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Minggu-7 EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT-IND

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MANAJEMEN PERALATAN
Jimmy S. Juwana
E-mail: [email protected]
ALASAN UTAMA PENGGUNAAN ALAT
BERAT
•Meningkatkan produktivitas kerja
•Mengurangi biaya konstruksi secara keseluruhan
•Melaksanakan pekerjaan yang tidak mungkin
dilakukan secara manual
•Mengurangi pekerjaan manual yang menguras
tenaga yang akan mengurangi produktivitas jika
pekerja kelelahan
ALASAN UTAMA PENGGUNAAN
ALAT BERAT
(sambungan)
• Menjaga produktivas di mana tenaga
trampil/ahli terbatas
• Menjaga kemantapan mutu kerja sesuai
dengan persyaratan.
PERENCANAAN - IDENTIFIKASI
Data yang diperlukan pada saat pemilihan
peralatan
• Lingkup pekerjaan
• Lokasi proyek
• Kondisi tapak
• Kondisi infrastruktur
• Ketersediaan utilitas
• Rentang waktu pekerjaan
• Karakteristik peralatan
PEMILIHAN PERALATAN
• Alternatif peralatan
• Jenis peralatan
• Fitur peralatan
Peralatan harus aman digunakan
• Risiko kecil bagi operator
• Risiko kecil kemungkinan kesalahan operator
• Risiko kecil rusaknya peralatan kerja
• Dilengkapi perangkat otomatis pada saat kelebihan beban
BERBAGAI PERALATAN PEMINDAHAN
TANAH & GALIAN
PERALATAN PEMINDAHAN TANAH
DAN GALIAN
(dengan berbagai jenis blade)
DAUR PENGADAAN PERALATAN
• Mengindentifikasi dan mengenali peralatan pada
tahap perencanaan dan perhitungan biaya
• Menentukan persyaratan sesuai dengan kebutuhan
pekerjaan
• Menghitung jumlah peralatan yang dibutuhkan, dan
melakukan persiapan pengadaannya
• Menentukan dan proses evaluasi internal
• Membandingkan penawaran peralatan yang masuk
• Menerima dan menganalisis penawaran
DAUR PENGADAAN PERALATAN
(sambungan)
• Penjual atau sub kontraktor menyiapkan/
menyerahkan gambar kerja, contoh atau spesifikasi
teknis.
• Mengkaji ulang dan menyetujui gambar kerja,
contoh atau spesifikasi teknis oleh kontraktor dan
konsultan yang ditunjuk pemilik
• Menyiapkan/merakit peralatan oleh penjual/ sub
• Menyiapkan dokumen pengiriman peralatan
DAUR PENGADAAN PERALATAN
(sambungan)
• Pengiriman
• Penyerahan dan inspeksi
• Menyimpan dan menempatkan di lokasi
proyek
• Pabrikasi di lokasi proyek
• Pemasangan dan pengujian
• Persetujuan, penolakan, jaminan atau tindak
lanjut lainnya.
THE ROLE OF PURCHASING
MANAJEMEN PERBEKALAN
The most modern concept of rolling inventory
checking is also supported so as to have always
near perfect figures of the stock. It offers
various reports having business intelligence for
the decision support ABC Analysis, FSN
Analysis, VED Analysis, etc. out of which any
can be used which fits to the nature of the
business.
INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION
ABC Analysis
One of the widely used techniques for control of
inventories is the ABC (always better control)
analysis. The objective of ABC control is to vary
the expenses associated with maintaining
appropriate control according to the potential
savings associated with a proper level of such
control.
INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION
ABC Analysis (continued)
For example, an item having an inventory cost
of Rp. 100,000,- such as sheet steel, has a
much greater potential for saving expenses
related to maintaining inventories than an
item with a cost of Rp. 100,-. The ABC
approach is a means of categorizing inventory
items into three classes ‘A’ , ‘B’ and ‘C’,
according to the potential amount to be
controlled.
CLASSIFICATION INTO
A, B, AND C CLASSES
BASED ON THE LORENZ CURVE
INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION
The following procedure is suggested for
developing an ABC analysis:
1. List each item carried in inventory by number or
some other designation.
