory.
b. Objectification
Based on objectification, social reality or social phenomenon happening in society is a result
of society‘s product. Again, good society will product people or society‘s member whose
good attitudes. As widely known that many Islamic values constructed in this novel which
most of setting happen in boarding school. Here, we will analyze social reality in boarding
school. Different from ‗real‘ society which freely compete on what values society will follow,
Boarding School proposes intended constructed values as other educational institutions. The
analysis will be categorized into four; social reality connecting with faith, islam, morality and
human relationship.
1. Islamic constructed values on faith
The faith to God exists in Madani Boarding School because of the continuous education. The
teacher also supports that by implementing such actions referring the faith to God. For
instance, praying before exam, before sleeping, or even before playing football. The students
Muhammad Rosyid Husnul W
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October 2015
are taught how to begin something intentionally to worship God. There is such a common
pattern in doing activities that before doing something, students, teachers and all elements in
Madani Boarding School to pray for God. Then they do by effort and extraordinary. In the
end, they place their trust in God about the result. It is proven by this quote, ―Baik, sebelum
bertanding, mari berdoa dan membaca Al Fatihah. Al Fatihah‖.
Here is what Said said before doing the exam, ―Kita perlu bertekad belajar lebih banyak dari
orang kebanyakan. Kalau umumnya orang belajar pagi, siang dan malam, maka aku
akan menambah dengan bangun lagi dini hari untuk mengurangi ketinggalan dan
menutupi kelemahanku dalam hapalan. Di atas semua itu, ketika semua usaha telah kita
sempurnakan, kita berdoa dengan khusyuk kepada Allah. Dan hanya setelah usaha dan
doa inilah kita bertawakal, menyerahkan semuanya kepada Allah.‖ It indicates that every
person in Madani boarding School is constructed to have good faith towards his God.
Following that Baso, the one of Shohibul Menara members, has a good motivation to
memorize Al-Qur‘an due to his faith that it will lead him and his family to heaven. He always
read Al-Qur‘an every day. Moreover, his other studies were affected by his love to Qur‘an.
This quote represent that,‖ Dia membaca bahasa Inggris seperti membaca Al-Quran, lengkap
dengan tajwid, dengung dan qalqalah. Mungkin ini berawal dari betapa cintanya dia dengan
Based on what written in the novel, faith is taught in Madani Boarding School continuously
and directly by implementing that in daily activities.
2. Islamic constructed values on Islam
Islam has a deep and large meaning but in simple ways Islam can be categorized into this
three; aqidah, syari‘ah, and tasawuf (Iman, Islam, and Ihsan)(Nasuha, 2009). Baso, one
character in this novel, is represented as the one who very diligent in praying. He also always
reads Al-Qur‘an. ―Hampir setiap waktu kami melihat Baso membaca buku pelajaran dan AlQuran dengan sungguh-sungguh. Itulah yang membuat kami heran.
photographic memorinya kami tahu pasti bahwa tanpa belajar habis-habisan seperti ini dia
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Muhammad Rosyid Husnul W
October 2015
akan tetap mudah menaklukkan ujian. Tapi dia tetap saja menghabiskan waktu untuk
belajar-mengaji-shalat, lalu bel-ajar-mengaji-shalat.‖
The most important message in this novel is about studying hard. Students are taught to love
knowledge very deeply. Many quotes and conversation describes the important of knowledge,
their effort and struggle in seeking knowledge. They are memorizing, writing, reading, and
also praying in seeking knowledge. However, they are not forgetting pray after the effort.
―Jangan dipaksakan untuk menghapal. Kalau sudah tamat sekali, ulangi lagi dari awal
sampai akhir. Lalu ulangi lagi, kali ini sambil mencontreng setiap kosa kata yang
sering dipakai. Lalu tuliskan juga di buku cat atan. Niscaya, kosa kata yang dicontreng
di kamus tadi dan yang sudah dituliskan ke buku tadi tidak akan lupa. Sayidina Ali
pernah bilang, ikatlah ilmu dengan mencatatnya. Proses mencatat itulah yang mematri
kosakata baru di kepala kita.‖
―Walau sudah belajar keras, kadang-kadang sampai pagi dan diskusi panjang lebar tentang
berbagai mata pelajaran dengan Baso dan Raja, menuliskan khulashah—kesimpulan dari
pekajaran setengah tahun di buku catatan, berdoa khusyuk siang malam, aku tetap
merasa hasil ujian selama dua pekan ini tidak sempurna. Tapi apa pun hasilnya nanti,
yang penting sekarang semuanya sudah berakhir.‖
3. Islamic constructed values on morality
Sylviyanah (2010) said that moral is the main essential thing to construct human attitudes. To
implement morality in life, it needs continuous and long life education. Madani boarding
school do this thing, morality is being ruled and implemented in daily life. Kyai Rais is
described as the one who has full of spirit, friendly, kindness, and religious. Alif as the main
character is described as helpful, friendly and also tough.
