Uploaded by martin.kurnadi

Servo900 DHM N37V4 4

advertisement
http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org
9^k^c\VcY=neZgWVg^XBZY^X^cZKdajbZ(,Cd#)9ZXZbWZg'%%,
&..
Ventilator performance under hyperbaric conditions: a study of the
Servo 900C ventilator
Gordon Bingham, Bill Koch, Geraldine Lee and Ian Millar
@ZnldgYh
KZci^aVidgh!Zfj^ebZci!]neZgWVg^Xdmn\Zc!]neZgWVg^XgZhZVgX]
6WhigVXi
7^c\]Vb<[email protected]]7!AZZ<!B^aaVg>#KZci^aVidgeZg[dgbVcXZjcYZg]neZgWVg^XXdcY^i^dch/VhijYnd[i]ZHZgkd.%%8
kZci^aVidg#9^k^c\VcY=neZgWVg^XBZY^X^cZ#'%%,0(,/&.."'%(#
L]ZcXg^i^XVaan^aa^cY^k^YjVahgZXZ^kZ]neZgWVg^Xdmn\Zci]ZgVen=7DI!VYZfjViZVcYgZa^VWaZkZci^aVi^dc^hd[\gZVi
^bedgiVcXZ#I]ZHZgkd.%%8kZci^aVidg^hl^YZanjhZY^ci]^hhZii^c\Wji^iheZg[dgbVcXZViegZhhjgZ]VhWZZc^cXdbeaZiZan
X]VgVXiZg^hZY#
6^bhd[i]ZhijYn/
& IdZhiVWa^h]^[i]ZHZgkd.%%8kZci^aVidgZm]^W^ihVgZYjXi^dc^cYZa^kZgZYb^cjiZkdajbZBKl]ZcjhZY^chncX]gdc^hZY
^ciZgb^iiZcibVcYVidgnkZci^aVi^dcH>BKbdYZVii]ZbVm^bjbegZhhjgZXdbbdcanji^a^hZY^c]neZgWVg^XbZY^X^cZ
egVXi^XZ#
' >[hd!idXVaXjaViZi]ZXdggZXi^dc[VXidghi]VicZZYhidWZVeea^ZYidi]ZkZci^aVidghZii^c\h^cdgYZgidbV^ciV^cYZa^kZgn
d[i]ZYZh^gZYBKl]^ahiVi'-(`EV#
BZi]dYh/KZci^aVi^dcjh^c\i]ZHZgkd.%%8kZci^aVidglVhh^bjaViZYl^i]ViZhiajc\VihZV"aZkZaVibdhe]Zg^XegZhhjgZ
&%&#(`EVVcYViVegZhhjgZd['-(`EV^cV]neZgWVg^XX]VbWZg#I]ZkZci^aVidglVhdeZgViZY^chncX]gdc^hZY^ciZgb^iiZci
bVcYVidgnkZci^aVi^dcH>BKbdYZ#<VhZhlZgZXdaaZXiZY[gdbi]ZZm]VjhikVakZd[i]ZkZci^aVidgidbZVhjgZb^cjiZ
kdajbZYjg^c\h^bjaVi^dch#
GZhjaih/H^\c^ÄXVciY^[[ZgZcXZhZm^hiWZilZZci]ZBKYZa^kZgZYVi&%&#(`EVVcYi]ViYZa^kZgZYVi'-(`EV![dgkZci^aVidg
BKhZii^c\hd[&#%!&%VcY&*A#b^c"&#>i^hedhh^WaZid[jaanXdbeZchViZ[dgi]ZgZYjXi^dc^cYZa^kZgZYBKViVYZh^gZY
hZii^c\d[&A#b^c"&Wji[jaaXdbeZchVi^dcXVccdiWZVX]^ZkZY[dghZiBKhd[&%VcY&*A#b^c"&#
8dcXajh^dch/L]Zcjh^c\i]ZHZgkd.%%8kZci^aVidg^cH>BKbdYZ^cV]neZgWVg^XX]VbWZgVi'-(`EV!^i^hedhh^WaZid
VX]^ZkZYZa^kZgnd[YZh^gZYBKVii]ZadlZghZii^c\h#=dlZkZg!^i^hcdiedhh^WaZidYZa^kZgBKhd[&%A#b^c"&dgbdgZVi
i]^hegZhhjgZ#I]^h]Vh^bea^XVi^dch[dgi]ZkZci^aVi^dcd[VYjaieVi^Zcihl]dXdcXjggZciangZfj^gZ=7DI#
>cigdYjXi^dc
8g^i^XVaan^aaeVi^Zcihl]dgZXZ^kZ]neZgWVg^Xdmn\Zci]ZgVen
=7DI bVn ^c hdbZ X^gXjbhiVcXZh cZZY XdcXjggZci
bZX]Vc^XVakZci^aVi^dc#KVg^Vi^dch^ckZci^aVidgeZg[dgbVcXZ
YjZidX]Vc\Zh^cVbW^ZciegZhhjgZhVhhdX^ViZYl^i]=7DI
bVn]VkZi]ZediZci^Va[dga^[Z"i]gZViZc^c\XdchZfjZcXZh^[
cdiYZiZXiZYVcYXdggZXiZY#&!'
