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Citations References-2

Why should you cite?
What should you cite?
Where can you find citations/references?
Paraphrasing and quoting
What goes into a reference?
Citation styles
Reference management tools
Important definitions
A citation is a mention of the original source (article, book, website, etc.) in the main text
of a document.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers and is the most common malignant brain
tumor in adults, counting for nearly half of the 23,000 patients diagnosed with CNS cancers every year
the United list
[1]. The current
of list
GBM, established
in 2005,
to a standard
at theincludes,
end of after
maximal surgical rejection, temozolomide (TMZ)-based chemotherapy in combination with radiation
therapy [2]. However, median patient survival does not exceed 15 months after diagnosis, due to
recurrence and lack of treatments [3]
A reference list corresponds to a complete list of citations, appearing at the end of the
1. Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A: Cancer statistics, 2013. CA Cancer J Clin 2013; 63: 11-30.
2. Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, Weller M, Fisher B, Taphoorn MJ, Belanger K, Brandes AA, Marosi C,
Bogdahn U, Curschmann J, Janzer RC, Ludwin SK, Gorlia T, Allgeier A, Lacombe D, Cairncross JG, Eisenhauer E,
Mirimanoff RO, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor and Radiotherapy
Groups, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group: Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant
temozolomide for glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 987-996.
3. Weller M, Wick W, Aldape K, Brada M, Berger M, Pfister S, Nishikawa R, Rosenthal M, Wen PY, Stupp R,
Reifenberger G. Glioma. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2015; 1: 15017
Important definitions
A bibliography is a list of additional materials not mentioned in the text, but
supplementary to it.
Plagiarism is passing someone’s work as your own without obtaining permission or
acknowledging their contribution.
Why should you cite?
Shows adherence to academic writing standards
Shows respect for and acknowledges the work of other
scholars (thereby avoiding plagiarism)
Helps provide evidence to back your claims
Provides evidence that you have read and considered
the relevant literature
Gives credibility to your work
Helps others trace the source of your work
Facilitates literature survey
What should you cite?
Quotes by another person – direct or interpreted
Original research articles, books, websites, data repositories
Statistics from another source (e.g., population, results of
Tables, figures, diagrams, or images created by someone
Controversial facts, opinions, or dates from another source.
Data that you use for meta-analysis.
What you do not need to cite?
• Your own observations or experimental results
• Your own experiences (for example, in a reflective
• Your own thoughts, comments or conclusions from a
• You own evaluation or analysis
• ‘Common knowledge’ or folklore
Figures – cite or seek permission?
If you have designed an original figure
based on material available elsewhere
Just cite the source appropriately, you
don’t need to seek permission
If you are using the original
figure/modifying it
Check the copyright information on the
journal’s page
If the copyrights are with the publisher
Write to the publisher seeking
permission. It would also be polite to email the author (although this is not
If the copyrights are with the author
Write to the author seeking permission
Be careful about what/how you cite!
Literature reviews
Although review articles are a brilliant source of knowledge, it is best
to cite the original research article to rightfully give credit to the
authors who actually did all the work.
Keeping it current
Ensure that you have cited the most up-to-date sources.
Not the most dependable source; the content changes over a period of
time and is not fully trustworthy. Therefore, it is best not to cite it.
It is now becoming common to cite data. The FORCE11 website
provides necessary citation guidelines.
Maintaining Originality
Literature Reviews
While it is appropriate to survey previously published work, it is not appropriate
to paraphrase the same information with extensive similarity.
Tip: Most of the plagiarism occurs in the literature review section of any document
(manuscript, thesis, etc.). Therefore, paraphrase effectively without forgetting to cite the
original source.
Caution: The above statement is valid only for the literature review section of your
document. You should NEVER EVER use someone else’s original results and pass them off
as yours!
How many references are enough?
“As many as you need”
However, there are a few factors you need to consider
• The type of research article
• Journal’s requirements
• Length of the paper
• Area of research
Where can you find references? (1/2)
Abstracting and Indexing (A&I) services?
The availability of journals through A&I services is a clear indication
of a journal’s credibility. Citations for relevant articles can be
searched and obtained from these services.
• PubMed
• SciFinder
• Scopus
• Web of Science
• IEEE Xplore
• CiteSeerX
Where can you find references? (2/2)
PubMed is a free search engine used to browse articles and
abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. It can also be used
to download citations into your citation manager.
