Group 5 18020154010 Agita Nurul Arofah 18020154022 Titis Tri Ningtyas 18020154025 Annisa Febriana 18020154026 MEMBERS OF GROUP Davita Soimatul Fauziah 02 ADAPTATION FREE TRANSLATION 03 04 IDIOMATIC TRANSLATION COMMUNICATIVE TRANSLATION TABLE OF CONTENTS 01 01 ADAPTATION DEFINITION Adaptation is the ‘’freest’ form of the translation. It is used mainly for plays (comedies and poetry). The themes, characters, plots are usually preserved. The source language (SL) culture converted to the target language (TL) culture and the text rewritten. Source Language Target Languange Cinderella Bawang Merah Bawang Putih After I watched Nightmare on Cat Street, I couldn’t sleep for a week! Pernah sehabis nonton Hantu Rumah Pondok Kucing, seminggu penuh aku tak bisa tidur! Hey Jude, don’t make it bad Take a sad song and make it better Remember to let her into your heart Then you can start to make it better (Hey Jude-The Beatles) Kasih, dimanakah Mengapa kau tinggalkan aku Ingatlah-ingatlah kau padaku Janji setiamu tak kan kulupa EXAMPLES In adaptation, the translator works on changing the content form of SL in a way that conform to the form of language and culture in the TL. In addition, it is used as an effective way to deal with culturally bound words or expression, methapors and images in translation. 02 FREE TRANSLATION Newmark (1988:47) stated that free translation tries to reproduce the content of the original text into the target language without pay attention in its original form. In short, the text is paraphrasing, and adding with some supported information which doesn’t exist in the original text but still In the context Free Translation Method This method was used to help the readers understand better about the content rather than form of the source language. As a result, free translation was usually in the form of paraphrasing, which made the translation version was longer than the original version. Although, it made the content of the source language more easily to understand by the readers. Sometimes the result of the translation was not like the form of translation version since the target language was longer than the source language. The Characteristics Of Free Translation 02 01 the linguistic structure does not become important because the emphasis is more on the equivalence of meaning. In this type, the translator may add or omit some words if it is necessary. 03 the translator should be familiar with target language and culture, and should be free from “fixed meaning” of any given word, so the translator works mostly in message, not single code units and tries to render cultural concepts into target language and culture. Target Language (TL) Source Language (SL) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sambil menyelam minum air. You have to pull in your belt Helps boost skin’s natural whitening ability from deep inside Plant with tall leaves like arrow heads I will learn the lines on my own Do not you get it? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Killing two birds with one stones. Kencangkan ikat pinggangmu Membantu mencerahkan kulit dari dalam Tumbuhan dengan dedaunan yang Panjang dan lancip. Aku akan menghafal naskahnya sendiri Kau masih juga belum mengerti ya? THE COMPARISON Free Translation English Sentences Literal Translation His heart is in the right place Hatinya berada di tempat yang benar Do not you get it? tidak kah kau mendapatkannya kau masih juga belum mengerti, ya? You have to pull in your belt Anda harus menarik ikat pinggang Anda Kencangkan ikat pinggangmu Dia baik hati 03 Idiom Expression Frozen pattern of language Allow little or no variation in form Cannot be deduced from individual components When does misinterpreting idiom happen? 1. When they seem transparent because literal interpretation is make sense and the idiomatic meanings are not necessarily signaled in surrounding text. Source language You’ve been taken for a ride! Target language Kamu telah ditipu! 2. An idiom from source language may have very close counterpart in the target language, it looks similar in the surface but has totally different meaning. Source language What’s wrong? Has the cat got your tongue? (English) Target language Meaning: Ada apa? Kok diam saja? Meaning: OK, aku menyerah. Alors, je donne ma langue au chat. (French. To give one’s tongue to cat) Strategies to overcome difficulties of idiomatic translation 1. Using an idiom of similar meaning and form Source language Target language Nobody expected him to be a coldblooded murderer Tak seorangpun menyangka ia adalah pembunuh berdarah dingin 2. Using an idiom of similar meaning but dissimilar form Source language Target language He was tired and he was not a kind