6h iZX]cdad\n ]Vh egd\gZhhZY! kZci^aVidgh l^i] bdgZ
XdbeaZm kZci^aVi^dc higViZ\^Zh VgZ WZ^c\ jhZY l^i]^c
]neZgWVg^X X]VbWZgh# I]Z kZci^aVidgh jhZY VgZ ine^XVaan
YZh^\cZYiddeZgViZViVibdhe]Zg^XegZhhjgZhWZilZZchZV
aZkZaVcYbdYZgViZVai^ijYZdcan#L]ZchjX]kZci^aVidghVgZ
jhZY^cV]neZgWVg^XX]VbWZgVigV^hZYVibdhe]Zg^XegZhhjgZ
i]ZgZbVnWZY^[[ZgZcXZhWZilZZchZikZci^aVi^dceVgVbZiZgh
VcYl]Vi^hVXijVaanYZa^kZgZYidi]ZeVi^Zci#(
I]ZV^bd[i]^hhijYnlVhidZhiVWa^h]^[!VigV^hZYVibdhe]Zg^X
egZhhjgZ! V HZ^bZch HZgkd .%%8œ HZ^bZch! :aZcV67!
HdacV!HlZYZckZci^aVidgZm]^W^iZYh^\c^ÄXVcigZYjXi^dch^c
YZa^kZgZYkZghjhhZib^cjiZkdajbZBK#;jgi]Zg^iV^bZY
idZhiVWa^h]i]ZXdggZXi^dccZXZhhVgnidbV^ciV^ci]ZYZh^gZY
kdajbZig^XVaanXdchiVciBKViVX]VbWZgegZhhjgZd['-(
`EVVXgdhhVgVc\Zd[b^cjiZkdajbZhgZegZhZciVi^kZd[i]Z
gZfj^gZbZcihd[Xa^c^XVaegVXi^XZ#
I]Z]neZgWVg^XeZg[dgbVcXZd[i]ZHZgkd.%%8^ckdajbZ
egZhZi bdYZ ]Vh WZZc egZk^djhan gZedgiZY# L]Zc jh^c\
hncX]gdc^hZY ^ciZgb^iiZci bVcYVidgn kZci^aVi^dc H>BK
bdYZ!i]^hkZci^aVidgdeZgViZhjh^c\VÅdlhZgkdadde!l]^X]
[jcXi^dchWnbZVhjg^c\VXijVa\VhÅdl[gdbi]Z^che^gVidgn
ÅdligVchYjXZgVhXgZZc"ineZecZjbdiVX]dbZiZg#)I]Z
kZci^aVidgXdbeVgZhi]^hkdajbZl^i]i]ZegZhZi^che^gVidgn
BK X]dhZc Wn i]Z deZgVidg#L]Zc VXijVa Ådl YdZh cdi
bViX]i]ZegZhZi^che^gVidgnBK!ZaZXigdc^XXdcigdadeZch
dg XadhZh V »hX^hhdgh hinaZ¼ ^che^gVidgn Ådl Xdcigda kVakZ
idegdk^YZVcVY_jhibZcid[i]Z\VhÅdlVcYXdchZfjZci
kdajbZYZa^kZgn#
6 heZX^ÄX [V^a^c\ d[ i]Z ecZjbdiVX]dbZiZg ineZ d[ Ådl
hZchdg^hi]Vii]Zdjiejih^\cVad[hjX]hZchdgh^hhZch^i^kZ
idegZhhjgZVcY!jcaZhhi]ZgZVgZZaZXigdc^XhnhiZbhegZhZci
idXdbeZchViZ[dgi]^h!\VhYZa^kZgnWZXdbZh^cXgZVh^c\an
^cVXXjgViZVhi]ZVbW^ZciegZhhjgZg^hZh#(!*!+Djg]neZgWVg^X
jc^i gZ\jaVgan jhZh i]Z HZgkd .%%8 kZci^aVidg VcY lZ
i]ZgZ[dgZjcYZgidd`[jgi]Zg^ckZhi^\Vi^dch^ci]^hVgZV#
GZhZVgX]bZi]dYhVcYbViZg^Vah
6hVcZfj^ebZcieZg[dgbVcXZhijYncdi^ckdak^c\gZhZVgX]
hjW_ZXih! i]ZgZ lVh cd gZfj^gZbZci [dg Zi]^Xh Xdbb^iiZZ
VeegdkVa# I]Z ]neZgWVg^X X]VbWZg jhZY lVh V Xa^c^XVa!
http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org
'%%
9^k^c\VcY=neZgWVg^XBZY^X^cZKdajbZ(,Cd#)9ZXZbWZg'%%,
bjai^eaVXZ! i]gZZ"XdbeVgibZci jc^i ;^c` :c\^cZZg^c\!
