MORFOLOGI TANAH
DAN
KLASIFIKASI TANAH
Sumber: foto:smno.kampus.ub.jan2013
MORFOLOGI TANAH
SOIL MORPHOLOGY - SIFAT-SIFAT TANAH yang dapat DIAMATI di
LAPANGAN dalam berbagai horison tanah , dan deskripsi macam dan
tatanan horison.
C.F. Marbut championed reliance on soil morphology instead of on theories of
pedogenesis for soil classification because theories of soil genesis are both
ephemeral and dynamic (Soil Survey Staff (1993). Soil Survey Manual. Washington D.C.: U.
S. Government Printing Office. Soil Conservation Service, United States Department of
Agriculture Handbook 18).
Sifat-sifat yang dapat diamati dan dideskripsikan di lapangan meliputi: komposition,
bentuk, struktur tganah dan organisasi tanah, warna tanah dan becak-becaknya,
distribusi akar dan pori, bukti-bukti adanya translokasi material seperti carbonates,
iron, manganese, carbon dan clay; serta konsistensi tanah.
Observasi lapangan biasanya dilakukan pada suatu PROFIL TANAH.
Profil tanah merupakan potongan vertikal dua dimensi, dalam tanah dan terikat pada
salah satu sisi suatu PEDON.
PEDON adalah unit tiga dimensi terkecil, tetapi tidak kurang dari 1 m2 di permukaan
tanah yang mampu menangkap variabilitas lateral.
Sumber: . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_morphology …….. DIUNDUH 25/2/2013
HORISON TANAH
HORISON TANAH merupakan “lapisan” yang sejajar dnegan
permukana tanah, karakteristik fisiknya berbeda dengan lapisanlapisan di atas dan di bawahnya.
Setiap tanah mempunyai minimum satu horison, biasanya tiga atau
empat horison.
Horizons dicirikan oleh sifat-sifat fisikanya, terutama warna dan
teksturnya.
Sifat-sifat ini dapat dideskripsikan secara absolut (mis. Distribusi
ukuran partikel, untuk tekstur tanah) dan secara relatif dalam
kaitannya dnegan material skeitarnya , mis. Lebih kasar atau lebihberpasir dibandingkan dnegan horison di sebelah atas atau
bawahnya.
Sumber: . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_horizon …….. DIUNDUH 25/2/2013
MORFOLOGI TANAH
O (Organic matter): Lapisan seresah sisa-sisa tumbuhan yang relatif
masih belum mengalami dekomposisi.
A (Tanah permukaan) : Lapisan tanah mineral dengan akumulasi
bahan organik dan soil life. Lapisan ini meng-eluviasikan iron,
liat, aluminum, senyawa organik, dan komponen terlarut lainnya.
Kalau eluviasi ini snagat intensif, akan tampak horison E yang
warnanya lebih terang di bagian bawah horison A. A-horizons
may also be the result of a combination of soil bioturbation and
surface processes that winnow fine particles from biologically
mounded topsoil. In this case, the A-horizon is regarded as a
"biomantle".
B (Subsoil): Lapisan ini mengakumulasikan besi, liat, aluminum dan
senyawa organik, prosesnya disebut ILUVIASI.
C (Batuan/Bahan Induk) : Lapisan batuan berukuran besar-besra
yang belum hancur. Lapisan ini mengakumulasikan senyawasenyawa yang dapat larut .
R (Batuan dasar): Lapisan batuan-dasar yang baru lapuk parsial, di
bagian dasar prosil tanah. Horison ini terdiri atas massa yang
kontinyus, batuan keras yang tidak dapat digali dnegan tangan.
Tanah-tanah yang terbentuk secara in situ akan menunjukkan
kesamaan dengan batuan-dasar ini.
Sumber: . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_horizon …….. DIUNDUH 25/2/2013
KLASIFIKASI TANAH
KLASIFIKASI TANAH:
berkenaan (berhubungan) dengan KATEGORISASI TANAH SECARA
SISTEMATIS berdasarkan pada karakteristik pembeda (penciri) dan
kriteria yang telah ditetapkan.
Sistem Internasional saat ini:
1. Buol, S.W., Southard, R.J., Graham, R.C., and McDaniel, P.A. (2003). Soil
Genesis and Classification, 5th Edition. Iowa State Press - Blackwell,
Ames, IA.
2. Driessen, P., Deckers, J., Spaargaren, O., & Nachtergaele, F. (Eds.).
(2001). Lecture notes on the major soils of the world. Rome: FAO.
3. FAO. (1998). World Reference Base for Soil Resources. Rome: Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Sumber: . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_classification …….. DIUNDUH 25/2/2013
KLASIFIKASI TANAH
Untuk dapat mengelola lahan dengan tepat kita harus
mengetahui seperti apa “tanah” yang kita hadapi, dan
bagaimana tanah-tanah ini berbeda-beda di antara satu
lokasi dengan lokasi lainnya.
Sistem klasifikasi memungkinkan kita untuk
mengkomunikasikan berbagai tanah-tanah ini dan
pengelolaannya.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
TAKSONOMI TANAH
USDA Soil Taxonomy developed by United States Department of
Agriculture and the National Cooperative Soil Survey provides an
elaborate classification of soil types according to several parameters (most
commonly their properties) and in several levels:
Order, Suborder, Great Group, Subgroup, Family, and Series.
Contoh klasifikasi suatu Tipe Tanah:
Order
Suborder
Great Group
Subgroup
Family
Series
: Entisols
: Fluvents
: Torrifluvents
: Typic Torrifluvents
: Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, calcareous, Typic
Torrifluvents
: Jocity, Youngston.
Sumber: . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USDA_soil_taxonomy …….. DIUNDUH 25/2/2013
ORDO TANAH
1. Alfisols — pelapukan moderat,
berkembang pada kondisi hutan
berdaun lebar atau boreal, kaya Fe dan Al.
2. Andisols — berkembang pada bahan abu-vulkanik, dan kaya
bahan-bahan koloidal gelas dan amorf, termasuk allophane,
imogolite dan ferrihydrite.
3. Aridisols — (dari
bahasa Latin “aridus” berarti “kering”) tanah
berkembang pada kondisi iklim arid atau semiarid
4. Entisols — tidak menunjukkan
perkembangan profil tanah yang
"significant“. Horison-horisn tanah minimal.
… dst …..
Sumber: . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USDA_soil_taxonomy …….. DIUNDUH 25/2/2013
HORISON UTAMA = Master Horizons
Informasi tentang tanah
O horizon
A horizon
R horizon
E horizon
(Elluvial)
C horizon
B horizon
(Illuvial)
B horizon
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Pengenalan Sub-horizon
Pembeda Subordinate di dalam Horison Utama
p – pembajakan/pengolahan/gangguan
t – akumulasi liat
g – pembentukan glei
h – illuvial bahan organik
w – perkembangan warna/ struktur
o – oksik
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Pembeda (penciri) Subordinat (p = plowed)
Horison permukaan yang terganggu (kultivasi, pasture,
kehutanan)
Digunakan dnegan Horison A (mis. Horison Ap)
Ap horizon
Contoh deskripsi Ap:
Ap -- 0 - 12 inch; coklat tua (10YR 3/3) Lemoung liat
berdebu; struktur gumpal-bersudut , halus, kuat;
remah, agak lekat dan plastis; banyak akar; banyak
pori halus dan medium; sangat masam (pH 4.8);
batas horison abrupt smooth. (tebalnya 10 - 13 inch).