This novel teaches us how to be kind for our parent especially mother. Students in boarding
school are staying away from parents. So, they are demanding to be independent. The way
they are devoting their parents is by making them happy, studying hard, giving news or
sending letters. Kyai Rais, the leader of Madani said, ―Jadi, ibu punya posisi lebih tinggi
lagi dari pada ayah. Karena itu, beruntunglah kalian yang masih punya orangtua, karena
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October 2015
pintu pengabdian itu terbuka lebar. Bayangkan bagaimana susahnya dulu kalian
dibesarkan sampai seperti
pergunakan kesempatan sekarang ini untuk membalas budi, gembirakan mereka, beri
kabar mereka, surati mereka.
In other side, this novel presents about the blessing of unrevenged and fair. As explained that
Tyson is member of security which most of his duty to punish the one disobeying rules. Most
of his time are spent to punish and make students frightened. However, he is a regular player
inside football match. When he has a match with Alif, he does as a good player, being
sportive, fair, and asking apologize for mistakes. This is proven by ―Laa takhaf ya akhi.
Jangan takut. Saya datang bukan karena pelanggaran. Hanya untuk meminta maafkan atas
tackling kemarin,‖ katanya Menyodorkan telapak tangan. Ragu-ragu aku sambut uluran
tangannya. Dia mengayun genggamannya dua kali sambil tersenyum tipis. Sebelum aku
sempat berkomentar, dia telah menghilang di balik pintu. Walau sangar, dia ternyata sportif.‖
Coming from the deepest hearth, Alif forgives what Tyson has done.
4. Islamic constructed values on human relationship
As what are explained in introduction that human relationship is human action related to
worldly actions individually or socially. For instance renting, borrowing, planting, helping,
selling and others. (Rasjid, 2010)
In Novel Negeri Lima Menara¸ it is described that Alif and his friends have very strong
fIriendship. They usually go everywhere together, help each other, and do something together.
It is proven by this quote,‖Sadar dengan kelemahan masing-masing, aku dan Baso membuat
pakta untuk melakukan simbiosis mutualisme. Dia memastikan hapalanku benar, sementara
aku memastikan bahasa Inggrisnya bebas dari tajwid. Setiap malam Senin dan malam
Kamis, kami memastikan kasur lipat kami saling berdekatan. Aku mulai mengeja hapalan
mahfudzhat untuk besok.
Dalam gelap-gelap itu dia berbisik berkali-kali mengoreksi
hapalanku. Kalau besok ada Bahasa Inggris, giliranku yang menyimak reading-nya. Begitu
berulang-ulang sampai salah satu dari kami mulai mendengkur. Ajaib, cara ini cukup ampuh
membantuku menghapal, walau dalam beberapa hari kemudian luntur lagi.‖ It is such a lovely
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Muhammad Rosyid Husnul W
October 2015
According to above explanation, it can be concluded that by externalization, human is
society‘s product. Boarding school society teach Alif and friends to have great motivation in
seeking knowledge. In the end, they become success people with gaining academic degree
and mastering Islam as their religion. They are the living investment to create civil society.
By objectification, Madani boarding school has its own society. It constructs Islamic values,
disciplines, loving knowledge to students. It have its own rules, punishments and rewards
inside boarding school. Automatically, the most student who are studying there will face the
‗real‘ society by bringing those taught values.
By internalization, human is society‘s product. Alif which is smart, mastering foreign
language and journalism, full-motivated, tough, patient and others is the product of Madani
boarding school society. Shohibul Menara which are loving knowledge deeply and having big
dream in their future are the products of values taught by Kyai Rais and friends. Man jadda
wajada, man shobaro dlofiro and gaining knowledge by writing are some values constructed
inside their mind and hearth.
Berger, Peter L. & Thomas Luckmann. 1990. Tafsir Sosial atas Kenyataan: Risalah tentang
Sosiologi Pengetahuna (translated from the original book, The Social Construction of
Reality by Hasan Basari). Jakarta. LP3S.
Fuadi, Ahmad. 2013. Negeri Lima Menara. Jakarta: Gramedia
Rasjid, 2010. Fiqih Islam. Bandung: Sinar Baru.
Hanafi, dkk. 2002. ―Relevansi Ajaran Agama Dalam Aktivitas Ekonomi‖. Igtishod, journal
of Islamic Economics. Volume 3. Number 1. Muharam 1432 H/ March 2002.
Supratno, Haris. 2010. Sosiologi Seni, Wayang Sasak lakon Dewi Rengganis dalam Konteks
Perubahan masyarakat di Lombok. Surabaya: University Press
Muhammad Rosyid Husnul W
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