BZaWdjgcZ#,
;^\jgZ&
8daaZXi^dcX^gXj^ijhZYidbZVhjgZYZa^kZgZY
b^cjiZkdajbZ
I]ZBKYZa^kZgZYWni]ZkZci^aVidglVhbZVhjgZYViVbW^Zci
egZhhjgZ d[ &%&#( `EV VcY Vi '-( `EV# L]ZgZ YZa^kZgZY
BKlVhaZhhi]Vci]ZhZiBK!i]ZhZiBKlVh^cXgZVhZY
^cXgZbZciVaan id Y^hXdkZg l]Vi XdggZXi^dc kVajZ lVh
cZXZhhVgnidXdbeZchViZ[dgi]Zh]dgi[Vaa#9jg^c\iZhi^c\i]Z
kZci^aVidglVhdeZgViZYl^i]ViZhiajc\H^ZbZchiZhiajc\
&.%œ!l]^X]lVhViiVX]ZYidi]ZkZci^aVidg¼heVi^ZciX^gXj^i
idVeegdm^bViZcdgbVae]nh^dad\^XVagZh^hiVcXZ#9Za^kZgZY BK lVh bZVhjgZY Wn i^bZY XdaaZXi^dc d[
djieji [gdb i]Z Zm]Vjhi kVakZ d[ i]Z kZci^aVidg# :m]Vjhi
\Vh lVh XdaaZXiZY k^V V adl"gZh^hiVcXZ hnhiZb ;^\jgZ &
^cXdgedgVi^c\ V i]gZZ"lVn! bVcjVa! Y^gZXi^dcVa Xdcigda
kVakZ [dg \Vh Y^kZgh^dc =Vch GjYdae]! B^hhdjg^! JH6
VcYV9dj\aVhXdaaZXi^dcWV\KVXjbZY!8Va^[dgc^V!JH6#
KdajbZlVhbZVhjgZYl^i]Vild"a^igZXVa^WgVi^dchng^c\Z
6"B HnhiZbh >cX! 8VgahWdg\! LVh]^c\idc#6 kVXjjb
egZhhjgZ \Vj\Z lVh Vahd ^cXdgedgViZY ^cid i]Z WV\ id
[VX^a^iViZXdch^hiZciZbein^c\d[i]ZXdaaZXi^dcWV\eg^dgid
ZVX]bZVhjgZbZci#
6 h^c\aZ HZgkd .%%8 kZci^aVidg lVh jhZY [dg i]Z hijYn
;^\jgZ '# I]Z bVX]^cZ ]VY jcYZg\dcZ ',, ]djgh d[
]neZgWVg^XjhZh^cXZi]ZaVhihZgk^XZWjieg^dgdeZgVi^dcVa
]djghlZgZjc`cdlc#9jg^c\i]ZXdjghZd[YViVXdaaZXi^dccd
hZgk^X^c\lVhgZfj^gZY#9ViVlZgZXdaaZXiZYl]^ahideZgVi^c\
i]ZkZci^aVidg^cH>BKbdYZ#
G:H:6G8=EGD8:9JG:H
I]Z kZci^aVidg hZii^c\h X]dhZc [dg iZhi^c\ ejgedhZh lZgZ
Xdch^YZgZYine^XVad[hiVgi^c\"ed^cikZci^aVidgneVgVbZiZgh
VcYXdch^hiZcil^i]a^iZgVijgZgZedgih#.!&%I]ZhZlZgZ/
™ gZhe^gVidgngViZd[&%·'%WgZVi]heZgb^cjiZ
™ egZhhjgZhjeedgid[&'Xb='D
™ edh^i^kZZcYZme^gVidgnegZhhjgZE::Ed[*Xb='D
™ &%%dmn\Zc
;^\jgZ'
I]ZHZgkd.%%8kZci^aVidg
B^cjiZkdajbZhd[&#%!&%VcY&*A#b^c"&lZgZX]dhZcid
heVci]ZgVc\Zd[eVZY^Vig^X!cdgbVaVYjaiVcYaVg\ZXViVWda^X
VYjaikdajbZh#
Eg^dg id YViV XdaaZXi^dc i]Z kZci^aVidg lVh hZi je ^c
VXXdgYVcXZl^i]cdgbVaegVXi^XZ#6^g[gdbi]ZXdaaZXi^dcWV\
lVhZkVXjViZYeg^dgidZVX]bZVhjgZbZcil^i]i]ZbZVhjg^c\
hng^c\Z#6kVXjjblVhXdcÄgbZYidWZegZhZcidci]Z\Vj\Z
eg^dgidVYkVcX^c\i]Zhng^c\ZidoZgdegZhhjgZ#I]^hZchjgZY
Xdch^hiZcigZbdkVad[VaaV^g[gdbi]ZXdaaZXi^dcWV\VcYi]Vi
i]ZgZlZgZcdaZV`h^ci]ZhnhiZb#
I]ZkZci^aVidglVhhZiidi]ZYZh^gZYgZhe^gVidgngViZ#I]Z