Sumber: http://nesoil.com/images/paxton.htm …… DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Subordinate distinction (t = clay accumulation)
Translokasi liat atau terbentuk di tempat
Coatings atau diskrit
Digunakan dnegan Horison B (mis. Horison Bt)
Kalau reduksi, dapat digunakan dengan subhorizon g (mis. Horison Btg)
Contoh deskripsi Horison Bt:
B21 -- 12 - 22 inch; coklat tua (7.5YR
3/2) lempung liat berdebu; struktur
prismatik medium moderat yang
bercampur dengan struktur gumpal
bersudut halus mdeium moderat; keras,
gembur, agak lekat, plastis dan licinmoderat; banyak akar; banyak pori halus
dan sangat halus; banyak selimut
berbutir halus pada pori dan pada ped;
sangat masam (pH 5.5); batas horison
clear smooth. (tebal 10 - 12 inch)
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Pembeda Subordinat (g = gleying)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Oksigen kurang atau kondisi reduksi karena jenuh air.
Reduksi besi (Fe III menjadi Fe II)
Khroma rendah
Sering digunakan dnegan Horison B (mis. Horison Bg), juga dnegan
horison E dan C.
Fe3+
Material
oksidasi
oksidasi
Fe2+
Material
glei
Photographs showing redoximorphic features (soil mottling) which are color
patterns in the soil formed by the oxidation and reduction of iron and/or
manganese caused by saturated conditions within the soil. Redoximorphic
features are used to estimate the depth to seasonal high watertable
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Subordinate distinction (h = akumulasi organik)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Akumulasi iluvial kompleks
bahan organik - logam
Selimut pada pasir dan partikel
diskrit
h = “humik”
Value dan chroma sekitar 3
atau kurang
Digunakan dnegan Horison B
(mis. Horison Bh)
Contoh: Horison Bh :
Horison subsoil , 'B' menyatakan horison B dan 'h'
menyatakan “humik”. Bahan organik dan aluminium
snagat dominan (sedikit sekali sneyawa besi).
Istilah ini digunakan untuk mendefinisikan Ordo Podosol
dalam sistem klasifikasi “Australian Soil Classification”
(Isbell, 1996).
Horison Bh pada kedalaman 30-40 cm di lokasi West
Gippsland Podosol.
Horison Bh
“horison spodik”
Sumber:
soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonom
y.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Sumber:
http://vro.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/gloss
_AC…….. DIUNDUH 25/2/2013
Pembeda Subordinat (w = warna atau struktur)
Perkembangan warna
atau struktur secara Nonilluvial
“w” dapat = “weak”
Biasanya digunakan
dnegan Horison B (mis.
Bw.)
Bw
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Pembeda Subordinat (o = horison oksik)
Aktivitas liat rendah
Sedikti material dapat lapuk
Struktur batuan tampak sedikit
Oksida Fe dan Al
Horison oksik mempunyai:
a. The CEC7 < 16cmol(+)/kg of clay and an ECEC
< 12 cmol(+)/kg of clay which is due to the low
activity clay minerals (1:1 clays, Fe and Al oxides,
etc)
b. < 10% mineral dapat lapuk dalam fraksi pasir
c. Struktur batuan < 5%
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Pembeda Subordinat
g – gleying
h – illuvial bahan organik
p – pengolahan tanah / pembajakan/ gangguan
t – akumulasi liat
w – perkembangan warna / struktur tanah
o – oksik
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
PEMBEDA SUBORDINAT
&
BAHAN ORGANIK
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Subordinate distinction
(a, e, i)
Menyatakan derajat dekomposisi bahan organik dalam
Horison O.
Oa – dekomposisi lanjut (saprik)
Oe – dekomposisi moderat (hemik)
Oi – dekomposisi ringan (fibrik)
Saprik –decomposisi lanjut, serat tumbuhan sedikit, kadar air rendah
Hemik –dekomposisi intermedier
Fibrik – dekomposisi ringan, serat-serat masih dapat dikenali
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
IKHTISAR
Horison Utama: O, A, E, B, C, R
Simbul Sub horizon : g, h, p, t, w and a,e,i
Contoh:
Oa, Oe, Oi
Bt
Bg
Btg
Bw
Ap
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
OTHER
DESIGNATIONS
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Pembagian Vertikal
Dicirikan oleh horison utama yang serupa dan/atau ciri-ciri
subordinat yang dipisahkan oleh “derajat”.
Horison Bt
Bt1
Bt2
Bt3
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Horison Transisi
Lapisan transisi di antara horison utama.
AE
EB
BE
Karakter
Dominan
Karakter
Subordinat
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Synthesis
Ap
AE
E
Bh
Btg1
Btg2
Stages of development of soils across time for a soil in the central United
States under forest.
(diunduh dari: http://www.soils.wisc.edu/courses/SS325/formation.htm …
25/2/2013
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
SOIL
TAXONOMY
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
TAKSONOMI TANAH
Ada banyak sistem klasifikasi tanah yang digunakan saat ini, masing-masing
memenuhi kebutuhan negara penggunanya. Salah satunya adalah “Soil
Taxonomy”, sisten klasifikasi tanah yg dipakai di USA dan di berbagai negara
dunia lainnya. “Soil Taxonomy” menggunakan konsep tanah sebagai “tubuh
alamiah” dan mendasarkan pada ciri-ciri tanah yang dapat diamati dan diukur.
Sistem ini juga menggunakan tata-nama unik yang mencerminkan
karakteristik utama dari tanah.
Soil Taxonomy utilizes many chemical, physical, and biological properties including soil
moisture and soil temperature status. In addition, the presence or absence of certain
diagnostic horizons in the soil profile helps ascertain the soil's classification
category. A diagnostic horizon is a layer or soil zone whose properties meet certain
criteria specified for the purposes of classification.
Horison penciri (diagnostik) dapat terdiri atas satu atau lebih horison
genetik. Tujuh horison penciri ini disebut “EPIPEDON”, horion
permukaan. Delapan-belas horison penciri bawah-permukaan digunakan untuk
mencirikan berbagai tanah dalam sistem Soil Taxonomy. Selain itu, lima rezim
lengas tanah dan sepuluh rezim suhu tanah membantu untuk mengidentifikasi
“kategori” tanah.
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KATEGORI TAKSONOMI TANAH
Dalam sistem Soil-Taxonomy, semua tanah di dunia diklasifikasikan dalam kategori
berikut (dari pengelompokkan secara umum hingga “tanah” yg paling spesifik): ordo
(12), subordo (63), great groups (sekitar 250), subgroups (sekitar 1,400), famili (sekitar
8,000), dan seri ( > 20,000).
Semua tanah termasuk ke dalam salah satu dari 12 ordo, yang dari ordo lainnya
terutama oleh adanya atau tidak adanya “HORISON PENCIRI”
Dalam setiap ORDO ada SUB-ORDO yang dibedakan satu sama lainnya oleh
perbedaan rezim lengas-tanah dan rezim suhu-tanah, dan oleh ciri-ciri fisika dan kimia
yang dominan..
In turn, each suborder is subdivided into great groups differing in the presence or
absence of diagnostic horizons (including impervious pans), and in levels of certain
chemicals such as clays and salts.
Each great group is comprised of a number of subgroups that are characterized by a
central (typic) member and by other members that are intergrades toward other orders,
suborders or great groups, or that have characteristics not shared with the typic
member.
Within each subgroup are soil families that vary in properties that are important for plant
growth or for engineering uses of the soil.
