Agenda Definitions Why should you cite? What should you cite? Where can you find citations/references? Paraphrasing and quoting Plagiarism What goes into a reference? Citation styles Reference management tools Important definitions Citation A citation is a mention of the original source (article, book, website, etc.) in the main text of a document. Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers and is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults, counting for nearly half of the 23,000 patients diagnosed with CNS cancers every year the United list States . The current of list careoffor GBM, established in 2005, Ainreference corresponds to a standard complete citations, appearing at theincludes, end of after the maximal surgical rejection, temozolomide (TMZ)-based chemotherapy in combination with radiation document. therapy . However, median patient survival does not exceed 15 months after diagnosis, due to recurrence and lack of treatments  Reference A reference list corresponds to a complete list of citations, appearing at the end of the document. References 1. Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A: Cancer statistics, 2013. CA Cancer J Clin 2013; 63: 11-30. 2. Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, Weller M, Fisher B, Taphoorn MJ, Belanger K, Brandes AA, Marosi C, Bogdahn U, Curschmann J, Janzer RC, Ludwin SK, Gorlia T, Allgeier A, Lacombe D, Cairncross JG, Eisenhauer E, Mirimanoff RO, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor and Radiotherapy Groups, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group: Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 987-996. 3. Weller M, Wick W, Aldape K, Brada M, Berger M, Pfister S, Nishikawa R, Rosenthal M, Wen PY, Stupp R, Reifenberger G. Glioma. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2015; 1: 15017 Important definitions Bibliography A bibliography is a list of additional materials not mentioned in the text, but supplementary to it. Plagiarism Plagiarism is passing someone’s work as your own without obtaining permission or acknowledging their contribution. Why should you cite? Shows adherence to academic writing standards Shows respect for and acknowledges the work of other scholars (thereby avoiding plagiarism) Helps provide evidence to back your claims Provides evidence that you have read and considered the relevant literature Gives credibility to your work Helps others trace the source of your work Facilitates literature survey What should you cite? Quotes by another person – direct or interpreted Original research articles, books, websites, data repositories Statistics from another source (e.g., population, results of surveys). Tables, figures, diagrams, or images created by someone else. Controversial facts, opinions, or dates from another source. Data that you use for meta-analysis. What you do not need to cite? • Your own observations or experimental results • Your own experiences (for example, in a reflective journal) • Your own thoughts, comments or conclusions from a project • You own evaluation or analysis • ‘Common knowledge’ or folklore Figures – cite or seek permission? Situation If you have designed an original figure based on material available elsewhere Action Just cite the source appropriately, you don’t need to seek permission If you are using the original figure/modifying it Check the copyright information on the journal’s page If the copyrights are with the publisher Write to the publisher seeking permission. It would also be polite to email the author (although this is not necessary) If the copyrights are with the author Write to the author seeking permission Be careful about what/how you cite! Literature reviews Although review articles are a brilliant source of knowledge, it is best to cite the original research article to rightfully give credit to the authors who actually did all the work. Keeping it current Ensure that you have cited the most up-to-date sources. Wikipedia Not the most dependable source; the content changes over a period of time and is not fully trustworthy. Therefore, it is best not to cite it. Data It is now becoming common to cite data. The FORCE11 website provides necessary citation guidelines. Maintaining Originality Literature Reviews While it is appropriate to survey previously published work, it is not appropriate to paraphrase the same information with extensive similarity. TIPS Tip: Most of the plagiarism occurs in the literature review section of any document (manuscript, thesis, etc.). Therefore, paraphrase effectively without forgetting to cite the original source. Caution: The above statement is valid only for the literature review section of your document. You should NEVER EVER use someone else’s original results and pass them off as yours! How many references are enough? “As many as you need” However, there are a few factors you need to consider • The type of research article • Journal’s requirements • Length of the paper • Area of research Where can you find references? (1/2) Abstracting and Indexing (A&I) services? The availability of journals through A&I services is a clear indication of a journal’s credibility. Citations for relevant articles can be searched and