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Coherence-and-unity

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Coherence
To stick together.
Making ideas flow smoothly and clearly.
And making the reader understand.
Blue Bubbles
www.company.com
Coherence
What Is Coherence?
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means "to stick together."
All the ideas in a paragraph flow smoothly from one
sentence to the next sentence.
With coherence, the reader has an easy time
understanding the ideas that you wish to express.
Coherence
•
Before Build Up Coherence
Is there a working thesis statement in your essay already?
Thesis statement is first priority. Without a working thesis statement, you are lost.
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Did you develop clear relationships of ideas yet?
Check your outline first, does it fit your topic? Is it organized? Is it logical?
If not, re-read the topic and revise the outline.
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Are there enough specific evidences that support your
points?
All yes?
Congratulation! You can move on >>
Coherence
How Can We Create Coherence
Coherence itself is the product of two factors
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Sentence Cohesion
Paragraph Unity
Coherence
Sentence Cohesion
Sentence Cohesion:
to achieve cohesion, the link of one sentence to the next,
consider following techniques
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Repetition
Synonymy
Pronoun Reference
Parallelism
Transitions (Connectors)
Coherence
Repetition - Sentence Cohesion
Repeat key words and phrases.
Example 1
The problem with contemporary art is that is not easily
understood by most people. Contemporary art is
deliberately abstract, and that means it leaves viewers
wondering what they are looking at.
Example 2
You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the
people some of the time, but you cannot fool all of the
people all of the time. (Abraham Lincoln)
Coherence
Synonymy- Sentence Cohesion
If direct repetition is too obvious,
use a synonym of the word you wish to repeat.
Example 1
He appeared so thankful to all the staff, thankful to all of
the parents, and especially thankful to his students.
He appeared so thankful to all the staff, grateful to all of
the parents, and especially appreciative towards his
students.
Coherence
Pronouns
Pronoun Reference- Sentence Cohesion
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Use pronoun to make explicit reference back to a form
Subject
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
mentionedObject
earlier.
Form
Personal
pronouns
Relative pronouns
and interrogative
pronouns
Form
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(show ownership)
Adjectives
Pronouns
their
theirs
Pronouns quite naturally connect ideas because
I pronouns almost
me
myrefer the reader
mine
always
to something
you
you
your
yours
earlier
in
the
text.
Thus,
the
pronoun
causes
theitsreader
she, he, it
her, him, it
her, his, its
hers, his,
quickly and our
subconsciously, what
we to sum up,us
ours was said
youbefore, then
youthe readeryour
yours part.
going on to the next
they
them
who
which
that
whom
which
that
whose + noun
Source: Ann Hougue, “Subject, object, and possessive forms”, The Essentials of English: A Writer’s edition, Pearson Education, 2003. P165~P166; Azar,
Betty Schrampfer. “8-1 PERSONAL PRONOUNS.” Understanding and using English grammar. 3rd ed. NY: Pearson Education, 1999. 132.
Coherence
Pronoun Reference- Sentence Cohesion
Example 1
While the commuters were driving home, they saw the
highway buckle. Immediately they began pulling over
to stop. Within moments they realized an earthquake
had struck their city, San Francisco.
Coherence
Pronoun Reference- Sentence Cohesion
Example 2
When scientific experiments do not work out as expected,
they are often considered failures until some other
scientist tries them again. Those that work out better
the second time around are the ones that promise the
most rewards.
Coherence
Parallelism- Sentence Cohesion
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Repeat a sentence structure.
A successful parallel sentence reads smoothly, while a
faulty parallel sentence lurches awkwardly.
Actually, when we do our outline, we are using
parallelism.
Coherence
Parallelism- Sentence Cohesion
Example 1
I acquired my considerable fortune by investing carefully,
hard work and marrying a rich woman.
I acquired my considerable fortune by investing carefully,
working hard and marrying a rich woman.
Coherence
Parallelism- Sentence Cohesion
Example 2 : Repetition+ Parallelism
… ask not what your country can do for you,
ask what you can do for your country.(John F. Kennedy)
Coherence
Transitions - Sentence Cohesion
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Link sentences with particular logical relationships.
They link your sentences and paragraphs together
smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks
between ideas.
