Writing Thesis Proposals (02) Source: The Graduate Writing Center of the Center for Excellence in Writing Pemecahan Masalah Titik 1 n Gambarlah empat garis lurus yang menghubungkan sembilan titik di bawah ini tanpa mengangkat alat tulis Anda dari kertas o o o o o o o o o Goals u To introduce strategies for bridging the gap between coursework/beginning research and thesis writing. u To help you understand the rhetorical situation of the thesis proposal and common elements of such proposals. u To introduce practical rhetorical and grammatical principles of writing effective proposals. u To provide you with tips for drafting and revising individual sections of the proposal. Writing a Proposal: Developing a Focused Project Writing Thesis Proposals: The Big Picture Your proposal describes your proposed plan of work: u u u u u What you intend to study (scope and research questions). How you intend to study your topic (methodology). Why this topic needs to be studied (significance). When you will complete this work (timeline). (Occasionally) Where you will conduct this work. Writing Thesis Proposal Purpose: u Justify and plan (or contract for) a research project. u Show how your project contributes to existing research. u Demonstrate that you understand how to conduct discipline-specific research in an acceptable time-frame. Audience: u your academic advisor and committee Proposal Writing and Anxiety: General Advice u Establish a writing schedule. u Begin by free-writing. u Keep a small notebook with you to write down relevant thoughts. u Say parts of your writing into a recording device. u Compose different parts in different computer files or on different index cards. u Start with more “clear cut” sections first. Proposal Writing and Anxiety: Proposal-specific Advice u Understand that the proposal will be negotiated--be prepared to revise! u Think of the proposal as an introduction to your thesis or dissertation. u Remember that the proposal is not a binding contract. u Remember that your proposal is not meant to limit ideas, but to help you think practically. u Ask colleagues to form a writing group. u Talk to your advisor! Parts of a Proposal u Title u Methodology u Abstract u u Introduction/Background Significance/ Implications u Problem Statement u Overview of Chapters u Purpose/Aims/Rationale/ Research Questions u Plan of Work u Bibliography u Review of Literature Tips on Titles, from “Piled Higher and Deeper” Creating a Working Title u Orient your readers to your research topic. u Indicate the type of study you will conduct. Abstract u Provide a brief (100-350 word) overview of the proposal u Summarize important elements (Introduction, Statement of the Problem, Background of the Study, Research Questions or Hypotheses, and Methods and Procedures). Tips for successful writing 1. Plan to write regularly 2. Make a time plan and stick to it 3. Write up section as soon as it’s ready 4. Stop writing at a point where you could go on – makes it easier to start next time! 5. Decide where and when best for you 6. Don’t write when exhausted 7. Seek support Steps in Thesis Writing 1. Background 2. Ideas 3. Planning 4. Writing Demystifying Dissertation Writing Peg Boyle Single Background why? – preconceptions - starting Why do we write u A professional thesis writer? u Learn how to write u Learn how to think u Learn how to conduct research u Plus much more Preconceptions u It takes 6 months u You do it at the end u You can cut and paste from papers u No one will read it When do I start? Immediately – keep a journal Where do I start? Read theses Do the groundwork Ideas message – title – abstract Start with…. A focus statement…. • The essence of your research • 1-4 sentences • Get feedback on it • Discuss with supervisor Then develop an abstract A tool to think about your thesis/research u 100-300 words u Structure u Precise, clear & interesting SPSE Technique Situation: Describe the general background / setting in which your research takes place u Problem: Describe a problem that the research addresses. u Solution: What did you do or try to address this problem? u Evaluation: How did you evaluate the proposed solution and what were the results? u Individually complete 5 mins 5 / Brown’s 8 Questions 1. Who are the intended readers? (name 3-5) 2. What did you do? (50 words) 3. Why did you do it? (50) 4. What happened? (50) 5. What do the results mean in theory? (50) 6. What do the results mean in practice? (50) 7. What is the key benefit for readers? (25) 8. What remains unresolved? (50) (Brown 1994/95) RESEARCH PROPOSAL Any research study should have a proper proposal in written form before it is actually carried out u It is like a blue print of a building plan before the construction starts u uWriting a research proposal is both science and art uA good research proposal is based on scientific facts and on the art of clear communication Writing a formal research proposal should be started by the time one has decided on the topic for the study u u u u u u u u u Objective Justification Introduction Review of literature Methodology Time frame and work schedule/Gantt chart Personnel needed / available Facilities needed / available Budget Objectives This is a very important and pivotal section and everything else in the study is centered around it u The objective of the proposed study should be stated very clearly u The objective stated should be specific, achievable and measurable u Too many objectives to be avoided u Even just one clearly stated relevant objective for a study would be good enough u If there is more than one objective the objectives can be presented in the appropriate order of importance u Introduction u The problem proposed to be studied is introduced in this section u It should help the reader to acquaint with the topic Introduction/Background u Establish the general territory (real world or research). u Describe the broad foundations of your study— provide sufficient background for readers. u Indicate the general scope of your project. u Provide an overview of the sections that will appear in your proposal (optional). u Engage the readers. Statement of the Problem u Answer the question: “What is the gap that needs to be filled?” and/or “What is the problem that needs to be solved?” u State the problem clearly early in a paragraph. u Limit the variables you address in stating your problem or question. u Consider framing the problem as a question. Purpose/Aims/Rationale/Research Questions u Explain the goals and research objectives of the study. u Show the original contributions of your study. u Provide a more detailed account of the points summarized in the introduction. u Include a rationale for the study. u Be clear about what your study will not address. Purpose/Aims/Rationale/Research Questions (cont’d) In addition, this section may: u Describe the research questions and/or hypotheses of the study. u Include a subsection defining important terms. u State limitations of the research. u Provide a rationale for the particular subjects of the study. Review of Literature Writing the literature review allows you to understand: u How other scholars have written about your topic. u The range of theories used to analyze materials or data u How other scholars connect their specific research topics to larger issues, questions, or practices within the field. u The best methodologies and research techniques for your particular topic.