Dalam setiap FAMILI ada sejumlah SERI-TANAH, kategori yang paling spesifik dari
sistem klasifikasi ini. SERI-TANAH diidentifikasi dalam survei lokal dan diberi nama
yang “bermakna lokal” (mislanya nama lokasinya).
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KLASIFIKASI TANAH / TAKSONOMI
Hierarkhis
Profil Tanah
Berdasarkan karakteristik profil tanah dan
Konsep tanah sebagai tubuh alami.
Ciri-ciri yang tampak: warna, tekstur, struktur,
pH, BO,….…
GENESIS TANAH
1883
V.V. Dukachaev: climate, vegetation, soil
1927 C.F. Marbut (USDA) applied to U.S. (1965)
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
TERMINOLOGI TAKSONOMI TANAH
Nama kelas tanah mencerminkan ciri-ciri tanah. Tata-nama bersifat logis dan
sederhana. Misalnya, “akar” dari nama-nama ordo tanah diambil dari kata-kata Latin,
Greek, atau salah satu dari bahasa modern. Kepada “akar” ini ditambahkan suatu
sukukata “sols”. Sehingga “akar” dari Mollisols berasal dari bahasa Latin “mollis”,
yang berarti “lunak”, ini mencerminkan ciri tanah yang gembur dan mudah diolah.
The names of specific class members in categories below that of soil orders include
the root elements of the soil order name plus specific formative elements or
expressions that suggest distinctive soil properties. For example, consider the names
of the lower categories of Alfisols and Mollisols that are formed under somewhat dry
conditions (Ustic-Latin ustus, burnt implying dryness), have a natric (high sodium
(Na)) horizon and are typical of the subgroup in which they are classed:
Ordo
Alfisols
Mollisols
Subordo (kering)
Ustalfs
Ustolls
Great group (natrik)
Natrustalfs
Natrustolls
Subgroup (typical)
Typic Natrustalfs
Typic Natrustolls
Nama famili-tanah menyatakan tekstur tanah, komposisi mineral, dan kelas suhutanah hingga lapisan tanah-atas 50 cm, seperti Typic Natrustolls, smectitik halus,
mesik. Nama Seri-tanah berhubungan dnegan lokasi tempat pertama-kalinya “tanah”
diklasifikasikan (diidentifikasi/dideskripsikan).
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HIERARKHI KLASIFIKASI TANAH / TAKSONOMI
Ordo
12
Subordo
63
Great group
250
Sub group
1400
Famili
8000
Seri
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
19,000
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
UNIT-UNIT UNTUK KLASIFIKASI TANAH
Pedon – unit tiga dimensi terkecil yg menyajikan
seluruh sifat dari ciri suatu tanah (luasnya 1-10 m2)
- Unit dasar dari klasifikasi tanah.
Polipedon – kelompok pedon yang berhubungan erat di lapangan
Seri Tanah – class of soils world-wide which share a common
suite of soil profile properties
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
The two extremes of most soil classification systems are the soil that represents
all soils collectively around the world, and a soil that is a specific natural body
with characteristics that distinguish it from other such natural bodies.
Suatu tanah dapat dikarakterisasikan oleh suatu unit (hipottetis) kecil tiga-dimensi yang
disebut “PEDON”, luasnya sekitar 10 m2 di permukaan. Area ini terlalu kecil untuk
berfungsi sebagai unit klasifikasi lapangan yang praktis. Akan tetapi beberapa PEDON
yang saling bersambungan kontinyu satu-sama lain yang merupakan POLIPEDON pada
akhirnya menjadi apa yang disebut “INDIVIDU TANAH”.
INDIVIDU-TANAH ini setara dengan SERI-TANAH.
Lanskap
Polipedon
Individu Tanah
Pedon
Profil tanah
Unit sampling tanah
Lanskap
Polipedon
Pedon
Seri Malabar
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HORISON PENCIRI
Horison
Permukaan
Horison tanah, sifat-ciri dan material
dimaksudkan untuk merefleksikan sifatsifat tanah dan yang dapat dipakai
untuk mendeskripsikan dan
mendefinisikan kelas-tanah.
Mereka dianggap sebagai “penciri” atau
"diagnostic" kalau memenuhi derajat
ekspresi minimum, yang ditentukan
oleh kenampakannya,
pengukurannya, kepentingannya,
relevansinya dan kriteria kuantitatifnya.
Horison
Bawahpermukaan
To be considered diagnostic, soil
horizons also require a minimum
thickness, which must be appraised in
relation to bioclimatic factors
(e.g. an albic horizon in boreal regions
is not expected to be as thick as one in
the tropics).
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HORISON-PERMUKAAN PENCIRI
Epipedons
Apakah horison
mineral ?
Molik
Umbrik
Okhrik
Histik
Melanik
Plaggen
Anthropik
Jenuh air > 30 hari
Apakah horison
kaya P2O5 ?
Apakah kejenuhan
basa >50%?
Sumber: http://www.soils.wisc.edu/courses/SS325/organic.htm…….. DIUNDUH 25/2/2013
HORISON PERMUKAAN PENCIRI
X = Florida
Melanik
X
Plaggen
Histik
Molik
X
Umbrik
X
Anthropik
Okhrik
X
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
EPIPEDON MOLIK
Tebal
> 18-25 cm
Warna - Color
C-Organik
Kejenuhan basa
Value < 3.5 lembab
Khroma < 3.5 lembab
> 0.6 %
> 50 %
Struktur
Sangat berkembang
C-Organik = Bahan organik x 0.5
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
EPIPEDON UMBRIK
Memenuhi semua kriteria epipedon Molik,
kecuali kejenuhan basanya < 50%
Secara kimiawi berbeda dnegan Molik
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
EPIPEDON OKHRIK
Terlalu: tipis
terang warna
miskin BO
Mollic
Umbric
Okhrik = pucat
Extremely common
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
EPIPEDON HISTIK
Horison Organik
Terbentuk di daerah basah
Hitam – Coklat tua
Bobot isinya rendah
Tebalnya 20-30 cm
Organik =
> 20% - 35% BO.
(kejenuhan air, kadar liat)
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
EPIPEDON MELANIK
Similar in properties to Mollic
Formed in volcanic ash
Lightweight, Fluffy
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HORISON ANTHROPIK
1.
2.
3.
4.
Resembles mollic
(color, o.m.)
Use by humans
Shells and bones
Water from humans
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Plaggen Epipedon
Produced by long-term (100s yrs.)
