# CHAPTER III

```CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter covers the discussion about research design, population and
sample, instrument, technique of data collection, and technique of data analysis.
A. Research Design
Research design is the plan on how a research conducted. Therefore,
research design relates the process of the research itself. Arikunto (2002:30) states
that if the researcher wants to know, what, how many, and how long of things, the
research is known as descriptive research. She further states that the study that has
one variable is a descriptive non-hypothesis testing.
This research had only one variable, namely the students’ ability in writing
recount text of the tenth grade students of SMAN 1 Sikur in the school year of
2011/2012. It was categorized as descriptive quantitative research. It was aimed at
describing phenomena using statistic procedures.
To obtain the data, the researcher used the test where the students were
asked to make a recount text based on the topic prepared as the data to be
analyzed. Then, the data were analyzed by using descriptive statistic.
B. Population and Sample
a.
Population of the Study
The population of this research covered all of the tenth grade
students of SMAN 1 Sikur in the school year of 2011/2012.
The following table indicated the number of population of the
study.
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Table 01: Population of the tenth grade students of SMAN 1 Sikur in the
school year of 2011/2012.
b.
No
Class
Number of participant
1
X.1
32
2
X.2
32
3
X.3
35
4
X.4
35
5
X.5
35
TOTAL
169
Sample of the Study
In taking the sample, for the first time the present researcher
determined how many students were involved as the sample in this
research. Based on the number of population (Sugiyono, 2003: 97) states
that if the population is 1000 by the standard error 1%, the number of the
sample is 399 while if the standard error 5%, the number of sample is 258.
Referring to the statement above, this study took 169 students as the
population. So the present researcher took 114 students as the sample of
this research by 5% standard error.
C. Research Instrument
In scientific research, instrument was very important to be used by the
researcher in order to measure the students’ achievement as the sample of the
research. Instrument is a set of questions or exercises or other tools which are
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used to measure skill, knowledge, intelligence, achievement, and attitudes of
someone or a group of the people (Arikunto, 1998: 45)
Referring to the instrument of the research, the researcher used the
test where the students were asked to make a recount text based on the certain
topics which had been prepared by the researcher in 90 minutes. Furthermore,
the students’ writing was scored based on the contents, grammar, vocabulary,
mechanics, and organization aspects.
To measure the students’ ability in writing English paragraph, the
researcher used the criteria which were quoted from Hughes (2003: 104). The
table of criteria is as follows:
Table 02: Component of writing assessment
Element
Level
1

2


3
Content
4

5

6

1

2

3

4

Organization
Criteria
Does not show knowledge of subject, non
substantive, not pertinent, or not enough to
evaluate.
limited knowledge of subject, little substances in
some knowledge of subject, adequate range,
limitted development of topic, mostly relevant to
the topic, but lack of detail.
enough knowledge of subject, adequate range,
limited development of thesis. Relevant to the
topic, but lack of detail.
knowledgeable, substantive, relevant to the topic,
but limited development of thesis.
knowledgeable,
substantive,
through
development of thesis, relevant to an assigned
topic.
does not communicative, no organization or not
enough to evaluate.
non-fluent, ideas were confused or disconnected,
lacks logical Sequencing and development.
non-fluent, ideas stand out, lacks logical
Sequencing and development.
somewhat choppy, loosely organized but main
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5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

Vocabulary
Grammar
ideas stand out, limited support, logical but
incomplete sequencing and development.
Logical, ideas clearly stated, but limited
development.
fluent expression, ideas clearly stated/supported,
succinct, well organized, and logical.
essentially, translation, little knowledge of
English vocabulary, idioms, words form or not
enough to evaluate.
limited range, constant errors of word/ idiom
form, choice, usage, meaning confused of
obscured.
limited range, frequent errors of word/ idiom
form, choice, usage, meaning confused of
obscured
adequate range occasional errors of word/idiom
form, choice, usage but meaning obscured.
adequate range few errors of word/idiom form,
choice, usage but meaning obscured.
sophisticated range, effective word/idiom choice
and usage, word form mastery, appropriate
register.
Virtually no mastery of sentence constructions
rule, dominated by errors, does not
communicative, no organization or not enough to
evaluate.
major problem in simple construction, constant
errors of negation, agreement, tense, number,
word
order/function,
articles
pronouns,
preposition and/or fragments, run-ons, deletions
meaning confused or obscured.
major problem in simple construction, frequent
errors of negation, agreement, tense, number,
word
order/function,
articles
pronouns,
preposition and/or fragments, run-ons, deletions
meaning confused or obscured.
effective simple construction, mayor problem in
complex constructions, occasional errors in
agreement tense, number, word order/function,
articles pronouns, preposition but meaning often
obscured.