2. Determine the annual volume of usage and rupiah
value of each item.
3. Multiply each item’s annual volume of usage by its
rupiah value.
4. Compute each item’s percentage of the total
inventory in terms of annual usage in rupiah.
INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION
The following procedure is suggested for
developing an ABC analysis:
(continued)
5. Select the top 10% of all items which have the
highest rupiah percentages and classify them as
‘A’ items.
6. Select the next 20% of all items with the next
highest rupiah percentages and designate them as
‘B’ items.
7. The next 70% of all items with the lowest rupiah
percentages are ‘C’ items.
INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION
HML Classifications
The High, medium and Low (HML) classification
follows the same procedure as is adopted in ABC
classification. Only difference is that in HML, the
classification unit value is the criterion and not the
annual consumption value. The items of inventory
should be listed in the descending order of unit
value and it is up to the management to fix limits for
three categories.
INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION
HML Classifications (continued)
For examples, the management may decide that all
units with unit value of Rp. 2000,- and above will be
‘H’ items, Rp. 1000 to 2000 ‘M’ items and less than
Rp. 1000 ‘L’ items.
The HML analysis is useful for keeping control over
consumption at departmental levels, for deciding
the frequency of physical verification, and for
controlling purchases.
INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION
VED Classification
While in ABC, classification inventories are
classified on the basis of their consumption
value and in HML analysis the unit value is the
basis, criticality of inventories is the basis for
vital, essential and desirable categorization.
INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION
VED Classification (continued)
The VED analysis is done to determine the criticality
of an item and its effect on production and other
services. It is specially used for classification of spare
parts. If a part is vital it is given ‘V’ classification, if it
is essential, then it is given ‘E’ classification and if it is
not so essential, the part is given ‘D’ classification. For
‘V’ items, a large stock of inventory is generally
maintained, while for ‘D’ items, minimum stock is
enough.
INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION
SDE Classification
The SDE analysis is based upon the availability of items
and is very useful in the context of scarcity of supply.
In this analysis, ‘S’ refers to ‘scarce’ items, generally
imported, and those which are in short supply. ‘D’
refers to difficult items which are available
indigenously but are difficult items to procure. Items
which have to come from distant places or for which
reliable suppliers are difficult to come by fall into ‘D’
category. ‘E’ refers to items which are easy to acquire
and which are available in the local markets.
INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION
SDE Classification (continued)
The SDE classification, based on problems
faced in procurement, is vital to the lead
time analysis and in deciding on purchasing
strategies.
INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION
FSN Analysis
FSN stands for fast moving, slow moving and nonmoving. Here, classification is based on the pattern of
issues from stores and is useful in controlling
obsolescence.
To carry out an FSN analysis, the date of receipt or the
last date of issue, whichever is later, is taken to
determine the number of months, which have lapsed
since the last transaction. The items are usually
grouped in periods of 12 months.
INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION
FSN Analysis (continued)
FSN analysis is helpful in identifying active items
which need to be reviewed regularly and
surplus items which have to be examined
further. Non-moving items may be examined
further and their disposal can be considered.