manuring
Horison permukaan yang tua dan
hasil aktivitas manusia
Tebalnya > 50 cm
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HORISON PERMUKAAN PENCIRI
Epipedon:
Molik
Umbrik
Ochrik
Histik
Melanik
Plaggen
Anthropik
Sangat umum
“spesifik”
Hasil aktivitas manusia
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
AKUMULASI BAHAN ORGANIK
Akumulasi BO
Histik
Mollik, Umbrik
ochrik
waktu
Bahan
induk
Vegetasi
tmax = 3000 tahun
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DIAGNOSTIC SUB-SURFACE
HORIZONS
HORISON
BAWAH-PERMUKAAN
PENCIRI
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HORISON BAWAH-PERMUKAAN PENCIRI
Pembentukan/Genesis
Translokasi
Transformasi
Liat
Bahan Organik
Oksida
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HORISON BAWAH-PERMUKAAN
Genesis
Translokasi
Transformasi
Bahan Organik
Warna gelap
Logam (Fe, Al)
Liat
Smectites
Kaolinite
Oksida
Iron
Aluminum
Juga: Garam, Karbonat, Sulfida
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HORISON BAWAH-PERMUKAAN PENCIRI
Albik
Argillik
Spodik
Oksik
Cambik
Kandik
Sombrik
Sulfurik
Natrik
Agrik
Kalsik
Gipsik
Salik
Duripan
Fragipan
Plasik
Penyebutan Sub-Horizon
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HORISON BAWAH-PERMUKAAN PENCIRI
Horison Albik (putih)
Warna terang (Value > 6 lembab )
Elluvial (Horison E *)
Miskin liat, oksida Fe dan Al
Umumnya berpasir
Reaktivitas kimiawi rendah (KTK
rendah)
Typically overlies Bh or Bt horizons
Warna terang
albic
*Tidak semua horison E adalah horison
albik
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HORISON BAWAH-PERMUKAAN PENCIRI
Horison Argilik
Illuvial accumulation of silicate clays
Illuvial based on overlying horizon
Jembatan Liat
Selimut Liat
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HORISON BAWAH-PERMUKAAN PENCIRI
Horizon Argilik
Tinggi
Aktivitas liat
Necessary
Illuviasi liat
Horison Kandik
Rendah
Not Necessary
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HORISON BAWAH-PERMUKAAN PENCIRI
Horison Spodik
• Illuvial accumulation of organic matter
and aluminum (+/- iron)
• Dark colored (value, chroma < 3)
• Low base saturation (acidic)
• Formed under humid acid conditions
Spodic
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Elluviation and Illuviation
Elluviation (E horizon)
Organic matter
Clays
A
A
E
E
Bh horizon
Bt horizon
Bt
Bh
Spodic horizon
Argillic horizon
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HORISON BAWAH-PERMUKAAN PENCIRI
Oxic horizon
• Highly weathered (high temperatures, high rainfall)
- High in Fe, Al oxides
activity
- High in low-activity clays (kaolinite < smectite < vermiculite)
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
HORISON PENCIRI = Diagnostic Horizons
Epipedons
Mollic
Umbric
Ochric
Histic
Melanic
Plaggen
Anthropic
PERMUKAAN
Subsurface
Albic
Kandic
Argillic
Spodic
Oxic
BAWAH-PERMUKAAN
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
SOIL TAXONOMY
1. Diagnostic Epipedons
2. Diagnostic Subsurface
horizons
3. Moisture Regimes
4. Temperature Regimes
Sumber: soillab.ifas.ufl.edu/.../Lecture%2023%20Soil%20Taxonomy.ppt …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DIAGRAM DERAJAT PERKEMBANGAN TANAH
Histosols
(organik)
Gelisols
Aridisols
(permafrost)
(kering)
Alfisols
(liat agak
masam)
Ultisols
(liat sngt
masam)
Entisol
Oxisols
(recent)
(Oksida)
Spodosols
Mollisols
(Horison
Spodik)
(Lunak, gelap)
Vertisols
Inceptisols
(Baru mulai)
(Liat
mengembang)
Andisols
(Vulkanik)
Derajat pelapukan dan perkembangan tanah
Ringan /sedikit
Intermediate
Kuat
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KUNCI ORDO TANAH
Penciri utama
Ordo Tanah
Gelisols
Tanah-tanah dengan permafrost di dalam 100 cm atau cryoturbasi dan permafrost di dalam 200 cm
Histosols
Tanah-tanah dengan horison spodik di dalam 2 m permuakan tanah dan tanpa ciri andik
Spodosols
Tanah-tanah dengan ciri andik (BI rendah, bahan gelas vulkanik, pumice, …)
Andisols
Tanah-tanah dengan horison oksik di dalam 150 cm permukaan tanah
Oxisols
Tanah-tanah dengan 30% atau lebih liat hingga kedalaman 50 cm dan ciri mengembang-mengkerut
Vertisols
Tanah-tanah dengan rezim kelengasan aridik dan menunjukkan perkembangan horison B atau horison salik
Aridisols
Tanah-tanah dg horison argilik atau kandik atau fragipan dan kejenuhan basanya <35% pd kedalaman 2 m atau 75 cm di
bawah fragipan
Ultisols
Tanah-tanah dg epipedon molik dan kejenuhan basa >50% hingga lapisan kedap atau pd 1.8 m dari permukaan tanah
Mollisols
Tanah-tanah dg horison argilik, kandik atau natrik atau fragipan dengan selimut liat
Alfisols
Tanah-tanah dg horison kambiki, sulfurik, kalsik, gipsik,petrokalsik, atau petrogipsik, atau dengan epipedon molik, umbrik,
atau histik, atau dengan ESP > 15% , atau fragipan
Inceptisols
Entisols
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
UNSUR PEMBENTUK ORDO
Ordo Tanah
Derivasi
Alfisols
Unsur
Pembentukan
alf.
Andisols
Ando = tanah hitam
Aridisols
aridus = kering
Entisols
and.
id.
ent.
Gelisols
gelid = sangat dingin
el.
Histosols
histos = jaringan
ist.
Inceptisols
Inceptum = mulai, awal
ept.
Mollisols
Mollis = lunak
oll.
Oxisols
Oxide = oksida
ox.
Spodosols
Spodos = abu kayu
od.
Ultisols
Ultimus = akhir
ult.
Vertisols
Verto = membalik
ert.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
UNSUR FORMATIF
Unsur Formatif
Konotasi unsur formatif
alb
Adanya horison albik (horison eluvial yang tercuci)
anthr
Adanya epipedon anthropik atau epipedon plaggen
aqu
Karakteristik yang berhubungan dnegan kebasahan
ar
Horison tercampur / campuran
arg
Adanya horisom argilik (horison dnegan liat iluvial)
calc
Adanya horison kalsik
camb
Adanya horison kambik
Cry
Dingin
Clur
Adanya duripan
fibr
Fase dekomposisi ringan / awal
fluv
Dataran banjir
fol
Massa dedaunan
gyps
Adanya horiosn gipsik
hem
Fase dekompoisisi intermedier
UNSUR FORMATIF
Unsur Formatif
Konotasi unsur formatif
Hist
Adanya epipedon Histik
Hum
Adanya bahan organik
orth
Paling lazim
per
Iklim humid sepanjang tahun, rezim air perudik
psamm
Tekstur pasir
rend
Rendzinalike – kaya karbonat
sal
Adanya horison salik (saline)
sapr
Fase dekomposisi lanjut
torr
Biasanya kering
turb
Cryoturbasi
ud
Iklim humid
ust
Iklim kering, biasanya panas selama summer
vitr
Menyerupai gelas
xer
Sumer kering, winter lembab
KUNCI TAKSONOMI TANAH: ORDO
GELISOLS
Tanah-tanah yang mempunyai:
1. Permafrost di dalam 100 cm tanah permukaan; atau
2. Material Gelik di dalam 100 cm tanah permukaan dan
permafrost di dalam 200 cm tanah permukaan.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KUNCI TAKSONOMI TANAH: ORDO
HISTOSOLS
1. Do not have andic soil properties in 60 percent or more of the thickness between the soil
surface and either a depth of 60 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact or duripan if
shallower; and
2. Mempunyai material tanah organik yg memenuhi satu atau lebih berikut:
• Overlie cindery, fragmental, or pumiceous materials and/or fill their interstices1 and directly
below these materials, have a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact; or
• When added with the underlying cindery, fragmental, or pumiceous materials, total 40 cm or
more between the soil surface and a depth of 50 cm; or
• Constitute two-thirds or more of the total thickness of the soil to a densic, lithic, or paralithic
contact and have no mineral horizons or have mineral horizons with a total thickness of 10
cm or less; or
• Jenuh air selama 30 hari atau lebih per tahun pada tahun-tahun normal (atau drainage
buatan), mempunyai batas atas di dalam 40 cm tanah permukaan, dan mempunyai tebal
total :
• 60 cm atau lebih kalau tiga-perempat atau lebih volumenya terdiri atas serat-moss
atau kalau bobot-isinya pada kondisi lembab kurang dari 0.1 g/cm3; ATAU
• 40 cm atau lebih kalau terdiri atas material saprik atau hemik, atau material fibrik
dengan kurang dari tiga-perempat (volumenya) serat-moss dan bobot isinya pd
kondisi lembab 0.1 g/cm3 atau lebih.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KUNCI TAKSONOMI TANAH: ORDO
PODOSOLS
Other soils that do not have a plaggen epipedon or an argillic or kandic horizon above a spodic horizon, and have one or more of the
following:
A spodic horizon, an albic horizon in 50 percent or more of each pedon, and a cryic soil temperature regime; or
An Ap horizon containing 85 percent or more spodic materials; or
A spodic horizon with all of the following characteristics:
One or more of the following:
A thickness of 10 cm or more; or
An overlying Ap horizon; or
Cementation in 50 percent or more of each pedon; or
