Musik di Indonesia: Antara Industri dan Indie

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Musik di Indonesia:
Antara Industri dan Indie
Inaya Rakhmani
Analisis Kritis terhadap Media (Massa) di Indonesia
Program S1 Reguler
Ilmu Komunikasi FISIP UI
24-04-2009
Sejarah Industri Musik Indonesia
-
1900: piringan hitam khusus elite, 3
perusahaan rekaman Cina.
1951: Irama (pribumi) produksi piringan hitam,
diikuti Remaco & Dimita
1955: Lokananta (pemerintah) mendominasi
industri rekaman lokal, fokus musik Jawa
1960: teknologi kaset
Musik & Politik
17 Agustus 1959, Sukarno (Manipol)
meminta pemuda Indonesia untuk
melawan nekolim (neo-kolonialisme dan
imperialisme) melalui musik rock & roll
(ngakngikngek)
Dalam film G30SPKI ada pembakaran
album Beatles
Musik & Politik (cont’d)
 1965-66: transisi politik mempengaruhi pasar
Indonesia (menerima musik barat) dan menstimulasi
produksi lokal (pop)
 Rolling Stones, Deep Purple, Rollies, God Bless
Musik & Perubahan Budaya
Bandung: standar budaya ‘Rolling
Stones’
Jeger
1995: popularitas Slank & budaya Barat
Sejarah Industri Musik (cont’d)
 1966: produksi kaset memarak
 1971: Lokananta 42.000 (1970) jadi 890.000
(1975)
 Band spt Koes Plus membangun pasar lokal &
industri rekaman Indonesia
 Koes Plus dipenjara 1965-kudeta menandai
musik rock sebagai simbol politik radikal (19701990)
Orde Baru & Industri Musik
 Lax safety regulation
 Harmoko menyerang lagu cengeng: selera
rendah, memperlemah semangat rakyat,
menghalangi komitmen pembangunan nasional
 TVRI melarang lagu macam ini utk beberapa
bulan, kritik Harmoko tidak mampu melawan
dominasi komersial (Amerika)
Sejarah Industri Musik (cont’d)
 1995: ASIRI (Asosiasi Industri Rekaman
Indonesia)
 Indonesia paling besar di Asia Tenggara
 20% rekaman lokal (legal) = musik asing (AS,
Eropa & Asia)
 Bahasa Mandarin dikenakan biaya lebih untuk
sensor
 80% musik Indonesia (45% pop Barat, 35%
dangdut & 15% daerah)
 Tidak ada sensor langsung, tdk spt sektor media
lainnya
Multinational Companies
 ‘Indonesia’s music business has been highly
successful, domestically and regionally,
subverting the marketing strategies of the
Western recording industry through pirating’
(Sen & Hill, 2000)
 1982 peraturan copyright pertama, diperkuat
tahun 1987 krn pembajakan ‘Live Aid’
 ASIRI: pembajakan menurun 17% (1980-an)
 1994: Menteri Ekonomi mengurangi pengaturan
dalam industri musik & hiburan utk menarik
investor asing (pers tetap ‘diatur’)
Multinational Companies (con’td)
1996: Hemagita Records ‘bergabung’
dengan Warner Music Int’l Group. Saham
pemilik (Wijaya) 5% dari total saham
Warner Music dan 95% dipegang TimeWarner (HBO, CNN, Warners Bors films,
Time) dan memiliki hak atas semua artis
Indonesia yg dikontrak Hemagita
1997: BMG, PolyGram, EMI dan Sony
Music
Indonesia & Ekspor Musik
Elvy Sukaesih diekspor ke Jepang, Nasida
Ria (qasidah) dijual di Jerman, Detty
Kurnia (Sunda) dijual di UK
Didistribusi oleh label independen (Wave
(Jepang), Piranha (Jerman) dan Flame
Tree (UK)).