H^ZbZch HZgkd .%%8 kZci^aVidg ]Vh V a^Y l]^X] XVc WZ
deZcZYidVaadldWhZgkVi^dcd[i]Z»hX^hhdghhinaZ¼kVakZh
i]ViXdcigda^che^gVidgnVcYZme^gVidgnÅdl#I]ZdeZgVidg
i^bZYi]ZVXijVagZhe^gVidgngViZVcYbVYZÄcZVY_jhibZcih
idi]ZkZci^aVidg¼hgViZhZii^c\VhcZZYZYidZchjgZi]ViZmVXian
dcZb^cjiZZaVehZY[gdbdeZc^c\d[i]ZgZhe^gVidgnhX^hhdgh
kVakZidi]ZXadh^c\d[i]ZZme^gVidgnkVakZV[iZgi]ZYZh^gZY
cjbWZgd[kZci^aVi^dcXnXaZh#
I]ZegdXZYjgZ[dgBKXdaaZXi^dclVhiddeZci]Zi]gZZ"lVn
kVakZ^cidi]ZXdaaZXi^dcWV\l]Zci]ZkZci^aVidg¼hZme^gVidgn
kVakZXadhZYVii]ZWZ\^cc^c\d[^che^gVi^dc#JedcXadhjgZ
d[i]ZZme^gVidgnkVakZV[iZgi]ZaVhiWgZVi]VcYdcZb^cjiZ
aViZgi]Zi]gZZ"lVnkVakZlVhXadhZYidi]ZXdaaZXi^dcWV\#
I]Z\gVYjViZYXVa^WgVi^dchng^c\ZlVhi]ZcjhZYidZkVXjViZ
i]ZkdajbZd[i]ZXdaaZXi^dcWV\jci^aVcZ\Vi^kZegZhhjgZ
lVhgZXdgYZYdci]ZkVXjjb\Vj\Z#I]Zhng^c\ZlVhi]Zc
VYkVcXZYjci^aVoZgdegZhhjgZgZVY^c\lVhdWiV^cZYdci]Z
kVXjjb\Vj\Z#I]ZdeZgVidgi]ZcgZXdgYZYi]ZkdajbZdc
VYViVXdaaZXi^dch]ZZi#
H6BEA:H>O:
;dg ZVX] kZci^aVidg hZii^c\! bZVhjgZbZci lVh eZg[dgbZY
'%i^bZhVihZV"aZkZaegZhhjgZVcY'%i^bZhViVegZhhjgZd[
'-(`EV#Eg^dgidVcVanh^hd[i]ZYViV!VcZmVb^cVi^dcd[i]Z
jcYZgan^c\Y^hig^Wji^dclVhjcYZgiV`Zc#Ild^cYZeZcYZci
deZgVidghXdaaZXiZYVcYbZVhjgZYkdajbZhjh^c\i]ZhVbZ
http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org
9^k^c\VcY=neZgWVg^XBZY^X^cZKdajbZ(,Cd#)9ZXZbWZg'%%,
iZX]c^fjZidiZhi[dgi]Zedhh^W^a^ind[deZgVidgiZX]c^fjZ
Zggdg#
GZhjaih
6aaYViVlZgZVcVanhZYjh^c\HEHHœk&(#%#I]ZZmVb^cVi^dc
d[YViVY^hig^Wji^dchj\\ZhiZYi]ViYViV[dgZVX]kZci^aVidg
hZii^c\VcYegZhhjgZXdcY^i^dclZgZVeegdm^bViZancdgbVaan
Y^hig^WjiZY! VcY eVgVbZig^X iZhih lZgZ jhZY ;^h]Zg¼h
VcY EZVghdc¼h h`ZlcZhh XdZ[ÄX^Zcih lZgZ &#.+ VcY %#*%
gZheZXi^kZan#&&·&(8dbeVg^hdchWZilZZchZiVcYYZa^kZgZY
BKlZgZi]ZgZ[dgZXdcYjXiZYjh^c\^cYZeZcYZcii"iZhih#
'%&
9^hXjhh^dc
6ai]dj\]^ilVhYZh^\cZYdkZg'%nZVghV\d!i]ZHZgkd.%%8
^h V bdYZgViZan hde]^hi^XViZY kZci^aVidg! l]^X] ]Vh WZZc
ZmiZch^kZanjhZY^ci]Z^ciZch^kZXVgZhZii^c\#>igZbV^chdcZ
d[i]ZbdhiVYkVcXZY=7DI"XdbeVi^WaZkZci^aVidgh\^kZc
^ih bjai^eaZ bdYZh d[ kZci^aVi^dc! ^cXajY^c\ Xdci^cjdjh
;^\jgZ(
:[[ZXid[^cXgZVhZh^chZib^cjiZkdajbZBKdc
YZa^kZgZYBKVi'-(`EV
WVhZa^cZhZiBK2&#%A#b^c"&
G:A>67>A>IND;DE:G6IDGI:8=C>FJ:
I]ZgZ lVh cd hiVi^hi^XVaan h^\c^[^XVci Y^[[ZgZcXZ ^c i]Z