How can you find references?
Paraphrasing and quoting (1/3)
• Paraphrasing is expressing the meaning of something (written or spoken) using
different words.
• There is a fine line between plagiarism and paraphrasing. If the wording of the
paraphrase is too close to that of the original content, then it is plagiarism.
Original content
Critical care nurses function in a hierarchy of roles. In this open heart surgery unit,
the nurse manager hires and fires the nursing personnel. The nurse manager does
not directly care for patients but follows the progress of unusual or long-term
Word-for-Word Plagiarism
Critical care nurses have a hierarchy of roles. The nurse manager hires and fires
nurses. S/he does not directly care for patients but does follow unusual or long-term
Paraphrasing and quoting (2/3)
Patchwork Paraphrase
Chase (1995) describes how nurses in a critical care unit function in a hierarchy that
places designated experts at the top and the least senior staff nurses at the bottom. The
nurse managers are involved in nurse hiring and firing. Although not involved directly in
patient care, they may follow unusual or long-term cases.
Legitimate Paraphrase
In her study of the roles of nurses in a critical care unit, Chase (1995) found a hierarchy
that distinguished the roles of experts and others. The roles of the expert nurse managers
included employing unit nurses and overseeing the care of special patients.
Read the paragraph first, make notes and compile those notes.
Change structure and re-word.
Correctly mention the original source.
Remember you can use quotes.
Paraphrasing and quoting (3/3)
Quotations are generally used
• To include especially moving or historically significant language.
• To present a particularly well-stated passage whose meaning would be lost if
Use ellipsis points (. . .) to indicate an omission within a quotation--but not
at the beginning or end unless it's not obvious that you're quoting only a
portion of the whole.
Within quotations, use square brackets [ ] (not parentheses) to add your
own clarification, comment, or correction.
Use [sic] (meaning "so" or "thus") to indicate that a mistake is in the source
you're quoting and is not your own.
Plagiarism (1/3)
• Plagiarism is the passing off someone else’s
work as your own without their permission
or acknowledging their contribution.
• If detected, this can have serious
consequences and must be avoided at all
• If detected post-publication, then a
publisher may retract that publication
(based on COPE guidelines).
Plagiarism (2/3)
Direct plagiarism
Intentional word-for-word transcription of someone else’s work
without acknowledging their contribution.
Unacknowledged re-use of one's
own work.
Mosaic plagiarism
Unacknowledged use of poorly
paraphrased content.
Accidental plagiarism
Unintentional use of content
without citing sources or
misquoting them.
Plagiarism (3/3)
Tools to detect plagiarism
• A crude way to check for plagiarism is to do a Google search.
• There are several sophisticated tools used by publishers to detect
similarity to previously published material.
• Similarity levels of up to 10% (mostly accidental) generally
considered to be acceptable by publishers.
What goes into a reference? (1/2)
References and citations are written in different styles, according
to the discipline and preferences of the journal. All styles begin
with certain basic components.
• Author(s)
• Title of the work
• Second title (where there is one)
• Journal
• Publication Date/Year
• Volume (and Issue)
• Page number(s)
What goes into a reference? (2/2)
Other details will depend on the item being referenced and
the referencing style used.
• Editor/Translator/other
• Date accessed: When you
contributor: Used in place of
looked at an online item. This
author for some types of
is often handy to know, even
if your referencing style
doesn’t require it.
• URL or web address: For
online items.
• DOI: Where there is one (NB
only one of URL/DOI may be
Citation styles (1/6)
• Citation style dictates the
information that goes into a citation
as well as how it is ordered and
• The citation style used is governed by
the discipline or area of research.
• When writing an article, refer to the
author guidelines to understand the
style followed by the journal.
Citation styles and style guides (2/6)
• Modern Language Association (MLA)
• Chicago Author-Date/Turabian
Social Sciences
• American Psychological Association (APA)
• Harvard (especially for students)
• Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
• American Chemical Society (ACS)
Citation styles (3/6)
Numerical referencing (Vancouver referencing)
• This style is used extensively in medicine and physical
• Generally, when a cited item is repeated, the number used is
the same as in the first mention – this prevents duplicate
• Style guides may recommend specific placements for numbers
along with parentheses, superscripting.
