Company LOGO Coherence To stick together. Making ideas ﬂow smoothly and clearly. And making the reader understand. Blue Bubbles www.company.com Coherence What Is Coherence? • • • means "to stick together." All the ideas in a paragraph ﬂow smoothly from one sentence to the next sentence. With coherence, the reader has an easy time understanding the ideas that you wish to express. Coherence • Before Build Up Coherence Is there a working thesis statement in your essay already? Thesis statement is ﬁrst priority. Without a working thesis statement, you are lost. • Did you develop clear relationships of ideas yet? Check your outline ﬁrst, does it ﬁt your topic? Is it organized? Is it logical? If not, re-read the topic and revise the outline. • Are there enough speciﬁc evidences that support your points? All yes? Congratulation! You can move on >> Coherence How Can We Create Coherence Coherence itself is the product of two factors • • Sentence Cohesion Paragraph Unity Coherence Sentence Cohesion Sentence Cohesion: to achieve cohesion, the link of one sentence to the next, consider following techniques • • • • • Repetition Synonymy Pronoun Reference Parallelism Transitions (Connectors) Coherence Repetition - Sentence Cohesion Repeat key words and phrases. Example 1 The problem with contemporary art is that is not easily understood by most people. Contemporary art is deliberately abstract, and that means it leaves viewers wondering what they are looking at. Example 2 You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you cannot fool all of the people all of the time. (Abraham Lincoln) Coherence Synonymy- Sentence Cohesion If direct repetition is too obvious, use a synonym of the word you wish to repeat. Example 1 He appeared so thankful to all the staff, thankful to all of the parents, and especially thankful to his students. He appeared so thankful to all the staff, grateful to all of the parents, and especially appreciative towards his students. Coherence Pronouns Pronoun Reference- Sentence Cohesion • Use pronoun to make explicit reference back to a form Subject POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS mentionedObject earlier. Form Personal pronouns Relative pronouns and interrogative pronouns Form • (show ownership) Adjectives Pronouns their theirs Pronouns quite naturally connect ideas because I pronouns almost me myrefer the reader mine always to something you you your yours earlier in the text. Thus, the pronoun causes theitsreader she, he, it her, him, it her, his, its hers, his, quickly and our subconsciously, what we to sum up,us ours was said youbefore, then youthe readeryour yours part. going on to the next they them who which that whom which that whose + noun Source: Ann Hougue, “Subject, object, and possessive forms”, The Essentials of English: A Writer’s edition, Pearson Education, 2003. P165~P166; Azar, Betty Schrampfer. “8-1 PERSONAL PRONOUNS.” Understanding and using English grammar. 3rd ed. NY: Pearson Education, 1999. 132. Coherence Pronoun Reference- Sentence Cohesion Example 1 While the commuters were driving home, they saw the highway buckle. Immediately they began pulling over to stop. Within moments they realized an earthquake had struck their city, San Francisco. Coherence Pronoun Reference- Sentence Cohesion Example 2 When scientiﬁc experiments do not work out as expected, they are often considered failures until some other scientist tries them again. Those that work out better the second time around are the ones that promise the most rewards. Coherence Parallelism- Sentence Cohesion • • • Repeat a sentence structure. A successful parallel sentence reads smoothly, while a faulty parallel sentence lurches awkwardly. Actually, when we do our outline, we are using parallelism. Coherence Parallelism- Sentence Cohesion Example 1 I acquired my considerable fortune by investing carefully, hard work and marrying a rich woman. I acquired my considerable fortune by investing carefully, working hard and marrying a rich woman. Coherence Parallelism- Sentence Cohesion Example 2 : Repetition+ Parallelism … ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.