SCHEDULE & COST CONTROL
SCHEDULE & COST CONTROL
SCHEDULE & COST CONTROL
SCHEDULE & COST CONTROL
EQUIPMENT RATING EVALUATION
CRITERIA OF SELECTING:
• Capacity & Durability of Equipment
• Equipment needed
• After sales service
• Availability of spare parts
• Easy to maintain
• Flexibility of Equipment
• Easy to move
• Future usage
• Equipment Demand & Resale Value
• Delivery Time
VENDOR RATING CRITERIA
• Pricing Factors
(competitive pricing, price stability, price accuracy, advance notice of price
changes, sensitive costs, and billing)
• Quality Factors
(compliance with PO, Conformity to spec., reliability, reliability of repairs,
durability, support, warranty, and state-of-the-art product/service)
• Delivery Factors
(time, quantity, lead time, packaging, documentation, and emergency
delivery)
• Service Factors
(good vendor representatives have sincere desire to service, inside sales,
technical support, emergency support, and problem resolution)
VENDOR RATING EVALUATION
EXAMPLE OF METHOD OF EVALUATION
Using 7 C’s Approach:
NO
ITEM
Weight
1
Competency
Max. 5
2
Capacity
Max. 5
3
Commitment
Max. 5
4
Control
Max. 5
5
Cash Resources
Max. 5
6
Cost
Max. 5
7
Consistency
Max. 5
Total Point
Max. 35
Vendor A
Vendor B
Vendor C
BUYING, RENTING OR LEASING
OF EQUIPMENT
Depend upon:
• Company policy
• Scope of work for each equipment
• Availability of cash liquidity
• Forecasting of cash flow
• Availability of Equipment
BUYING OF EQUIPMENT
•
•
•
•
•
•
Price of Equipment
Tariff & Tax
Other Government Retribution
Freight & Insurance Costs
Testing & Commissioning Costs
Modification or Repairing Costs (if any)
CONSIDERATION OF BUYING
EQUIPMENT
• Purchase expense
• Salvage Value
• Tax Saving from Depreciation
• Major repairs and Overhauls
• Property Taxes
• Insurance
• Storage and Miscellaneous
LEASING OF EQUIPMENT
• Full time rental with buying possibility after
a certain period
• Monthly or 6-monthly installment (usually
2/ or ¾ of equipment’s life time):
3
- Investment cost
- Interest cost
• Ownership at the end of rent period
(payout value)
RENTING OF EQUIPMENT
•
•
•
•
•
Mob & De-mob costs
Pre Assembling cost
Operator (optional)
Dismantle costs
Fuel costs
CONSIDERATION OF LEASING &
RENTING EQUIPMENT
• Infllow initially of the equipment value
of the machine
• Outflow of the periodic lease payments
• Tax shielding provided by the lease
payments
• Loss of salvage value when the
equipment is returned to the lessor
ELEMENT OF OPERATING COST
• Fuel
• Lubricants, Filters, and Grease
• Repairs
• Tires
• Replacement of High Wear Items
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTEGES
BUYING
LEASING
RENTING
GUARANTEES
CONTROL
EQUIPMENT
AVAILABILITY &
MECHANICAL
CONDITION
FLEXIBLE FINANCIAL
AGREEMENT:
-Buy the equipment at
fair market value
-Renew the lease
- Return the equipment to
the leasing company
PICK SUITABLE
EQUIPMENT, ESPECIALLY
FOR SHORT DURATION OR
IF THE COMPANY DOES
NOT FORESEE A
CONTINUING NEED
TAX SAVING FROM
DEPRECIATION
WORKING CAPITAL IS NOT
TIED UP IN EQUIPMENT (if
company borrows funds
to purchase an
equipment)
LOSS THE TAX
DEPRECIATION, BUT
GAINS A TAX DEDUCTION
(because rental payments
are treated as an expense)
OWNING &
OPERATION COSTS
ADVANCE LEASE PAYMENT REPAIR COST DEPENDS ON
AND SECURITY DEPOSIT
AGREEMENT
FURTHER READING
• Chudley, R. (1999); Advanced Construction Technology 3rd Edition,
Longman, Essex.
• Cross, N. (1994); Engineering Design Methods 2nd Edition, John Wiley &
Sons, Chichester.
• Evianto, W.I. (2004); Teori – Aplikasi Manajemen Konstruksi, Penerbit
Andi, Yogyakarta
• D.S. Barrie & B.C. Poulson (1992); Professional Construction
Management 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill International Editions, Ne York.
• Frick, H. (1990); Peralatan Pembangunan – Konstruksi, Penggunaan dan
Pemeliharaan, Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta.
• Hoppe, M. (2006); Inventory Optimization with SAP; Galileo Press,
Hamburg.
• R.L. Peurifoy, C.J. Schexnayder & A. Shapira (2006); Construction
Planning, Equipment & Methods 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
THANK YOU
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