Previous research1 indicates that…
• Style guides that use Vancouver referencing: American
Chemical Society (ACS), Institute for Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE), American Medical Association (AMA).
Citation styles (4/6)
Citing different sources using Vancouver referencing
1. Mangan J, Lalwani C, Butcher T. Global logistics and supply chain
management. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley; 2011.
1. Gaudin S. How moon landing changed technology history [Internet].
Computerworld UK. 2009 [cited 15 June 2014]. Available from:
Research articles
1. Syrett S, Sepulveda L. Urban governance and economic development in
the diverse city. European Urban and Regional Studies. 2012; 19(3): 238253. doi: 10.1177/0969776411430287
Citation styles (5/6)
Author-date referencing (Harvard referencing)
• In this style, the citation consists of the author’s last name
and the date placed at the end of the sentence in parenthesis.
Advice to co-authors is that they should talk about authorship credit
issues at the beginning of their collaboration (Smith, 2003).
• The list is typically organized in an alphabetical order as per
the author’s last names.
• Examples of style guides that use Harvard referencing:
American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language
Association (MLA), and Chicago Manual of Style.
Citation styles (6/6)
Citing different sources using Harvard referencing
Karskens, G 1997, The Rocks: life in early Sydney, Melbourne University
Press, Carlton.
International Narcotics Control Board 1999, United Nations, accessed 1
October 1999, http://www.incb.org
Research articles
Kozulin, A., 1993. Literature as a psychological tool. Educational
Psychologist, 28(3), pp. 253-264. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep2803_5
Endnotes and footnotes
• Endnotes appear at the end of a document, whereas
Footnotes appear at the bottom of a page, table, etc.
• Footnotes and Endnotes are numbered consecutively
throughout the manuscript.
• Endnotes are most commonly used for the reference section,
whereas Footnotes are mostly used to insert small notes at the
bottom of a page or table.
• Authors need to refer to the journal guidelines to select an
appropriate style for Footnotes and Endnotes.
Using citations in the main text
Beginning of a sentence
• Zizek (2015) argues that… OR According to Zizek (2015), …
• In his most recent book, Zizek (2015) makes a case for…
End of the sentence
… as shown in a study conducted by the University of
Melbourne (Davis, 2015)
… as reported by/according to Davis (2015)
Some reporting verbs
investigated, found, reported, suggested, proposed, defined, claimed,
challenged, explored, revealed, analyzed, speculated, recommended,
hypothesized, advised, explored, assessed
• Self-citation occurs when authors cite their own work.
• Nowadays, major industry players have sophisticated tools to identify
instances of excessive self-citation (e.g., A Nature blog article mentions that 66
journals were banned from Web of Science for excessive self-citation).
• Self-citation could be specific to author/journal/co-author/publisher
You can cite your previous work if
Your current study is a continuation of the previous study or builds upon it.
You are building a coherent piece of work in a given field.
The ratio of the number self-cites to external ones is comparable to that of
others in your field.
Reference management tools (2/4)
• Freemium tool (similar to Zotero), but you
can install an add-on for other types of
• Allows storage of just 100 references for
free, and require paid access for >100.
• Provides a search tool that accesses the
records of >4,000 subscription databases.
Reference management tools (3/4)
• Free and fairly basic level reference manager.
• Has a Safari plugin as well as a desktop version.
• Allows storage up to 300 MB and can be
• Good for saving references directly from the
• A premium, highly sophisticated reference
manager that works both online and on your
• Create bibliographies in >6,000 different styles.
• Allows import of fairly complete and accurate
metadata records from subscription databases.
• Can be integrated with Microsoft Word.
Reference management tools (4/4)
• You can use a basic, free version of Mendeley,
or a premium, paid-for version
• Compatible with web browsers, desktops and
as app for smartphones and tablets
• Particularly good when working with other
research groups
• Allows sharing and annotating of documents
• Create a profile to describe your research
interests on Mendeley and build connections
• Mendeley has uploaded an easy-tounderstand video on YouTube:
Final tip!
• If you’ve written your
paper, cited others and
you’ve been (hopefully)
accepted for
• Send your paper to the
people you’ve cited.
• This helps to promote
your research and build
valuable connections!
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