(John F. Kennedy) Coherence Transitions - Sentence Cohesion • • • • Link sentences with particular logical relationships. They link your sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas. Indicate to the reader the order and ﬂow of your writing and ideas. They strengthen the internal cohesion of your writing. Using transitions makes it easier for the reader to follow your ideas. They help carry over a thought from one sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, or from one idea to another. Coherence Transitions - Sentence Cohesion Example My morning routine never changes. My alarm clock rings for the third time. I get up. I sleepwalk to the shower. I stand in the shower for ten minutes. I am ﬁnally awake. I get dressed. I got to the kitchen, make a cup of tea and put a slice of bread in the toaster. I eat breakfast and feed my cat. I put her outside. I am ready to face the world. I get on the bus and go to school. My ﬁrst class begins, I go back to sleep. My morning routine never changes. When my alarm clock rings for the third time, I get up and sleepwalk to the shower. I stand in the shower for ten minutes until I am ﬁnally awake. Then I get dressed. Next, I got to the kitchen, make a cup of tea and put a slice of bread in the toaster. After I eat breakfast and feed my cat, I put her outside. Finally, I am ready to face the world, so I get on the bus and go to school. As soon as my ﬁrst class begins, I go back to sleep Coherence Transitions - Sentence Cohesion Useful Signals for Compare /Contrast Essays Signals of likeness Likewise, In the same way, Similarly Signals of difference On the other hand, in contrast, on the contrary Whereas, unlike Related words Signals of logical consequence Signals of illustration Therefore, Thus, Consequently, Hence Signals of restatement That is, in other words, in simpler terms, to put it differently, For example, For instance Coherence How Can We Create Coherence Coherence itself is the product of two factors: • • Sentence Cohesion Paragraph Unity Coherence Paragraph Unity • • Coherence is necessary. Unity without coherence results in a second-class paragraph. Coherence Paragraph Unity • An essay focus on one overall theme. • is an essayis about ONLY ONE main idea. EachThis paragraph • − − − − 1 st paragraph Introduction + Thesis Statement All the sentences Topic Sentence topic sentence supporting sentences Supporting Sentences detail sentences 3 paragraph The anther idea (sometimes) the concluding sentence Concluding Sentence are all telling the reader about ONE main idea. Concluding paragraph 2 nd paragraph One main idea rd Sum up your ideas Coherence Paragraph Unity San Francisco is one of the perfect places to spend a vacation. First of all, it is a beautiful city. From the top of its hills, the views of the sparkling blue water of San Francisco Bay and the Topic Sentence Supporting Sentences green hills beyond are spectacular. Second, San Francisco has many excellent restaurants. With hundreds of restaurants serving delicious food from every part of the world, the city is Concluding Sentence truly a food-lover’s paradise. San Francisco is also fun. Riding a cable car down one of the city’s steep hills, eating a seafood cocktail at Fisherman’s Wharf, window-shopping in Cinatown, or walking across the famous Golden Gate Bridge are just a few of the activities on every visitor’s “must-do” list. Coherence Review • What is Coherence? • How to create Coherence? Making ideas ﬂow smoothly and clearly. And making the reader understand. Sentence Cohesion + Paragraph Unity Repetition Synonymy Pronoun Reference Parallelism Transitions (Connectors) Unity Coherence Reference • • • • • • • • • Ann Hougue (2003).The Essentials of English: A Writer’s edition, Pearson Education Azar, Betty Schrampfer (1999). Understanding and using English grammar. 3rd ed. NY: Pearson Education Zemach, Dorothy. E. & Rumisek, Lisa A. (2003). College Writing: From Paragraph to Essay. Oxford: Macmillan. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/fwalters/cohere.html (point by point) (pithy) http://hospitality.hud.ac.uk/studyskills/writing/index.htm (Repetition) http://web.uvic.ca/wguide/Pages/SentParallel.html (Parallelism) http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_parallel.html (Parallel Structure) http://more.headroyce.org/research/writing/techniques/transsignals11.html (Transition Signals) http://www.uwf.edu/writelab/handouts/paragraphcoherence.pdf (Paragraph Coherence Writing Lab 2003) Coherence THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!