kdajbZh XdaaZXiZY Wn Y^[[ZgZci deZgVidgh i 2 "&#&)! Y[
2&*#&'!E2%#',#
B>CJI:KDAJB:H9:A>K:G:9
I]ZgZlVhVh^\c^ÄXVcigZYjXi^dc^cVXijVaYZa^kZgZYBKVi
'-(`EV[dgVaahZiBKhIVWaZ&#6ii]Zcdb^cVaanine^XVa
]^\]!WjicdiZmigZbZ!VYjaikZci^aVi^dcBKhZii^c\d[&%
a#b^c"&! i]Z kZci^aVidg VXijVaan YZa^kZgZY .#** A#b^c"& Vi
&%&#(`EVVcY+#*(a#b^c"&Vi'-(`EV.*8>'#.,·(#%%!
E1%#%&#
8DGG:8I>DC K6AJ:H ID 8DBE:CH6I: ;DG
JC9:G9:A>K:GN
;^\jgZ)
:[[ZXid[^cXgZVhZh^chZib^cjiZkdajbZBKdc
YZa^kZgZYBKVi'-(`EV
WVhZa^cZhZiBK2&%A#b^c"&
>cVcViiZbeiid^YZci^[nVcVeegdeg^ViZXdggZXi^dc[VXidg!
i]ZkZci^aVidg¼hhZiBKlVhegd\gZhh^kZan^cXgZVhZYl^i]i]Z
V^bd[VX]^Zk^c\YZa^kZgnd[i]ZYZh^gZYBK#6cBKhZii^c\
^cXgZVhZd[%#,A#b^c"&lVhgZfj^gZYidVX]^ZkZVYZh^gZY
BKd[&A#b^c"&Vi'-(`EV#=dlZkZg![dgi]ZhZiBKhd[
&%A#b^c"&VcY&*A#b^c"&i]ZbVm^bjbBKVX]^ZkVWaZVi
'-(`EVlVhVeegdm^bViZan.#'*A#b^c"&#
:kZcVY_jhi^c\i]ZBKWn '*A#b^c"& VWdkZi]ZhZiBK
d[ & A#b^c"& ;^\jgZ ( dg ^cXgZVh^c\ i]Z hZi BK id i]Z
kZci^aVidgbVm^bjbd[..#.A#b^c"&;^\jgZ)Y^YcdigV^hZ
i]ZbVm^bjbYZa^kZgZYBKVWdkZVeaViZVjh]dgid[i]Z
YZh^gZYBK[dghZii^c\hd[&%VcY&*A#b^c"&#
IVWaZ&
9Za^kZgZYb^cjiZkdajbZVi&%&#(`EVVcY'-(`EVgZaVi^kZidhZib^cjiZkdajbZBK
EgZhhjgZ
`EV
&%(
'-(
&%(
'-(
&%(
'-(
CjbWZgd[
gZVY^c\h
HZiBK
A#b^c"&
BZVcYZa^kZgZY
BKA#b^c"&
HiVcYVgY
YZk^Vi^dc
EkVajZ
.*8>
'%
'%
'%
'%
'%
'%
&
&
&%
&%
&*
&*
&#%(
%#-)
.#**
+#*(
&)#*
.#&'
%#%'*
%#%''
%#%)%
%#%,%
%#%*%
%#%,%
1%#%&
1%#%&
1%#%&
1%#%&
1%#%&
1%#%&
%#&,·%#'%
%#&,·%#'%
'#.,·(#%%
'#.,·(#%%
*#()·*#)(
*#()·*#)(
http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org
'%'
9^k^c\VcY=neZgWVg^XBZY^X^cZKdajbZ(,Cd#)9ZXZbWZg'%%,
bVcYVidgn kZci^aVi^dc 8BK! hncX]gdc^hZY ^ciZgb^iiZci
bVcYVidgnkZci^aVi^dcH>BK!egZhhjgZXdcigdakZci^aVi^dc
E8K! Xdci^cjdjh edh^i^kZ V^glVn egZhhjgZ 8E6E VcY
egZhhjgZhjeedgiEH#&)!&*
A^iZgVijgZ dc i]Z jhZ d[ i]^h kZci^aVidg l^i]^c ]neZgWVg^X
hZii^c\hgZbV^chheVghZ#HdbZhijY^Zh]VkZYZbdchigViZYi]Vi
gV^hZYVbW^ZciegZhhjgZ^cV]neZgWVg^XX]VbWZgbVnXVjhZ
Y^heVg^inWZilZZcY^heaVnZYVcYYZa^kZgZYi^YVakdajbZIK
VcYBK!l^i]VgZYjXi^dc^ci]ZkdajbZhVXijVaanYZa^kZgZY
XdbeVgZYl^i]i]dhZhZi#(!*!&*
6gZXZcihijYn^ckdak^c\VgVc\Zd[kZci^aVidgh^cXajY^c\i]Z
HZgkd.%%8^hdcZd[i]ZbdgZhX^Zci^ÄXVaang^\dgdjhidYViZ!