Indicate to the reader the order and flow of your writing and
ideas. They strengthen the internal cohesion of your writing.
Using transitions makes it easier for the reader to follow
your ideas. They help carry over a thought from one
sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, or
from one idea to another.
Coherence
Transitions - Sentence Cohesion
Example
My morning routine never changes. My alarm clock rings for the third
time. I get up. I sleepwalk to the shower. I stand in the shower for ten
minutes. I am finally awake. I get dressed. I got to the kitchen, make a
cup of tea and put a slice of bread in the toaster. I eat breakfast and
feed my cat. I put her outside. I am ready to face the world. I get on
the bus and go to school. My first class begins, I go back to sleep.
My morning routine never changes. When my alarm clock rings for the
third time, I get up and sleepwalk to the shower. I stand in the shower
for ten minutes until I am finally awake. Then I get dressed. Next, I
got to the kitchen, make a cup of tea and put a slice of bread in the
toaster. After I eat breakfast and feed my cat, I put her outside. Finally,
I am ready to face the world, so I get on the bus and go to school. As
soon as my first class begins, I go back to sleep
Coherence
Transitions - Sentence Cohesion
Useful Signals for Compare /Contrast Essays
Signals of likeness
Likewise, In the same way, Similarly
Signals of difference
On the other hand, in contrast, on the
contrary
Whereas, unlike
Related words
Signals of logical
consequence
Signals of illustration
Therefore, Thus, Consequently, Hence
Signals of restatement
That is, in other words, in simpler terms, to
put it differently,
For example, For instance
Coherence
How Can We Create Coherence
Coherence itself is the product of two factors:
•
•
Sentence Cohesion
Paragraph Unity
Coherence
Paragraph Unity
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Coherence is necessary.
Unity without coherence results in
a second-class paragraph.
Coherence
Paragraph Unity
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An essay focus on one overall theme.
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is an essayis about ONLY ONE main idea.
EachThis
paragraph
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1 st paragraph
Introduction + Thesis Statement
All the sentences
Topic Sentence
topic sentence
supporting sentences
Supporting
Sentences
detail sentences
3 paragraph
The anther idea
(sometimes) the concluding sentence Concluding Sentence
are all telling
the reader about ONE main idea.
Concluding paragraph
2 nd paragraph
One main idea
rd
Sum up your ideas
Coherence
Paragraph Unity
San Francisco is one of the perfect places to spend a vacation.
First of all, it is a beautiful city. From the top of its hills, the
views of the sparkling blue water of San Francisco Bay and the
Topic Sentence
Supporting
Sentences
green hills beyond are spectacular. Second, San Francisco has
many excellent restaurants. With hundreds of restaurants
serving delicious food from every part of the world, the city is
Concluding Sentence
truly a food-lover’s paradise. San Francisco is also fun. Riding a
cable car down one of the city’s steep hills, eating a seafood
cocktail at Fisherman’s Wharf, window-shopping in Cinatown,
or walking across the famous Golden Gate Bridge are just a few
of the activities on every visitor’s “must-do” list.
Coherence
Review
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What is Coherence?
•
How to create Coherence?
Making ideas flow smoothly and clearly.
And making the reader understand.
Sentence Cohesion + Paragraph Unity
Repetition
Synonymy
Pronoun Reference
Parallelism
Transitions (Connectors)
Unity
Coherence
Reference
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Ann Hougue (2003).The Essentials of English: A Writer’s edition, Pearson Education
Azar, Betty Schrampfer (1999). Understanding and using English grammar. 3rd ed. NY: Pearson
Education
Zemach, Dorothy. E. & Rumisek, Lisa A. (2003). College Writing: From Paragraph to Essay. Oxford:
Macmillan.
http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/fwalters/cohere.html (point by point) (pithy)
http://hospitality.hud.ac.uk/studyskills/writing/index.htm (Repetition)
http://web.uvic.ca/wguide/Pages/SentParallel.html (Parallelism)
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_parallel.html (Parallel Structure)
http://more.headroyce.org/research/writing/techniques/transsignals11.html (Transition Signals)
http://www.uwf.edu/writelab/handouts/paragraphcoherence.pdf (Paragraph Coherence Writing
Lab 2003)
Coherence
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!
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