A coarse-loamy, loamy-skeletal, or finer particle-size class and a frigid temperature regime in the soil; or
A cryic temperature regime in the soil; and
An upper boundary within the following depths from the mineral soil surface: either
Less than 50 cm; or
Less than 200 cm if the soil has a sandy particle-size class in at least some part between the mineral soil surface and
the spodic horizon; and
A lower boundary as follows:
Either at a depth of 25 cm or more below the mineral soil surface or at the top of a duripan or fragipan or at a densic,
lithic, paralithic, or petroferric contact, whichever is shallowest; or
At any depth,
If the spodic horizon has a coarse-loamy, loamy-skeletal, or finer particle-size class and the soil has a frigid
temperature regime; or
If the soil has a cryic temperature regime; and
Either:
A directly overlying albic horizon in 50 percent or more of each pedon; or
No andic soil properties in 60 percent or more of the thickness either:
Within 60 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties,
whichever is shallower, if there is no densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, duripan, or petrocalcic horizon within that
depth; or
Between either the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic layer with andic soil properties, whichever is shallower, and a densic,
lithic, or paralithic contact, a duripan, or a petrocalcic horizon.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KUNCI TAKSONOMI TANAH: ORDO
ANDISOLS
Tanah-tanah lain yang mempunyai ciri andik dalam 60 % atau lebih
ketebalannya, yaitu:
1. Within 60 cm either of the mineral soil surface or of the top of an
organic layer with andic soil properties, whichever is shallower, if
there is no densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, duripan, or
petrocalcic horizon within that depth; or
2. Between either the mineral soil surface or the top of an organic
layer with andic soil properties, whichever is shallower, and a
densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, a duripan, or a petrocalcic
horizon.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KUNCI TAKSONOMI TANAH: ORDO
OXISOLS
Tanah-tanah lain yang mempunyai:
1. Horison oksik yang batas atasnya di dalam 150 cm tanah
permukaan (mineral) dan tidak ada horison kandik yang batas
atasnya di dalam kedalaman 150 cm tersebut; ATAU
2. 40 percent or more (by weight) clay in the fine-earth fraction
between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm (after
mixing) and a kandic horizon that has the weatherable-mineral
properties of an oxic horizon and has its upper boundary within
100 cm of the mineral soil surface.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KUNCI TAKSONOMI TANAH: ORDO
VERTISOLS
Tanah-tanah lain yang mempunyai:
1. Lapisan yg tebalnya 25 cm atau lebih, dengan batas-atasnya di
dalam 100 cm tanah (mineral) permukaan, yang mempunyai
bidang-bidang geser atau agregat berbentuk “wedge” yg
mempunyai sumbu-panjangnya 10 - 60 derajat dari horisontal;
dan
2. A weighted average of 30 percent or more clay in the fine-earth
fraction either between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18
cm or in an Ap horizon, whichever is thicker, and 30 percent or
more clay in the fine-earth fraction of all horizons between a
depth of 18 cm and either a depth of 50 cm or a densic, lithic, or
paralithic contact, a duripan, or a petrocalcic horizon if shallower;
dan
3. Retakan-retakan di permukaan, yang membuka dan menutup
secara periodik.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KUNCI TAKSONOMI TANAH: ORDO
ARIDISOLS
Tanah-tanah lainnya yang :
MEMPUNYAI:
1. Rezim lengas-tanah ARIDIK; dan
2. Epipedon ochric atau anthropic; dan
3. One or more of the following with the upper boundary within 100 cm
of the soil surface: a cambic horizon with a lower depth of 25 cm or
more; a cryic temperature regime and a cambic horizon; a calcic,
gypsic, petrocalcic, petrogypsic, or salic horizon; or a duripan; or
4. Horison argillic atau natric; atau
MEMPUNYAI Horison Salik ; dan
1. Jenuh air pada satu lapisan atau lebih di dalam 100 cm tanah
permukaan selama satu bulan atau lebih dalam satu tahun normal;
dan
2. A moisture control section that is dry in some or all parts at some
time during normal years; and
3. Tidak ada horison sulfurik yang batas-atasnya di dalam 150 cm tanah
(mineral) permukaan.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KUNCI TAKSONOMI TANAH: ORDO
ULTISOLS
Tanah-tanah lainnya yang mempunyai:
Horison argillik atau kandik, tetapi tidak ada fragipan, dan kejenuhan basa (total kation) kurang dari
35 % pada salah satu kedalaman berikut:
If the epipedon has a sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class throughout, either:
1. 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic horizon (but no deeper than 200 cm
below the mineral soil surface) or 180 cm below the mineral soil surface, whichever is
deeper; or
2. At a densic, lithic, paralithic, or petroferric contact if shallower; or
The shallowest of the following depths:
1. 125 cm below the upper boundary of the argillic or kandic horizon; or
2. 180 cm below the mineral soil surface; or
3. At a densic, lithic, paralithic, or petroferric contact; or
Fragipan dan dua-hal berikut ini:
1. Either an argillic or a kandic horizon above, within, or below it or clay films 1 mm or more
thick in one or more of its subhorizons; and
2. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 35 percent at the shallowest of the
following depths:
75 cm below the upper boundary of the fragipan; or
200 cm below the mineral soil surface; or
3. At a densic, lithic, paralithic, or petroferric contact.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KUNCI TAKSONOMI TANAH: ORDO
MOLLISOLS
Tanah-tanah lainnya yang mempunyai dua hal berikut:
1. Either:
1. Epipedon Molik; atau
2. Both a surface horizon that meets all the requirements for a mollic
epipedon except thickness after the soil has been mixed to a depth of
18 cm and a subhorizon more than 7.5 cm thick, within the upper part
of an argillic, kandic, or natric horizon, that meets the color, organiccarbon content, base saturation, and structure requirements of a
mollic epipedon but is separated from the surface horizon by an albic
horizon; and
2. Kejenuhan basa 50 % atau lebih (metode NH4OAc) dalam semua horison
yg terletak : di antara batas-atas horison argillic, kandic, atau natrik dan
kedalaman 125 cm di bawah batas-atas tersebut; ATAU horison di antara
permukaan tanah mineral dan kedalaman 180 cm; ATAU horison-horison
di antara permukaan tanah mineral dan kontak-densik, kontak-litik atau
kontak paralitik yang paling dangkal.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KUNCI TAKSONOMI TANAH: ORDO
ALFISOLS
Tanah-tanah lainnya yang tidak mempunyai epipedon
plaggen, dan mempunyai:
1. Horison argillik, kandik, atau natrik; atau
2. Fragipan yang mempunyai selimut liat tebalnya 1 mm
atau lebih di dalam profilnya.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KUNCI TAKSONOMI TANAH: ORDO
INCEPTISOLS
Tanah-tanah lainnya yang mempunyai:
Satu atau lebih sifat-sifat berikut:
1. A cambic horizon with its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface and its
lower boundary at a depth of 25 cm or more below the mineral soil surface; or
2. A calcic, petrocalcic, gypsic, petrogypsic, or placic horizon or a duripan with an upper
boundary within a depth of 100 cm of the mineral soil surface; or
3. A fragipan or an oxic, sombric, or spodic horizon with an upper boundary within 200 cm of
the mineral soil surface; or
4. A sulfuric horizon that has its upper boundary within 150 cm of the mineral soil surface; or
5. A cryic temperature regime and a cambic horizon; or
Tidak ada material sulfidik di dalam 50 cm permukaan tanah mineral; dan kedua hal berikut:
1. In one or more horizons between 20 and 50 cm below the mineral soil surface, either an n
value of 0.7 or less or less than 8 percent clay in the fine-earth fraction; and
2. Satu atau dua hal berikut:
1. Horison salik atau epipedon histic, mollic, plaggen, atau umbrik; atau
2. Dalam 50 % atau lebih lapisan-lapisan yg terletak di antara permukaan tanah
mineral dan kedalaman 50 cm, ESP sebesar 15 atau lebih (atau SAR 13 atau
lebih), yang menurun nilainya dengan meningkatnya kedalaman di bawah 50 cm,
dan juga groundwater di dalam 100 cm permukaan tanah mineral selama beberapa
waktu dalam setahun pada saat tanah tidak beku.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KUNCI TAKSONOMI TANAH: ORDO
ENTISOLS
Tanah-tanah lainnya.