l^i]i]ZbZVhjgZbZciVeeVgVijhYZiV^aZYVcYbZi]dYdad\n
XaZVgandjia^cZY#(>ci]^hhijYnZVX]kZci^aVidglVhiZhiZY
Vi&%&#(!&(&!&+&!&.'!'-(VcY+%-`EV#I]ZkZci^aVidg
hZii^c\h[dgiZhi^c\lZgZgZedgiZYidWZVIKd[,*%ba!Vc
^che^gVi^dc$Zme^gVi^dc>/:gVi^dd[&/'!VcYgZhe^gVidgngViZh
d[&%!&*VcY'%WgZVi]heZgb^cjiZ#I]ZhZhZii^c\hlZgZ
iZhiZY^cWdi]H>BKVcY^[VkV^aVWaZE8KbdYZh#
I]ZhijYngZhjaihcdiZYVYZXgZVhZd[IK^cH>BKbdYZVh
VbW^ZciegZhhjgZgdhZ!VX]Vc\ZViig^WjiZYidi]Z^cXgZVh^c\
\Vh YZch^in Vi gV^hZY VbW^Zci egZhhjgZ# I]Z BK VcY IK
h]dlc Wn i]Z kZci^aVidg¼h Y^\^iVa Y^heaVnh lZgZ ]^\]Zg
i]Vc i]Z VXijVa YZa^kZgZY kdajbZh! Xdch^hiZci l^i] djg
dWhZgkVi^dch[gdbXa^c^XVaegVXi^XZ#>cdgYZgidXdbeZchViZ
[dg i]^h! i]Z Vji]dgh gZedgiZY ^cXgZVh^c\ i]Z YZa^kZgZY
kdajbZhidVX]^ZkZi]ZegZhZikVajZhWjicdXdggZXi^dckVajZh
lZgZX^iZY#I]ZXdcXajh^dclVhi]ViVai]dj\]VaiZgVi^dcd[
[jcXi^dcdXXjghi]^hXdjaYWZVXXdbbdYViZYVcYXdchiVci
kZci^aVi^dc VX]^ZkZY! Vai]dj\] Vi ]^\]Zg Vibdhe]Zg^X
egZhhjgZhXdbeZchVi^dclVha^b^iZYYjZidi]ZgVc\Zd[i]Z
kZci^aVidg#
I]ZhZgZhjaihlZgZXdch^hiZcil^i]VegZk^djhhijYndci]Z
HZgkdhZg^Zhd[kZci^aVidgh!l]^X]gZedgiZYdcZhZid[YViV
^ci]Z]neZgWVg^XZck^gdcbZci#*>ci]^hhijYni]ZkZci^aVidg
lVh hZi id YZa^kZg &% A#b^c"& Vi &%&#( `EV VcY VXijVaan
YZa^kZgZY dcan + A#b^c"& Vi '-( `EV# >i Vahd gZedgiZY i]Vi
i]Z kZci^aVidg¼h Y^\^iVa Y^heaVnh d[ YZa^kZgZY BK gZVY
Vgi^ÄX^Vaan]^\]kVajZhViegZhhjgZVhVXdchZfjZcXZd[i]Z
ecZjbdiVX]dbZiZgÅdlhZchdg#I]Z^ckZhi^\VidghXaV^bZY
id]VkZ^cXgZVhZYBKhidVX]^ZkZi]Zdg^\^cVahZii^c\hVcY
gZedgiZYdeZgVi^dcd[i]^hkZci^aVidg[dg]jcYgZYhd[]djgh
l^i]djibVa[jcXi^dc!Wjicd^c[dgbVi^dclVhegdk^YZYl^i]
gZheZXiidi]ZXdggZXi^dc[VXidghcZXZhhVgndgi]ZbVm^bjb
kdajbZhVWaZidWZYZa^kZgZY#
I]ZgZhjaihd[djghijYnVgZXdch^hiZcil^i]egZk^djhÄcY^c\h!
