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History of Industrial Engineering (IE)
By Alifeony Mutiara Diarsya
Engineering history lies back to the beginning of civilization. Until the end of
17hundreds, production meant crafts (A craftsman used to treat material and assemble the pieces)
until then a single person used to Plan, Select and supply material and Produce and control.
There are some of the early practitioners who also contributed to set up industrial engineering,
such as: Samuel Colt, who pioneered the assembly line; Frederick Taylor, who introduced
scientific management, and time-and-motion study; Harrington Emerson, who described process
improvement methods in his book, "Twelve Principles of Efficiency"; Henry Laurence Gantt,
who developed the Gantt Chart for organizational management; Henry Ford, who implemented
the assembly line for automobile manufacturing; and Eliyahu M. Goldratt, who developed
the Theory of Constraints (TOC), which identified the most significant limiting factor in a
process — the "bottleneck" — and ways to improve it until it is no longer the constraint.
The beginning of industrial engginering start in 1776, when James Watt invented the
steam engine. Since then, first factories started to be established in USA and UK (United
Kingdom), earlier factories were textile and metal working plants. The Revolution of Industrial
Engineering was assisted by many invented such as : Eli Whitney, In 1798 he received
government contract to make 10,000 muskets and he showed that machine tools could make
standardized parts to exact specifications; then Frederick W. Taylor who known as ‘father of
scientific management’ and in 1881, he as chief engineer for Midvale Steel, studied how tasks
were done that time began the first motion & time studies also he created efficiency principles;
Frank & Lillian Gilbreth who these two people are Husband-and-wife engineering team. They
developed work measurement methods and applied efficiency methods to their home & 12
children; and Henry Ford which in 1903,he created Ford that is a Motor Company and In 1913,
he first used moving assembly line to make Model T that the Unfinished product moved by
conveyor past work station.
Industrial revolution consist of 4 phases that are:
a) Revolution1.0
Start with the utilization of steam power to do mechanization in the production process.
b) Revolution 2.0
The use of the concept of mass production through cross-production is supported by the
use of electrical energy.
c) Revolution 3.0
Use of electronics and information technology to automate production processes
including management(ERP).
d) Revolution 4.0
The use of computer technology and advanced telecommunications (the internet) to form
a cyber-physis production system; namely the unification of the real world with the
virtual world (virtual).
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