Little problem in complex construction, few error
of
agreement,
tense,
number,
word
order/function,
articles
pronouns,
and
preposition.
effective complex construction, few error of
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1

2

3

4

5

6

Mechanics
agreement, tense, number, word order/function,
articles pronouns, and preposition.
dominated by errors of spelling, punctuation,
capitalization,
paragraphing,
handwriting
illegible or not enough to evaluate.
frequents errors in spelling, punctuation,
capitalization
and
paragraphing,
poor
handwriting, meaning confused of obscured.
occasional errors in spelling, punctuation,
capitalization
and
paragraphing,
poor
handwriting, meaning confused of obscured.
occasional errors in spelling, punctuation,
capitalization and paragraphing, but meaning not
obscured.
demonstrates mastery of convention, few errors
of spelling, punctuation, capitalization and
paragraphing.
demonstrates mastery of convention, no errors of
spelling,
punctuation,
capitalization
and
paragraphing.
(Nurgiyantoro, 2011: 415)
Table 03: Weighting table
Element
Content
1
6
2
12
3
18
4
24
5
30
6
36
Total
……..
Organization
2
4
6
8
10
12
……..
Vocabulary
4
8
12
15
19
23
……..
Grammar
4
8
12
16
20
24
……..
Mechanics
0
1
2
2
3
4
……..
Total
(Nurgiyantoro, 2011: 417)
a. Try-Out of Instrument
To know the validity and reliability of the test before administering
it to the students, a try-out test was conducted. The test tried out to the 20
students who were not included to the sample of this study. In this case,
the writer choosed the tenth grade students of SMAN 1 Terara in the
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school year 2010/2011 as the subject of the try out. These subjects were
supposed to have similar characteristics to the sample of this research.
b. Validity of Instrument
Validity of the test is the extent to which it measures what is
supposed to measure and nothing else matter (Heaton, 1989: 159). He
further says, the test is aimed to provide a true measure of the particular
skill which is intended to measure.
In addition, (Arikunto, 2002: 160) says that the validity refers to the
validity degree of an instrument. An instrument will be called valid if it is
able to measure whatever to be measured.
c. Reliability of Instrument
One of the instrument requirements is the reliability of the
instrument. According to (Heaton, 1989: 162), reliability of the test is the
consistently measures whatever it measures. It meant that the reliability of
a test depended on whatever the test was consistent to measure and what it
is going to be measured. To obtain the reliability of the instrument, the
researcher used Alpha formula:
2
 K  1    b 
r11  

2
 
 K  1   t

Where:
r11
= the reliability of the test
K
= the number item in the test
αb2
= the total variant of each item
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αt2
= the total variant
(Arikunto, 2002: 193)
Based on the calculation of the result of try out test by using
alpha formula, it was found that
r11 (Reliability) was 0.88. To know
whether the reliability of the test is very high, high, average, and very
low, the researcher used the following standard:
-
Coefficient 0.800
up to
1.00
very high
-
Coefficient 0.600
up to
0.799 high
-
Coefficient 0.400
up to
0.599 average
-
Coefficient 0.200
up to
0.399 low
-
Coefficient 0.00
up to
0.199 very low
(Nurgiantoro, 1995: 108)
Based on the explanation above, it could be said that the
instrument was reliable and could be used as the instrument in this
research. (See appendix 1)
D. Technique of Data Collection
To gain the data, the test was conducted. In this research, the students were
asked to arrange a recount text. The time allocation to arrange the sentences was
90 minutes.
In conducting the test, the researcher applied some steps, as follows:
1. The researcher gave the test to the students and then explained the
instruction of the test.
2. Each of the students was asked to write their identity.
3. The researcher reminded the students to do the text carefully.
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5. The students were asked to check their identity and answer before
collecting it.
7. Then the researcher analyzed the students’ answer sheet.
E. Technique of Data Analysis
After gathering the data, the researcher continued to the next step of
analyzing the data.
1. Analyzing the data by using the following formula:
Final Score 
Gained score
 100
Maximum Score
2. Categorization
Determining ideal maximum score and ideal minimum score, in this
case, the ideal mean (Mi) and ideal Standard Deviation (SDi) are derived
from the formula: Mean (M) = 1/2 (ideal maximum score + ideal
minimum score). While, ideal Standard Deviation (SDi) = 1/6 (ideal
maximum- ideal minimum score)
The data from the test result described into three categories:
Mi + 1SDi up to Mi +3 SDi
= high
Mi- 1SDi up to < Mi+ 1 SDi = average
Mi-3 SDi up to < Mi-1 SDi
= low
(Nurkancana, 1996: 75)
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3. Percentage
To know the percentage of the students’ ability in writing recount
text, the researcher used the following formula:
P
 n  100%
N
Where:
P
: Percentage
∑n
: Sum of Students every Category
∑N
: Sum of Students (Sample)
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