h]dl^c\h^\c^ÄXVciY^[[ZgZcXZhWZilZZci]ZYZa^kZgnd[BK
ViVbW^ZciegZhhjgZVcYVi'-(`EV[dghZiBKhd[&#%!&%
VcY&*A#b^c"&#(!*!&*I]ZgZYjXi^dc^cBKYZa^kZgZYVi'-(
`EVlVhXa^c^XVaanh^\c^ÄXVci·Zcdj\]idgZfj^gZXdggZXi^dc
idVX]^ZkZgZhjaihXadhZgidi]ZYZh^gZYBK#I]ZeVgi^XjaVg
bVm^bjbdjiejilZ^YZci^ÄZYVeegdm^bViZan.#*A#b^c"&
^hegdWVWanheZX^ÄXidi]ZgViZ!egZhhjgZhjeedgi!E::EVcY
>/:gVi^dhZii^c\hlZX]dhZ[dgi]ZhijYn#=dlZkZg!^i^hXaZVg
i]Vii]ZkZci^aVidg]Vhdjiejia^b^iVi^dchViegZhhjgZ^ci]Z
H>BKbdYZi]ViXVcWZXa^c^XVaan^bedgiVci#HjX]YZk^Vi^dch
d[YZa^kZgZYBK[gdbi]ZhZiBKbVngZegZhZciVi]gZViid
i]ZeVi^Zcii]gdj\]]nedm^VVcY$dg]neZgXVgW^V#
6hbZci^dcZY^ci]Z^cigdYjXi^dc!VheZX^ÄX[V^a^c\d[i]Z
ecZjbdiVX]dbZiZg ineZ d[ Ådl hZchdg ^h i]Vi i]Z djieji
h^\cVad[hjX]hZchdgh^hhZch^i^kZidegZhhjgZVcY!jcaZhh
i]ZgZVgZZaZXigdc^XhnhiZbhegZhZciidXdbeZchViZ[dgi]^h!
\VhYZa^kZgnWZXdbZh^cXgZVh^c\an^cVXXjgViZVhi]ZVbW^Zci
egZhhjgZg^hZh#(!*!+
L]^ahi^i^hedhh^WaZid[jaanXdbeZchViZ[dgi]ZgZYjXi^dc
^cYZa^kZgZYBKVi'-(`EVl]ZcVhZiBKd[&A#b^c"&^h
YZh^gZY!VcYcZVgXdbeZchViZ[dgVBKd[&%A#b^c"&!i]Z
aViiZghZii^c\VeeZVghidgZegZhZciVcdjiejieaViZVj[dgi]^h
kZci^aVidgVii]^hegZhhjgZ#I]^hbVnWZXa^c^XVaangZaZkVci
^c i]Z XVhZ d[ aVg\Z eVi^Zcih dg i]dhZ l^i] gZhe^gVidgn
dg XViVWda^X Z#\#! hZei^X Xdbea^XVi^dch VcY$dg ^c_jgn#&+
HigViZ\^Zhidha^\]iangV^hZYZa^kZgZYBK^ci]^hbdYZbVn
^cXajYZVc^cXgZVhZ^cgZhe^gVidgngViZ!VcYaZc\i]Zc^c\d[i]Z
^che^gVidgneZg^dY!Vai]dj\]i]ZaViiZgXVgg^ZhVi]ZdgZi^XVaan
^cXgZVhZYg^h`d[\VhigVee^c\VcYWVgdigVjbVdcX]VbWZg
YZegZhhjg^hVi^dc# GZYjX^c\ egZhhjgZ hjeedgi dg E::E ^h
jca^`Zan id WZ YZh^gVWaZ ^c V eVi^Zci gZfj^g^c\ aVg\Z BK
kZci^aVi^dc#
HdbZ^ckZhi^\Vidgh]VkZhj\\ZhiZYi]ViBKYZa^kZgn^ci]Z
HZgkd.%%8kZci^aVidg^haZhhV[[ZXiZYVigV^hZYVibdhe]Zg^X
egZhhjgZl]Zc^cE8KbdYZgVi]Zgi]Vci]ZkdajbZ"Xdcigda
bdYZd[H>BK!(VcY^i^hdjgXa^c^XVaegVXi^XZidX]Vc\Zid
E8K^[kZci^aVi^dc^cH>BKbdYZegdkZh^cVYZfjViZ#
>i bVn WZ i]Vi jhZ d[ E8K bdYZ h]djaY WZ ZcXdjgV\ZY
Yjg^c\=7DI#=dlZkZg!eVi^Zci·kZci^aVidghncX]gdcnVcY
eVi^ZciXdb[dgiVgZjhjVaanWZiiZg^[dcZYdZhcdiX]Vc\Z
kZci^aVi^dcbdYZ^ci]ZXVhZd[b^c^bVaanhZYViZYeVi^Zcih
WZ^c\kZci^aViZY^cH>BKbdYZ^ci]Z^ciZch^kZXVgZjc^i#