of person who beat about the bush. Ia lelah dan dia bukan tipe orang yang suka berbasa-basi. 3. Translation by paraphrase Source language Target language This is not the time to lie down on the job Sekarang bukan saatnya untuk mengabaikan tugas 4. Translation by omission Source language Target language I kick my car again for good measure Aku menendang mobilku lagi. 04 Communicative Translation COMMUNICATIVE TRANSLATION ● ● ● ● Communicative translation is a translation method that attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the source language so that both content and language readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. The method was created by Peter Newmark who was one of the main figures in the founding of translation process Communicative translation focuses on factors such as readability and naturalness, and is appropriate to translations of pragmatic texts where the actual form of the original is not closely bound to its intended meaning. Communicative translation is likely to be smother, simpler, clearer, more direct, more conventional, conforming to a particular register of language and tending to under translate. Communicative translation is freer, and gives priority to the effectiveness of the message to be communicated. Example 1 awas anjing galak! It can translate become: (a) beware of dog! (b) Beware of the vicious dog! Instead use B, we use A because A was beckon that the dog is vicious. It also makes sentence simpler. Example 2 Keep off the grass! It can translate become: (a) Jauhi rumput ini (b) Dilarang berjalan diatas rumput In communicative translation we use B because the sentence is more acceptable and clearer. If we use A, it is not clear why we should stay away from the grass. 4 Components of Translator Communicative Competence ● ● ● ● ● The translator need to be able to do in order to translate, his approach would lead as to. Attempt the specify translator communicative competence which would consist of four components 1. Grammatical competence: knowledge of the rules of the code. Including vocabulary and word formatting. Pronunciation/spelling and sentence structure. 2. Sociolinguistic competence: knowledge of and ability to produce and understand utterances appropriately in context. 3. Discourse Competence: the ability to combine form and meaning to achieve unified spoken and written in different genre: this unity depends on cohesion in from and coherence in meaning. 4. Strategic Competence: the mastery of communication strategic which may be used to improve communication or to compensate for break downs. Characteristics of Communicative Translation 1) Reader centered. 2) Pursues author’s intention. 3) Related to speech. Adapts and makes the thought and cultural content original more accessible to reader. 4) Effect-oriented. Formal features or original sacrificed more readily. 5) Faithful, freer. 6) Effective. 7) Easy reading, more natural, smoother, simpler, clearer, more direct, more conventional, confirming to particular register of language but longer. 8) Social. 9) Target language biased. 10) Under translated: use of ‘hold-all’ term. 11) Less powerful. 12) Maybe better than original because gain in force and clarity, despite loss in semantic content. Characteristics of Communicative Translation 13) Ephemeral and rooted in its context,’ existential’. 14) ‘Tailor-made’ or targeted for one category or readership; does one job, fulfils one particular function. 15) A certain embroidering, a stylistic synonymy, a discreet modulation is condoned, provided the facts are straight and the reader is suitably impressed. 16) The translator has the right to correct and improve the logic and style of the original, clarify the ambiguities, jargons, normalize bizarre personal usage. 17) The translator can correct mistakes of facts in original. 18) Target: a ‘happy’ version, i.e. a successful act. 19) Unit of translating: tends to sentences and paragraph. 20) Applicable to impersonal texts. 21) Basically the work of the translating is a craft. 22) Sometimes the product of a translation team. 23) Conforms the ‘universalist’ position, assuming that exact translation maybe possible. 24) More consider to the message than meaning The Ideal Translation The success of translation is measured by how closely it measures up to these ideas. Then, the ideal translation should be: 1) Accurate: reproducing as exactly as possible the meaning of the source text. 2) Natural: using natural forms of the receptor language in a way that is appropriate to the kind of text being translated. 3) Communicative: expressing all aspects of the meaning in a way that is readily understandable to the intended audience. THANKS!