Entisols:
Tanah-tanah yang baru terbentuk
1. Permukaan lahan yang snagat muda (alluvium, colluvium,
mudflows)
2. Batuan sangat keras
3. Bahan induk berpasir
4. Material yang terganggu (mis. Lahan tambang, tanah-tanah yg
sangat padat, material toksik)
5. Transisi antara 'soils' dan 'not soils'
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
ALFISOLS
Alfisols:
Alfisols develop in humid and
subhumid climates, have average
annual precipitation of 500-1300
mm. They are frequently under
forest vegetation.
Characteristic features: Clay
accumulation in a Bt horizon,
thick E horizon, available water
much of the growing season,
slightly to moderately acid.
High to medium base status soils with
argillic horizons
1. Most Alfisols are present on relative
old landscapes (beginning Holocene
or older) whereever the supply of
primary minerals is plentiful
2. They also occur on glacial drift
3. A wide variety of clay minerals ® high
cation exchange capacity
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
ALFISOLS
Are found under conditions of mild
acid weathering common under broad
leafed forests and
savannas. Suborders include Aqualfs
(wet), Cryalfs (cold), Udalfs (humid),
Ustalfs (moist/dry), and Xeralfs (dry
summers). About 10% of the land
area is classified as Alfisols globally.
Alfisols have an Argillic (high clay)
subsurface horizon that is at least
35% saturated with non-acid
cations. In general, Alfisols are quite
productive.
When properly managed, limed, and
fertilized they rank with Mollisols in
their crop productive capacity.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
ANDISOLS
Andisols:
Andisols are soils with over 60 %
volcanic ejecta (ash, cinder,
pumice, basalt) with bulk
densities below 900 kg/m3.
Characteristic features: Dark A
horizon, early-stage secondary
minerals (allophane, imogolite,
ferrihydrite clays), high
adsorption and immobilization of
phosphorus, very high cation
exchange capacitity.
Soils with andic soil properties
1. Pyroclastic deposits (volcanic ejecta)
such as ash, pumice, cinders, and
lava
2. Characteristic:
1. vitric material or volcanic glass,
which are dominated by
amorphous, short-range-order
minerals
2. low bulk density < 0.9 g/cm3
3. Allophane and imogolite are common
early-stage residual weathering
products of volcanic glass
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
ANDISOLS
Are developed on recent volcanic ejecta and
have been subjected to only
mildweathering. Suborders are divided by
temperature and moisture regime as for
Inceptisols (Aquands and so on), plus Torrands
(hot, dry) and Vitrands (high in volcanic glass).
Though limited in their extent, Andisols are
very productive. They are commonly located at
high elevations near the volcanos. Andisols
are dark in color, low in density, and are quite
easily managed.
Their colloidal fraction is dominated by poorly
crystallized minerals such as allophane and
imogolite, giving these soils a high capacity to
hold phosphorus in unavailable forms, a
problem surmountable with judicious use of
manures and fertilizers.
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DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
ARIDISOLS
Aridisols berkembang di
daerah iklim kering.
Charactersitic features:
horizons of lime or gypsum
accumulation, salty layers,
and/or A and Bt horizons.
Aridisols
Tanah-tanah dari daerah kering
1. Wide variety of parent material:
2. Glacial drift
3. Crystalline rocks
4. Fluvial and eolian deposits
(unconsolidated material)
5. Parent material rich in sand-sized
particles
6. Gypsiferous material formed from
sedimentary rocks
7. Batukapur = Limestone.
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DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
ARIDISOLS
Are dry soils. They are found globally on about 12% of
the land area, and are prominent in the western part of
the United States. Seven suborders are recognized,
Argids (clay), Calcids (calcium carbonate), Gypsids
(gypsum), Natrids (high sodium, natric horizon), Durids
(duripan), Salids (soluble salts) and Cambids (only a
cambic horizon with no other diagnostic subsurface
horizons). Most Aridisols are either Argids or Cambids
(most Cambids were formerly classified as Orthids).
They support a diversity of desert flora and fauna, and
are used to some extent for low-intensity grazing of
sheep and goats, but their productivity is generally low.
When irrigated, however, these soils can be very
productive especially if supplementary nutrients are
supplied through manure or chemical fertilizers. In any
case, care must be taken not to over exploit these soils.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
ENTISOLS
Entisols have no profile development
except a shallow marginal A horizon.
Many recent river floodplains, volcanic
ash deposits, unconsolidated deposits
with horizons eroded away, and sands
are Entisols.
Characteristically have A/C or A/R
profiles, exhibit only ephemeral soil
development - largely confined to surface
horizon. May have an Ap horizon.
Suborders:
1. Aquents - exhibit wetness features
2. Arents - distinctive plow layer
3. Fluvents - formed in alluvial deposists
4. Orthents - loamy or clayey textures
5. Psamments - sandy textures
Llittle if any profile development, include
Aquents (wet), Arents (plow induced),
Fluvents (alluvial deposits), Orthents
(typical), and Psamments (sandy)
suborders. They occur under varied
environmental conditions, their
properties being controlled largely by
the parent materials from which they
form since minimal soil development
has occurred. Their productivity varies
greatly, from very fertile alluvial soils
(fluvents) to recently deposited sandy
(psamments), and shallow rocky
soils. Sustainable management
practices vary from intensive cropping of
alluvial soils to maintenance of natural
vegetation on some sandy areas and
steep slopes.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
ENTISOLS
Llittle if any profile development, include
Aquents (wet), Arents (plow induced), Fluvents
(alluvial deposits), Orthents (typical), and
Psamments (sandy) suborders.
