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PRODUCTION OF ERYTHRITOL

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PRODUCTION OF ERYTHRITOL
Assignment for Chemical Process Industries Subject
By :
ARVIN M. YAFIZ (21030116120041)
NURLITA SARI (21030116120063)
DEPARTEMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINERING
ENGINEERING FACULTY DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY
2017
A.
Introduuction
Erythritol ((2R ,3 S)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetraol ) is a sugar alcohol (or
polyol) that has been approved for use as a food additive in the United States
and throughout much of the world. It was discovered in 1848 by Scottish
chemist John Stenhouse. It occurs naturally in some fruit and fermented
foods. Erythritol is 60–70% as sweet as sucrose (table sugar) yet it is almost
noncaloric, does not affect blood sugar, does not cause tooth decay, and is
partially absorbed by the body, excreted in urine and feces.
Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar alcohol or polyol that contains about
60 percent to 80 percent of the sweetness of table sugar. Sugar alcohol has
nothing to do with cocktails, though since it does not contain ethanol (aka
alcohol) like alcoholic beverages. Other sugar alcohols include sorbitol,
lactitol, maltitol, mannitol and xylitol. Fruits like watermelon, pear and grapes
naturally have minor amounts of erythritol, as do mushrooms and
fermented foods like cheese, wine, beer and sake.
Erythritol was first discovered in 1848 by a Scottish chemist named
John Stenhouse. Japan has been using it since the early 1990s in candies,
jellies, jams, chocolate, yogurt, beverages and as a sugar substitute. It’s
gained popularity in the United States more recently. As of 1997, it has the
status of generally recognized as safe from the FDA, which honestly really
doesn’t tell you much about how safe it is. The food industry and consumers
love it because it can have up to 80 percent of the sweetness of sugar, but it’s
noncaloric and does not raise blood sugar levels.
Erythritol is now commonly added to many packaged food and drink
items as well as sugar-free gums, mints and even some medications. It’s also
available by itself as a granulated or powdered sweetener, like Zsweet and
Swerve. Erythritol does occur naturally in some fruits and fermented foods
— however, the problem is that the grand majority of erythritol used in
products today is man-made by taking glucose (most commonly from GMO
cornstarch) and fermenting it with a yeast called Moniliella pollinis.
B.
Raw Material To Produce Erythritol
Glycerol is widely recognized as a cheap raw material obtained as a
byproduct from biodiesel production. In addition, glycerol is also formed
during bio-ethanol production (Fangxia et al., 2012). Glycerol can be applied
in many processes, including those in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food
industries. it is produced from glucose by fermentation with a yeast ,
Moniliella pollinis. Glycerol is widely recognized as a cheap raw material
obtained as a byproduct from biodiesel production. In addition, glycerol is
also formed during bio-ethanol production (Fangxia et al., 2012). Glycerol
can be applied in many processes, including those in the pharmaceutical,
cosmetic and food industries.
C.
Process
Erythritol is produced industrially beginning with enzymatic hydrolysis of
the starch from corn to generate glucose . Glucose is then fermented with
yeast or another fungus to produce erythritol.
Other methods such as
electrochemical synthesis are in development.Continuous systems for
biotechnological processes undoubtedly have many advantages, among
which the most important include the possibility to set the physiological state
of the cells by selecting the flow rate of feeding medium and composition of
the culture medium, physical and chemical homogeneity of the culture, automation of the process, higher process efficiency, maximization of apparatus
utilization, and even spread of the workload (Saldanha et al., 2004). However
a drawback of these methods is the difficulty in ensuring aseptic conditions
of the process, the possibility of degeneration or mutation of strains, as well
as formation of populations with worse production capacity (Hoskisson and
Hobbs, 2005). Chemostat cultures applying yeast are successfully used in
biotechnological processes, e.g. in the production of biodiesel (Papanikolaou
and Aggelis, 2002), bulk chemicals (Temudo et al., 2008), and xylitol
(Granstrom et al., 2001 € ). A well-known process is production of citric acid
in chemostat culture by Y. lipolytica using as a carbon source (Rywinska et
al., 2013 ). Glycerol is widely recognized as a cheap raw material obtained
as a byproduct from biodiesel production. In addition, glycerol is also formed
during bio-ethanol production (Fangxia et al., 2012). Glycerol can be applied
in many processes, including those in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food
industries. Due to a pronounced glut of glycerol on the market, it is
advantageous to find further areas for its application. One of them is the
possibility of changing it into a zero-caloric sweetener e erythritol (Park et
al., 2016). As shown in our previous studies, Y. lipolytica yeast has a great
potential for biotechnology and can be successfully used in the biosynthesis
of erythritol from glycerol (Rymowicz et al., 2009). Past experiments focused
on batch, fed-batch and repeated batch cultures (Tomaszewska et al., 2014).
So far, the possibilities of using this yeast in a continuous culture in
production of erythritol have been unexplored. Even if during cultivation the
high concentration.
D.
Flowsheet Diagram
E.
Product Specification
Erythritol is found in nature and offers an intensely sweet flavor without any
of the calories, and is safe for diabetics and allergy sufferers beacause just
have 60 - 80% of sugar sweet. Erythritol, discovered in the mid-nineteenth
century and safely used ever since, is valued for providing the sweetness of
sugar without any of the adverse side-effects sometimes associated with other
sugar substitutes.
F.
References
1. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Magdalena_Rakicka/publication/30
7174834_Technology_of_efficient_continuous_erythritol_production_fr
om_glycerol/links/57c7026b08aec24de042a584/Technology-ofefficient-continuous-erythritol-production-from-glycerol.pdf
2. https://www.specialtyfood.com/products/product/21998/health-gardenerythritol/
3. https://www.bing.com/search?q=erythrithol&qs=n&form=QBRE&sp=1&pq=erythrithol&sc=813&sk=&cvid=7A39B19AA45C473D88FA5A
D29CB37D4A#
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