BI 5103 FISIOLOGI TERINTEGRASI (Integrative Physiology)

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BI 5103
FISIOLOGI TERINTEGRASI
(Integrative Physiology)
Core Principle 1: EVOLUTION
(Konsep Inti I : Evolusi)
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Why Evolution?
Evolusi dapat memberikan penjelasan
secara scientific pada sejarah kehidupan di
bumi dan mekanisme yang menyebabkan
terjadinya perubahan pada kehidupan
 (Evolution provides a scientific
explanation for the history of life on
Earth and the mechanisms by which
changes to life have occurred)

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A flower mantid
in Malaysia
A leaf mantid in Costa Rica
Sub Topik :
1. Evolusi melalui seleksi alam : asal-usul
organisme dan fungsi fisiologisnya
2. Evolusi menjelaskan asal hubungan antara
struktur dan fungsi
3. Variasi dalam struktur protein yang
mendasari fungsi fisiologis pada tingkat
molekuler dikendalikan oleh mekanisme
evolusi
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1. Evolusi melalui seleksi alam : asalusul organisme dan fungsi
fisiologisnya
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EVOLUTION:
Natural selection & development of complex life
Natural Selection
 Darwin’s theory
 Mechanism:
 Variation in populations
 Some variation heritable
 More individuals born
than will survive
 Adaptation
The evolution of insecticide resistance is an
example of natural selection in action
Insecticide
application
Chromosome with gene
conferring resistance
to insecticide
Additional
applications of the
same insecticide will
be less effective, and
the frequency of
resistant insects in
the population
will grow
Survivor
Terminal
bud
Lateral
buds
Cabbage
Brussels sprouts
Flower
clusters
Leaves
Kale
Cauliflower
Stem
Wild mustard
Flowers
and stems
Broccoli
Kohlrabi
Dogs varieties
CONCEPTS OF SPECIES

Linnaeus used physical appearance to identify
species when he developed the binomial system
of naming organisms
◦ This system established the basis for taxonomy
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
But appearance alone does not always define a
species
– Example: eastern and western meadowlarks (the
songs of the two species are different)
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
Similarities between some species and variation
within a species can make defining species
difficult
– Humans exhibit extreme physical diversity
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
The biological species concept defines a species
as
– a population or group of populations whose
members can interbreed and produce fertile
offspring
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
A ring species may illustrate the process of
speciation
1
OREGON
POPULATION
Sierra
Nevada
COASTAL
POPULATIONS
Yelloweyed
Yellowblotched
2
Gap in
ring
Monterey
INLAND
POPULATIONS
Largeblotched
3
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2. Evolusi menjelaskan asal hubungan
antara struktur dan fungsi
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Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Carpals
Metacarpals
Phalanges
Human
Cat
Whale
Bat
A mass of other evidence reinforces the
evolutionary view of life
◦ Comparative embryology is the comparison of early
stages of development among different organisms
– Many vertebrates have common embryonic structures,
revealing homologies
– When you were an embryo, you had a tail and pharyngeal
pouches (just like an embryonic fish)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pharyngeal
pouches
Post-anal
tail
Chick embryo
Human embryo
A mass of other evidence reinforces the
evolutionary view of life
 Some homologous structures are vestigial organs
– For example, the pelvic and hind-leg bones of some
modern whales
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pakicetus (terrestrial)
Rhodocetus (predominantly aquatic)
Pelvis and Dorudon (fully aquatic)
hind limb
Pelvis and
hind limb
Balaena (recent whale ancestor)
Mechanisms of respiration :
example
Aquatic animal : diffusion through skin or
gills
 Terrestrial animal : diffusion through
alveolus in lungs

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Serangga
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Burung
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Amphibi
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Mamalia
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Manusia
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3. Variasi dalam struktur protein yang
mendasari fungsi fisiologis pada tingkat
molekuler dikendalikan oleh
mekanisme evolusi
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CONTROL OF GENE
EXPRESSIONS
PROTEIN
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Prokaryotic cells
Proteins interacting with DNA turn
prokaryotic genes on or off in response
to environmental changes
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OPERON
Regulatory Promoter Operator
gene
Lactose-utilization genes
DNA
mRNA
Protein
Active
repressor
Operon turned off (lactose absent)
RNA polymerase
cannot attach to
promoter
DNA
mRNA
RNA polymerase
bound to promoter
Protein
Lactose
Inactive
repressor
Enzymes for lactose utilization
Operon turned on (lactose inactivates repressor)
Promoter Operator
Gene
DNA
Active
repressor
Active
repressor
Tryptophan
Inactive
repressor
Inactive
repressor
Lactose
lac operon
trp operon
Eukaryotic cells