They occur under varied environmental
conditions, their properties being controlled
largely by the parent materials from which they
form since minimal soil development has
occurred.
Their productivity varies greatly, from very
fertile alluvial soils (fluvents) to recently
deposited sandy (psamments), and shallow
rocky soils. Sustainable management
practices vary from intensive cropping of
alluvial soils to maintenance of natural
vegetation on some sandy areas and steep
slopes.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
GELISOLS
The central concept of Gelisols are soils
with gelic materials underlain by
permafrost. Diagnostic horizons may or
may not be present. Permafrost
influences pedogenesis by acting as a
barrier to the downward movement of
the soil solution.
Cryoturbation (frost mixing) is an
important process in many Gelisols and
results in irregular or broken horizons,
involutions, organic matter accumulation
on the permafrost table, oriented rock
fragments, and silt caps on rock
fragments. Cryoturbation occurs when
two freezing fronts, one from the surface
and the other from the permafrost,
merge during freeze-back in the autumn.
Suborders:
1. Histels - histic epipedon
2. Turbels - evidence of
cryoturbation
3. Orthels - other Glelisols.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
Gley soils
Precipitasi > evaporasi
Paku dan Lumut
A
Horizon
Berumput / semak-belukar kecil-kecil
Silty texture
Warna hitan dan humus masam (mor)
B
Horizon
Glei warna kelabu-biru, terganang
Fragmen batuan Angular
Waterlogged
Permafrost
C
Horizon
Bahan induk
Impermeable
clay
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
GELISOLS
Are soils with permanently frozen
layers (permafrost) in the upper 1 m, or
in the upper 2 m if horizons display
cryoturbation. They may have a histic,
umbric, calcic or mollic diagnostic
horizon. The three suborders of
Gelisols are Histels (organic material),
Turbels (cryoturbation), and Orthels
(no special features).
These soils are found in very cold
regions and are therefore of very
limited agricultural significance. They
typically support tundra vegetation.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
HISTOSOLS
Histosols are organic soils (peat and
mucks) consisting of variable depths of
accumulated plant remains in bogs,
marshes, and swamps.
Organic soils, see definition of Histic
epipedon for minimum limits on organic
carbon, but note that most Histosols
exceed depth requirements for histic
epipedon.
Histosols
Organic soils
Organic material (e.g.
peats, bogs, wetlands)
Suborders:
1. Folists -leaf mat accumulations above
R horizon
2. Fibrists - slight decomposition
3. Hemists - intermediate decomposition
4. Saprists - highly decoposed
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
HISTOSOLS
Are organic soils mainly formed in wetland
accumulations of plant residues. The four suborders
are Fibrist (fibers of plants obvious), Folists (leaf mat
accumulations), Hemists (fibers partly decomposed),
and Saprists (fibers not recognizable). Even though
they cover only 1% of the earth's land surface,
Histosols are found all over the world. They are most
extensive in cool and cold climates. They are light in
weight and have high water holding capacities per unit
mass. When drained and fertilized they are quite
productive, being used extensively for flower and
vegetable production.
The peat is also used for containerized plant
production and as a landscaping mulch. The water
level in drained Histosols should be maintained as
high as crop production will permit to reduce oxidation
of the peat and wind erosion of the soil. Also, some
drained Histosols should best be returned to wetland
conditions to provide habitats for wild species.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
INCEPTISOLS
Inceptisols
Inceptisols, especially in humid regions, have
weak to moderated horizon development.
Horizon development have been retarded
because of cold climated, waterloged soils, or
lack of time for stronger development.
Characteristic feature: Texture has to be finer
than loamy very fine sand.
Characterized by ochric epipedon and
incipient B horizon development (Cambic ~
Bw)
Suborders:
1. Aquepts - exhibit wetness features
2. Anthrepts - anthropic or plaggen epipedon
3. Cryepts - cryic soil temp. regime
4. Ustepts - ustic soil moist. regime
5. Xerepts - xeric soil moist. regime
6. Udepts - other Inceptisols (i.e., udic soil
moist. regime)
Embryonic soils with few diagnostic
features
1. Glacial deposits
2. Recent deposits in valleys or
deltas
3. Most Inceptisols occur on
geologically young sediments
(e.g. alluvium, colluvium, loess)
4. Parent materials which are
highly calcareous or resistant to
weathering inhibit soil
development but favor the
development of Inceptisols
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
INCEPTISOLS
Have a few diagnostic features, the
process of soil formation being in its
early stages. Suborders for
Inceptisols, as for most other orders,
include those with very cold
temperature regimes (Cryepts), and
those with moisture regimes that are
wet (Aquents), humid (Udepts),
alternately moist and dry (Ustepts),
and dry in summer but moist in winter
(Xerepts).
Inceptisols are about as variable as
Entisols and have equally variable
management requirements.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
Mollisols:
MOLLISOLS
Mollisols are frequently under
grassland, but with some
broadleaf forest-covered soils.
Characteristic features:
Deep, dark A horizons, they may
have B horizons and lime
accumulation.
Grassland soils of steppes and prairies
(base rich soils)
1. Deposits and landscapes with a wide
range of ages
2. Many Mollisols are formed on deposits
associated with glaciation
(unconsolidated quaternary materials)
- calcareous rich aolian deposits
supported the formation of Mollisols
3. However, in other areas they develop
in residuum weathered from
sedimentary rocks
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
MOLLISOLS
Dark soils of grasslands, are among the
world's most productive, having high
organic matter contents and good physical
condition. Suborders include Albolls (albic
horizon), Aquolls (wet), Cryolls (cold),
Rendolls (calcareous), Udolls (humid),
Ustolls (moist/dry), and Xerolls (dry
summers/moist winter).
Large areas of Mollisolls are found in the
Great Plains of the North America, the
steppes of Russia,, and the grasslands of
Central Asia and China. Many areas are
intensively used for grain production.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
Oxisols:
OXISOLS
Oxisols are excessively
weathered, whereas few original
minerals are left unweathered.
They develop only in tropical
and subtropical climates.
Characteristic features: Often
Oxisols are over 3 m deep, have
low fertility, have dominantely
iron and aluminium clays, and
are acid.
Low-activity soils
1. Highly weathered transported material
2. Old fluvial terraces
3. On high-lying old erosion surfaces
4. The most extensive areas of Oxisols
are in sediments that have been
reworked during several erosional and
depositional cycles
5. Materials which weather rapidly
6. Parent material which consists of
quartz, 1:1 type clays, iron and
aluminum oxides
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
OXISOLS
Are the most highly weathered of the soil
orders, being most prominent in the humid
tropics where rain forest is the dominant
natural vegetation. Six suborders are
found: Aquox (wet), Perox (very humid),
Torrox (hot/dry), Udox (humid), and Ustox
(moist/dry).
They have a deep oxic subsurface horizon
dominated by oxides of iron and
aluminum. Primary minerals have been
essentially all destroyed. Non-sticky low
activity clays prevail so the soils are
physically well structured but chemically
poor.
Their nutrient-supplying power is low and
much of the soil nutrient supply is
associated with the organic matter that
occurs in the surface horizons.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
SPODOSOLS
Spodosols:
Spodosols merupakan tanah
berpasir, tanah-tanah tercuci di
daerah hutan pinus dingin.