obtained from these services. • PubMed • SciFinder • Scopus • Web of Science • IEEE Xplore • ISI • EMBASE • CiteSeerX Where can you find references? (2/2) PubMed is a free search engine used to browse articles and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. It can also be used to download citations into your citation manager. How can you find references? Paraphrasing and quoting (1/3) Paraphrasing • Paraphrasing is expressing the meaning of something (written or spoken) using different words. • There is a fine line between plagiarism and paraphrasing. If the wording of the paraphrase is too close to that of the original content, then it is plagiarism. Original content Critical care nurses function in a hierarchy of roles. In this open heart surgery unit, the nurse manager hires and fires the nursing personnel. The nurse manager does not directly care for patients but follows the progress of unusual or long-term patients. Word-for-Word Plagiarism Critical care nurses have a hierarchy of roles. The nurse manager hires and fires nurses. S/he does not directly care for patients but does follow unusual or long-term cases. Paraphrasing and quoting (2/3) Patchwork Paraphrase Chase (1995) describes how nurses in a critical care unit function in a hierarchy that places designated experts at the top and the least senior staff nurses at the bottom. The nurse managers are involved in nurse hiring and firing. Although not involved directly in patient care, they may follow unusual or long-term cases. Legitimate Paraphrase In her study of the roles of nurses in a critical care unit, Chase (1995) found a hierarchy that distinguished the roles of experts and others. The roles of the expert nurse managers included employing unit nurses and overseeing the care of special patients. TIPS Read the paragraph first, make notes and compile those notes. Change structure and re-word. Correctly mention the original source. Remember you can use quotes. Paraphrasing and quoting (3/3) Quoting Quotations are generally used • To include especially moving or historically significant language. • To present a particularly well-stated passage whose meaning would be lost if paraphrased. TIPS Use ellipsis points (. . .) to indicate an omission within a quotation--but not at the beginning or end unless it's not obvious that you're quoting only a portion of the whole. Within quotations, use square brackets [ ] (not parentheses) to add your own clarification, comment, or correction. Use [sic] (meaning "so" or "thus") to indicate that a mistake is in the source you're quoting and is not your own. Plagiarism (1/3) • Plagiarism is the passing off someone else’s work as your own without their permission or acknowledging their contribution. • If detected, this can have serious consequences and must be avoided at all costs. • If detected post-publication, then a publisher may retract that publication (based on COPE guidelines). Plagiarism (2/3) Direct plagiarism Intentional word-for-word transcription of someone else’s work without acknowledging their contribution. Self-plagiarism Unacknowledged re-use of one's own work. Mosaic plagiarism Unacknowledged use of poorly paraphrased content. Accidental plagiarism Unintentional use of content without citing sources or misquoting them. Plagiarism (3/3) Tools to detect plagiarism • A crude way to check for plagiarism is to do a Google search. • There are several sophisticated tools used by publishers to detect similarity to previously published material. • Similarity levels of up to 10% (mostly accidental) generally considered to be acceptable by publishers. What goes into a reference? (1/2) References and citations are written in different styles, according to the discipline and preferences of the journal. All styles begin with certain basic components. • Author(s) • Title of the work • Second title (where there is one) • Journal • Publication Date/Year • Volume (and Issue) • Page number(s) What goes into a reference? (2/2) Other details will depend on the item being referenced and the referencing style used. • Editor/Translator/other • Date accessed: When you contributor: Used in place of looked at an online item. This author for some types of is often handy to know, even item. if your referencing style doesn’t require it. • URL or web address: For online items. • DOI: Where there is one (NB only one of URL/DOI may be necessary). Citation styles (1/6) • Citation style dictates the information that goes into a citation as well as how it is ordered and formatted. • The citation style used is governed by the discipline or area of research. • When writing an article, refer to the author guidelines to understand the style followed by the journal. Citation styles and style guides (2/6) Humanities • Modern Language Association (MLA) • Chicago Author-Date/Turabian Social Sciences • American Psychological Association (APA) • Harvard (especially for students) Science • Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) • American Chemical Society (ACS) Citation styles (3/6) Numerical referencing (Vancouver referencing) • This style is used extensively in medicine and physical sciences. • Generally, when a cited item is repeated, the number used is the same as in the first mention – this prevents duplicate additions. • Style guides may recommend specific placements for numbers along with parentheses, superscripting. Previous research1 indicates that… • Style guides that use Vancouver referencing: American Chemical Society (ACS), Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), American Medical Association (AMA). Citation styles (4/6) Citing different sources using Vancouver referencing Books 1. Mangan J, Lalwani C, Butcher T. Global logistics and supply chain management. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley; 2011. Websites 1. Gaudin S. How moon landing changed technology history [Internet]. Computerworld UK. 2009 [cited 15 June 2014]. Available from: http://www.computerworlduk.com/in-depth/it-business/2387/how-moonlanding-changed-technology-history/. Research articles 1. Syrett S, Sepulveda L. Urban governance and economic development in the diverse city. European Urban and Regional Studies. 2012; 19(3): 238253. doi: 10.1177/0969776411430287 Citation styles (5/6) Author-date referencing (Harvard referencing) • In this style, the citation consists of the author’s last name and the date placed at the end of the sentence in parenthesis. Advice to co-authors is that they should talk about authorship credit issues at the beginning of their collaboration (Smith, 2003). • The list is typically organized in an alphabetical order as per the author’s last names. • Examples of style guides that use Harvard referencing: American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA), and Chicago Manual of Style. Citation styles (6/6) Citing different sources using Harvard referencing Books Karskens, G 1997, The Rocks: life in early Sydney, Melbourne University Press, Carlton. Websites International Narcotics Control Board 1999, United Nations, accessed 1 October 1999, http://www.incb.org Research articles Kozulin, A., 1993. Literature as a psychological tool. Educational Psychologist, 28(3), pp. 253-264. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep2803_5 Endnotes and footnotes • Endnotes appear at the end of a document, whereas Footnotes appear at the bottom of a page, table, etc. • Footnotes and Endnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the manuscript. • Endnotes are most commonly used for the reference section, whereas Footnotes are mostly used to insert small notes at the bottom of a page or table. • Authors need to refer to the journal guidelines to select an appropriate style for Footnotes and Endnotes. Using citations in the main text Beginning of a sentence • Zizek (2015) argues that… OR According to Zizek (2015), … • In his most recent book, Zizek (2015) makes a case for… End of the sentence … as shown in a study conducted by the University of Melbourne (Davis, 2015) … as reported by/according to Davis (2015) Some reporting verbs investigated, found, reported, suggested, proposed, defined, claimed, challenged, explored, revealed, analyzed, speculated, recommended, hypothesized, advised, explored, assessed Self-citation • Self-citation occurs when authors cite their own work. • Nowadays, major industry players have sophisticated tools to identify instances of excessive self-citation (e.g., A Nature blog article mentions that 66 journals were banned from Web of Science for excessive self-citation). • Self-citation could be specific to author/journal/co-author/publisher TIPS You can cite your previous work if Your current study is a continuation of the previous study or builds upon it. You are building a coherent piece of work in a given field. The ratio of the number self-cites to external ones is comparable to that of others in your field. Reference management tools (2/4) • Freemium tool (similar to Zotero), but you can install an add-on for other types of browsers. • Allows storage of just 100 references for free, and require paid access for >100. • Provides a search tool that accesses the records of >4,000 subscription databases. Reference management tools (3/4) • Free and fairly basic level reference manager. • Has a Safari plugin as well as a desktop version. • Allows storage up to 300 MB and can be upgraded. • Good for saving references directly from the Internet. • A premium, highly sophisticated reference manager that works both online and on your desktop. • Create bibliographies in >6,000 different styles. • Allows import of fairly complete and accurate metadata records from subscription databases. • Can be integrated with Microsoft Word. Reference management tools (4/4) • You can use a basic, free version of Mendeley, or a premium, paid-for version • Compatible with web browsers, desktops and as app for smartphones and tablets • Particularly good when working with other research groups • Allows sharing and annotating of documents together. • Create a profile to describe your research interests on Mendeley and build connections too • Mendeley has uploaded an easy-tounderstand video on YouTube: https://goo.gl/xDbBrn Final tip! • If you’ve written your paper, cited others and you’ve been (hopefully) accepted for publication... • Send your paper to the people you’ve cited. • This helps to promote your research and build valuable connections!