Differentiation results from the
expression of different combinations of
genes
◦ Differentiation involves cell specialization, in
both structure and function
◦ Differentiation is controlled by turning specific
sets of genes on or off
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Muscle cell
Pancreas cells
Blood cells
Multiple mechanisms regulate gene expression in
eukaryotes
◦ Many possible control points exist; a given gene may
be subject to only a few of these
– Chromosome changes (1)
– DNA unpacking
– Control of transcription (2)
– Regulatory proteins and control sequences
– Control of RNA processing
– Addition of 5’ cap and 3’ poly-A tail (3)
– Splicing (4)
– Flow through nuclear envelope (5)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Multiple mechanisms regulate gene expression in
eukaryotes
◦ Many possible control points exist; a given gene may
be subject to only a few of these
– Breakdown of mRNA (6)
– Control of translation (7)
– Control after translation
– Cleavage/modification/activation of proteins (8)
– Breakdown of protein (9)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
NUCLEUS
Chromosome
DNA unpacking
Other changes to DNA
Gene
Gene
Transcription
Exon
RNA transcript
Intron
Addition of cap and tail
Splicing
Tail
mRNA in nucleus
Cap
Flow through
nuclear envelope
mRNA in cytoplasm
CYTOPLASM
Breakdown of mRNA
Translation
Brokendown
mRNA
Polypeptide
Cleavage / modification /
activation
Active protein
Breakdown
of protein
Brokendown
protein
Cascades of gene expression direct the
development of an animal
◦ Role of gene expression in fruit fly development
– Orientation from head to tail
– Maternal mRNAs present in the egg are translated and
influence formation of head to tail axis
– Segmentation of the body
– Protein products from one set of genes activate other sets of
genes to divide the body into segments
– Production of adult features
– Homeotic genes are master control genes that determine
the anatomy of the body, specifying structures that will develop
in each segment
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Eye
Antenna
Leg
Head of a normal fruit fly
Head of a developmental mutant
Egg cell
Egg cell
within ovarian
follicle
Protein
signal
Follicle cells
1
Gene expression
“Head”
mRNA
2
Embryo
3
Cascades of
gene expression
Body
segments
Gene expression
Adult fly
4
Signal transduction pathways convert messages
received at the cell surface to responses within
the cell
◦ Signal transduction pathway is a series of
molecular changes that converts a signal at the cell’s
surface to a response within the cell
– Signal molecule is released by a signaling cell
– Signal molecule binds to a receptor on the surface of a
target cell
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Signal transduction pathways convert messages
received at the cell surface to responses within
the cell
– Relay proteins are activated in a series of reactions
– A transcription factor is activated and enters the
nucleus
– Specific genes are transcribed to initiate a cellular
response
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Signaling cell
Signaling
molecule
Plasma
Receptor membrane
protein
1
2
3
Target cell
Relay
proteins
Transcription
factor
(activated)
4
Nucleus
DNA
5
mRNA Transcription
New
protein
6
Translation
Genes that control development play a major role
in evolution
 Homeotic genes
 are called master control genes and
 determine basic features, such as where pairs of wings
or legs develop on a fruit fly.
 Profound alterations in body form can result from
 changes in homeotic genes or
 how or where homeotic genes are expressed.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Genes that control development play a major role
in evolution
 Duplication of developmental genes can also be
important in the formation of new morphological
features.
 A fruit fly has a single cluster of homeotic genes.
 A mouse has four clusters of homeotic genes.
 Two duplications of these gene clusters occurred in the
evolution of vertebrates from invertebrates.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Genes that control development play a major role
in evolution
 In the threespine stickleback fish, those fish that
that live
 in the ocean have bony plates and a large set of pelvic
spines but
 in lakes have reduced or absent bony plates and pelvic
spines, resulting from a change in the expression of a
developmental gene in the pelvic region.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 15.11C
Missing pelvic spine
Evolutionary novelties may arise in several ways
 In most cases, complex structures evolve by
increments from simpler versions with the same
basic functions.
 In the evolution of an eye or any other complex
structure, behavior, or biochemical pathway, each
step must
 bring a selective advantage to the organism possessing
it and
 increase the organism’s fitness.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Evolutionary novelties may arise in several ways
 Mollusc eyes evolved from an ancestral patch of
photoreceptor cells through a series of incremental
modifications that were adaptive at each stage.
 A range of complexity can be seen in the eyes of
living molluscs.
 Cephalopod eyes are as complex as vertebrate
eyes, but arose separately.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 15.12
Patch of
pigmented cells
Eyecup
Pigmented cells
(photoreceptors)
Pigmented
cells
Eye with
primitive lens
Complex
camera lens-type eye
Transparent protective
tissue (cornea)
Cornea
Simple pinhole eye
Fluid-filled cavity
Lens
Eyecup
Nerve
fibers
Limpet
Nerve
fibers
Abalone
Layer of
pigmented
cells (retina)
Optic
nerve
Nautilus
Retina
Optic
Optic
nerve
nerve
Marine snail
Squid

Adaptations that have evolved in one
environmental context may be able to perform
new functions when conditions change
◦ Example: Plant
species with
catch basins, an
adaptation to dry
environments
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Cactus
ground finch
Medium
ground finch
Large
ground finch
Small
Large cactus
ground finch ground finch
Small
tree finch
Vegetarian
finch
Medium
tree finch
Large
tree finch
Woodpecker
finch
Mangrove
finch
Green
Gray
warbler finch warbler finch
Sharp-beaked
ground finch
Seed
eaters
Cactus flower
eaters
Ground finches
Bud
eaters
Insect
eaters
Tree finches
Warbler finches
Common ancestor from
South America mainland
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A phylogenetic tree based on molecular data
Brown bear
Polar
bear
Asiatic
black
bear
American
black
bear
Sun
bear
Giant
Sloth Spectacled
panda
bear
bear
Lesser
Raccoon panda
Miocene
Pleistocene
Pliocene
Ursidae
Oligocene

Procyonidae
Common ancestral
carnivorans
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Paper

Discuss the relation between evolution
and physiology in : Organismal, structure,
and / or molecular level
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