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Water pollution status of western Java north coastal area (Java Sea, Tangerang)

Water pollution status of western Java north coastal area
(Java Sea, Tangerang)
Sigid Hariyadi, Runi Y. Kartika, Werdhiningtyas, Anissa Tri Argarini
Department of Aquatic Resources Management, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
Water quality of Java north coastal area, including the Tangerang coastal area, is considered polluted since
the failure of shrimp ponds production in 1990’s. Present days, there is a plan to build some seven small
islands along the coast for resettlement. The islands construction will impact the coastal water quality since
the beginning of the construction phase i.e. islands forming or reclamation and some infrastructures
development upon it, up to operation phase which is basically a town activities, that would possibly be
lasting forever. The impact could be decreasing water quality due to suspended solids or other chemicals
from the dumping materials and construction wastes, or wastes input from various activities in the islands
that would have been built. To maintain a good coastal environment and water quality, the initial or present
status of water quality need to be determined so that any worst change in the future could be monitored
and minimized.
This research was part of the environmental study and aimed to provide the initial status of water quality in
the area before the islands were built.
Fig. 2. Water Pollution Index (WPI) in the near-coast of
Tangerang north coast waters, Java Sea
Water samples were taken from surface (1-2 m depth) at 52 sampling points (near-coast, mid-coast, and
outer-coast zones) along the coast, in about 7-9 km coastal water width. Observations were conducted in
April-May 2013 (dry season) and August 2013 (early wet season). Samples from five main rivers mouth, i.e.
Cidurian River, Cipasilian River, Cirarab River, Cisadane River and Pasanggrahan River, were also collected
(Fig. 1). The water quality characteristics observed includes TSS, BOD, total ammonia, dissolved
phosphate, sulfide, oil and grease, surfactant, coliform and some heavy metals. Water quality
determination, water collection and water preservation followed the Standard Methods [3]. Water
Pollution Index (WPI) of Nemerow and Sumitomo [1] were used to determine the water pollution status,
by employing Indonesian water quality standard for marine biota [2]. The WPI then classified according to
the categories as follows:
0.0 ≤ WPI ≤ 1.0 = unpolluted (meet the standard)
1.0 < WPI ≤ 5.0 = lightly polluted
5.0 < WPI ≤ 10 = moderately polluted
WPI > 10 = highly polluted.
Fig. 3. Water Pollution Index (WPI) in the mid-coast of Tangerang
north coast waters, Java Sea
Fig. 4. Water Pollution Index
(WPI) in the outer-coast of
Tangerang north coast
waters, Java Sea
Fig. 5. Water Pollution Index (WPI) in Tangerang north coast waters, Java Sea
Fig. 6. Water quality in five main river mouths in Tangerang north coast waters, Java Sea
Fig. 1. Observation and sampling locations in western Java (Tangerang) north coast waters, Java Sea
Water quality of Tangerang north coastal water in the near-coast zone was in the state of lightly polluted to
moderately polluted. Water quality in dry season (Apr) was relatively better (WPI 0.7-6.5) than that in early
wet season (Aug)(WPI 1.6-8.0), especially in the western part. On the contrary, in the eastern part near the
Jakarta Bay, the water quality was worst in dry season (Fig. 2; Fig. 5).
In the mid-coast zone, the water quality state was also lightly polluted to moderately polluted, with slightly
better WPI values (WPI 0.7-5.8). In general, water quality in the eastern part of mid-coast zone is better than
in the western part in both seasons (Fig. 3; Fig. 5).
In the outer-coast zone, the water quality was better than the previous zones and classified as lightly
polluted (WPI of 1.6-5.1). Water quality in early wet season (Aug) seemed better than in dry season (Apr)
(Fig. 4; Fig. 5).
Some water quality parameters causing polluted condition were turbidity, total suspended solids, dissolved
phosphate, total ammonia, sulfide, phenols, lead (Pb), and total coliform bacteria.
WPI of the main river mouths were generally in the state of moderately polluted, and even heavy polluted
for the river mouth of Pasanggrahan. This condition due to relatively high concentration of some water
quality parameter such as turbidity, dissolved phosphate, ammonia, sulfide, chromium, lead, copper and
total coliform bacteria, which surpassed the water quality standard (Fig. 6).
The western Java (Tangerang) north coastal water quality were in the state of lightly polluted to moderately
polluted water. In the near-coast zone, the water quality status were up to moderately polluted, especially in
wet season. In the mid-coast zone, the water quality status was mostly lightly polluted with tend to moderately
polluted in middle part, in both season. All area of outer-coast zone was in the state of lightly polluted in the
two season. Some water quality characteristics causing the polluted status were turbidity, total suspended
solid (TSS), dissolved phosphate, total ammonia, sulfide, phenols and lead. The high concentration of these and
some other characteristics (including copper and chromium) in the main rivers mouth indicating that most of
the pollution come from the land through the rivers.
N.L. Nemerow and H. Sumitomo, 1970. “Benefit of water quality enhancement,” Water Pollution Control Research
Series Report DAJ 16110 12/70[Z], prepared for the U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Water Quality Office, Syracuse
University, Syracuse, New York. December 1970.
Decree of State Ministry of The Environment No. 51/2004 regarding Marine Water Quality Standard.
APHA (American Public Health Association). 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.
21st ed. APHA, AWWA (American Water Works Association), and WPCF (Water Pollution Control Federation).
Washington, D.C.
Presented in International Symposium BIODIVERSITY IN ASIAN COASTAL WATER, 3-7 July 2015, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
www.postersessi on.c o m