Genre & Politik (Sen & Hill)
Dangdut: hybrid and national
Underground
Dangdut
Menguasai 1/3 pasar Indonesia
Despite disebut sebagai musik bangsa,
merupakan campuran musik Melayu &
dentuman irama India
Dijadikan kendaraan politik untuk meraih
rakyat
Dangdut (cont’d)
 Rhoma Irama (Dang-dut) sebagai
musik nasional-populis
 ‘University students saw it as a way
of playfully adopting lower-class
tastes as a gesture against
commercial pop’ (Sen & Hill)
 Perayaan kemerdekaan RI ke-50
dengan musik dangdut Moerdiono: Dangdut dari rakyat,
oleh rakyat, untuk rakyat
 Rhoma Irama & musical
evangelism (PPP) & oposisi politik
Dangdut (cont’d)
Rhoma Irama di-ban (1980) oleh TVRI &
keamanan tinggi di konser
1990: Rhoma Irama kembali ke Golkar &
dijadikan kendaraan Orba untuk meraih
kalangan Islam
Dangdut Islam vs dangdut kampung
Seksi, eksploitasi perempuan
Underground
Closely following the trend
in youth culture
Anti-establishment (lirik &
live performance)
Boomerang, Pas, Slank
Underground (cont’d)
1970: depolitisasi kampus
Identifikasi pemuda & mobilisasi politik
Generational identity & political ideology
(Pemuda vs Remaja)
ABG
Gerakan anti-establishment, disorderlies,
lebih penting ketimbang muatan musik itu
sendiri (Sen & Hill)
Musik & Politik
Ordered concerts)
- Dangdut ‘musik
resmi’ Pemilu 1997
(Golkar) - Tempo
Interaktif
- Pesta Rakyat ‘95
- Dangdut Ria HUT
ABRI
Musik & Politik (cont’d)
 Disorderly Performances
- Rock concerts as venues of
expressing popular discontent
- Konser Mick Jagger & simbol
(anti)kemapanan
- Iwan Fals (‘Bongkar’, ‘Bento’, ‘Wakil Rakyat’)
- Riots as an expression of class resentment
- Panglima Kodam Jaya - jangan terlampau
menganalisis kerusuhan
Musik & Orde Baru
1.
2.
Musical performances and texts were important
sites for signifying opposition to the New Order
discourse of ‘order’ and stability
In this work of cultural opposition, ‘foreign’
(Western) musical codes and icons were
frequently indigenised into conscious political
opposition to the New Order, (...) that showed
up the cracks in the New Order’s attempts to
control cultural production and create ‘cultural
order’, an ‘ordered culture’
Musik & Reformasi
Musik mainstream
Musik independen
Musik mainstream
 Dikuasai oleh lirik berbau cinta
 Pemain multinational menguasai
pasar & menciptakan ‘formula’
untuk meraih pangsa yg lebih
besar
 Dewa, Nidji, Ungu, Peter Pan
 Integrasi media massa (TV,
radio, konser, rekaman)
Musik Independen
 DIY music
 1990: Puppen, Closeminded, Koil. Pas (major
label)
 UNKL347 & Pure Saturday: Ripple Magazine
 David Tarigan & Aksara Records (JKT:SKRG)
 Upstairs, White Shoes and the Couples
Company (Minty Fresh - Chicago)
 Janji Joni (The Adams, Ape on the Roof, Sore,
Goodnight Electric)
Musik Independen (cont’d)
FF/WD - Mocca
MTV
Musik Independen (cont’d)
‘This was a new wave of indie pop’, said Marin. Whereas the
sound of the 1990s indie scene had been hard, abrasive and
intentionally inaccessible, the Bandung indie scene of the
early 2000s was characterised by its diversity, improved
musicianship and a certain ‘easy-listening’ quality that made it
infinitely more marketable. The scene, it seems, was growing
up.
Marin
Founder
Fast Forward Records
Musik Independen (cont’d)
 - they no longer need mainstream endorsement.
Friends of theirs who own indie clothing labels
sponsor their events and stock their albums
when bigger record stores refuse to. The scene
has become essentially self-sufficient (Jakarta
Post)
 It has gone national
 95% radio menyiarkan lagu2 Indie
 The days of major label dominance has ended
Musik Independen & Politik
 Efek Rumah Kaca
 The song "Jangan Bakar Buku" for example,
protested the act of burning books perceived as
wrong while "Kenakalan Remaja di Era Informatika"
nudged teenagers about their impulsive acts of
recording their sexual endeavors
Musik Independen & Politik (cont’d)
 The song "Mosi Tidak Percaya" voices the distrust
toward people in power in this country, a widespread
sentiment among the public, as the number of
abstentions in the legislative election shows.
 "It does not mean we encourage nonvoting. We are
just describing the social phenomena of distrusting
people inside *the government and the House*. The
detention of corrupt officials occurs almost daily. These
people have closed-door meetings and do not want to
be observed. The budget is used for buying
unimportant stuff," Cholil said.
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