Karakteristiknya:
Horison O, profil sangat masam,
horison E tercuci, Horison Bh
atau Bs akumulasi bahan organik
plus oksida besi dan aluminium.
Tanah-tanah yang subsoilnya menjadi tempat
akumulasi humus dan sesquioksida
1. Typically, Spodosols are formed in very
coarse silty or coarser (i.e., increase in
sand) textured material (e.g. sandy loam,
loamy sand, sand)
2. Spodosols occur in late-Pleistocene or
Holocene deposits (Ca leached before
spodic horizon developed)
3. Siliceous or leached carbonaceous parent
materials favor the development of
Spodosols
4. Bahan-bahan terlapuk dari batuan miskin
Ca dan Mg (mis. sandstone, granite)
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
SPODOSOLS
Are extremely acid soils of forested areas in moist
(usually cold) regions where coarse-textured parent
materials are present. Spodosols are found in
about 3% of the land area in the United States and
globally. The suborders include: Aquods (wet),
Cryods (icy cold), Humods (humus), and Orthods
(typical).
Because of their high acidity and coarse texture,
these soils are not naturally very fertile. They are
poorly buffered, especially in the lower horizons,
and so associated watersheds are quite susceptible
to acid rain damage. When heavily fertilized,
however, they can become quite productive as
evidenced by the potato growing areas of Maine.
Most are used for coniferous forest production.
Where continued crop production is practiced,
excessive applications of chemical fertilizers must
be avoided to prevent the buildup of chemicals in
drainage waters to undesirable levels.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
.
ULTISOLS
Ultisols:
Ultisols are ectensively
weathered soils of tropical
and subtropical climates.
Low base status soils
1. Parent materials which contain few basic
cations such as siliceous crystalline rocks
(e.g. granite)
2. Sedimentary material that is relatively poor in
bases (e.g. highly weathered coastal plain
sediment)
3. Most of geologically old landscapes are
covered by parent material rich in silica but
poor in bases
4. There are some Ultisols formed in parent
material with higher base status and less
weathered material (e.g. volcanic ash, basic
ignenous or metamorphic rocks):
5. Basic parent material - high precipitation rapid weathering - rapid leaching of bases.
Characteristic features: Thick
A horizon, clay accumulation
in a Bt, strongly acid.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
ULTISOLS
Are highly weathered soils developed under
forests in the humid tropics and
subtropics. They are more highly weathered
and acidic than Alfisols, but less weathered
than Oxisols. Suborders are Aquults (wet),
Humults (high humus), Udults (humid), Ustults
(moist/dry), and Xerults (dry summers).
They occur on 9% of the land areas in the
worldwide. In tropical areas they are found in
association with Oxisols.
Ultisols are not naturally as productive as
Mollisols or Alfisols, but when properly
fertilized and managed they produce well.
The clays present in Ultisols are mostly of the
non-sticky low activity type which helps assure
easy workability of these soils in the field.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
Vertisols:
VERTISOLS
Vertisols exist most in temperate to tropical climated with
distinct wet and dry seasons. They have a high content
of clays that swell when wetted and show cracks when
dry. Characteristic features: Deep self-mixed A horizon ,
top soil falls into cracks seasonally, gradually mixing the
soil to the depth of the cracking.
Mineral soils that (i) are over 50cm thick, (ii) have more
than 30% clay in all horizons, and (iii) have cracks at
least 1 cm wide to depth of 50 cm at some time in most
years (unless irrigated). Conditions that give rise to
Vertisols are: (i) parent materials that are high in, or that
weather to form, large amounts of 2:1 expanding clay
and (ii) occur in a climate with a pronounced wet and dry
season - sufficient to promote cracking.
Suborders:
1. Torrerts - see Aridic-type moisture regime
2. Uderts - see Udic moisture regime
3. Usterts - see Ustic moisture regime
4. Xererts - see Xeric moisture regime
5. Cryerts - see Cryic temperature regime
Shrinking and swelling dark clay soils
1. Wide range of parent material including
alluvial, colluvial and lacustrine deposits
2. Marl and other calcareaous rocks,
limestone, shales, igneous,
metamorphic and volcanic rocks of basic
nature
3. Unconsolidated sediments which are
dominantely basic in character and low
in quartz
4. The parent material although variable in
origin, are rich in feldspars and ferromagnesian minerals and yield clay
residues on weathering
5. Vertisols may develop in situ from the
parent materials. The smectites in these
soils could be derived from the original
rock or form as a result of neogenesis or
transformations from primary minerals.
6. Characteristics: high clay content
(predominance of 2:1 type expanding
clay -> montmorillonite, smectite)
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DESKRIPSI RINGKAS ORDO
VERTISOLS
Are characterized by high levels of swellingtype clays. Suborders include Aquerts (wet),
Cryerts (cold), Torrerts (hot/dry), Uderts
(humid), Usterts (moist/dry), and Xererts (very
dry).
Vertisols are sticky and plastic when wet, and
hard and cloddy when dry. This complicates
their proper management especially by poor
farmers with little or no access to power
equipment to handle these heavy soils.
Despite their limitations, Vertisols are widely
tilled. However if conservation practices and
mechanized equipment are not available to till
the soil promptly at just the right moisture
content, yields can be low and the soils are
subject to severe erosion if the land is sloping.
Sumber:. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
DIAGRAM DERAJAT PERKEMBANGAN TANAH
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
KUNCI ORDO TANAH
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
UNSUR PEMBENTUK ORDO
Ordo Tanah
Derivasi
Alfisols
Unsur
Pembentukan
alf.
Andisols
Ando = tanah hitam
Aridisols
aridus = kering
Entisols
and.
id.
ent.
Gelisols
gelid = sangat dingin
el.
Histosols
histos = jaringan
ist.
Inceptisols
Inceptum = mulai, awal
ept.
Mollisols
Mollis = lunak
oll.
Oxisols
Oxide = oksida
ox.
Spodosols
Spodos = abu kayu
od.
Ultisols
Ultimus = akhir
ult.
Vertisols
Verto = membalik
ert.
Sumber: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Eighth Edition. 1998. …….. DIUNDUH 15/2/2013
UNSUR FORMATIF
Unsur Formatif
Konotasi unsur formatif
alb
Adanya horison albik (horison eluvial yang tercuci)
anthr
Adanya epipedon anthropik atau epipedon plaggen
aqu
Karakteristik yang berhubungan dnegan kebasahan
ar
Horison tercampur / campuran
arg
Adanya horisom argilik (horison dnegan liat iluvial)
calc
Adanya horison kalsik
camb
Adanya horison kambik
Cry
Dingin
Clur
Adanya duripan
fibr
Fase dekomposisi ringan / awal
fluv
Dataran banjir
fol
Massa dedaunan
gyps
Adanya horiosn gipsik
hem
Fase dekompoisisi intermedier
UNSUR FORMATIF
Unsur Formatif
Konotasi unsur formatif
Hist
Adanya epipedon Histik
Hum
Adanya bahan organik
orth
Paling lazim
per
Iklim humid sepanjang tahun, rezim air perudik
psamm
Tekstur pasir
rend
Rendzinalike – kaya karbonat
sal
Adanya horison salik (saline)
sapr
Fase dekomposisi lanjut
torr
Biasanya kering
turb
Cryoturbasi
ud
Iklim humid
ust
Iklim kering, biasanya panas selama summer
vitr
Menyerupai gelas
xer
Sumer kering, winter lembab
Kondisi Tanah di hutan jati pada musim kemarau
Sumber: foto.smno.saradan.htjati.nop2012