Di]ZgegdWaZbhi]ViXVcWZVhhdX^ViZYl^i]i]ZE8KbdYZ
^cXajYZ ]^\]Zg eZV` ^che^gVidgn egZhhjgZh! l]^X] bVn WZ
VhhdX^ViZY l^i] ejabdcVgn WVgdigVjbV! eajh Vc ^cXgZVhZ
^cbZVcV^glVnegZhhjgZ!l]^X]XVcaZVYidVc^cXgZVhZ^c
g^\]ikZcig^XjaVgV[iZgadVY!YZXgZVhZYXVgY^VXegZadVYVcY
gZYjXZYXVgY^VXdjiejigZfj^g^c\^cdigde^XhjeedgiVcY$dg
Åj^YkdajbZadVY^c\#&,
8dcXajh^dch
>i^hedhh^WaZidji^a^hZi]ZHZgkd.%%8kZci^aVidg^cH>BK
bdYZ^c]neZgWVg^XX]VbWZghWn^cXgZVh^c\i]ZhZiBKl^i]
egZhhjg^hVi^dc^cdgYZgidbV^ciV^cYZa^kZgnd[i]ZYZh^gZY
BK#=dlZkZg!i]ZkZci^aVidg]VhVbVm^bjbdjiejii]VibVn
a^b^i^ihjhVW^a^in^ci]^hbdYZd[kZci^aVi^dc#I]ZkZci^aVidg¼h
Y^heaVnh d[ YZa^kZgZY kdajbZh l^aa WZ VWdkZ i]Z VXijVa
YZa^kZgZYkdajbZh!l]^X]h]djaYi]ZgZ[dgZWZbZVhjgZYl^i]
Vc^cYZeZcYZci!egZhhjgZ"XVa^WgViZYkdajbZiZgdgÅdlbZiZg#
6i'-(`EVi]ZkZci^aVidgiZhiZYYZbdchigViZYVbVm^bjb
http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org
9^k^c\VcY=neZgWVg^XBZY^X^cZKdajbZ(,Cd#)9ZXZbWZg'%%,
YZa^kZgVWaZBKd[Veegdm^bViZan.#*A#b^c"&l^i]egZhhjgZ
hjeedgid[&'Xb='DVcYE::Ed[*Xb='D#
GZ[ZgZcXZh
?V^[email protected]@!ZY^idg#IZmiWdd`d[]neZgWVg^XbZY^X^cZ!)i]
ZY#LVh]^c\idc/=d\gZ[ZVcY=jWZg0'%%)#
' @^cYlVaa:E!L]ZaVc=I!ZY^idgh#=neZgWVg^XbZY^X^cZ
egVXi^XZ!'cYZY#;aV\hiV[[/7ZhiEjWa^h]^c\8dbeVcn0
&...#
( HiV]aL!GVYZgbVX]ZgE!8Vao^d:#;jcXi^dc^c\d[>8J
kZci^aVidghjcYZg]neZgWVg^XXdcY^i^dch·XdbeVg^hdcd[
kdajbZVcYegZhhjgZ"XdcigdaaZYbdYZh#>ciZch^kZ8VgZ
BZY#'%%%0'+/))'"-#
) Jc^kZgh^in d[ @VchVh P]dbZeV\Z dc i]Z ^ciZgcZiR#
9ZhXg^ei^dcd[i]ZHZgkd.%%8PjeYViZY'%%+6eg0X^iZY
'%%+?jc&'R#6kV^aVWaZ[gdb/1lll#`jbX#ZYj$H6=$
gZheTXVgZ$.%%XYZhX#]iba3
* =^ee G! B^Za`Z AA! BZncZg B! :ci]daocZg :!
7gZ^cWVjZg7!ZiVa#HZgkd.%%7kZci^aVidgjhZjcYZg
]neZgWVg^X XdcY^i^dch# JcYZghZV =neZgWVg^X BZY#
&..*0''Hjeea/-%"&#
+ Bddc G:! =Vgi 77# DeZgVi^dcVa jhZ VcY eVi^Zci
bdc^idg^c\^cVbjai^eaVXZ]neZgWVg^XX]VbWZg#GZhe
8VgZ8a^cC6b#&..*0*/'&").#
, ;^c` :c\^cZZg^c\ P]dbZeV\Z dc i]Z ^ciZgcZiR# Ig^eaZ
adX` gZXiVc\jaVg ]neZgWVg^X hnhiZb heZX^[^XVi^dch
PjeYViZY '%%'0 X^iZY '%%+ ?jc &'R#6kV^aVWaZ [gdb
1]iie/$$lll#Äc`#Xdb#Vj$ia$ia'%"a#eY[3
- H^ZbZchHZgkd.%%8kZci^aVidgdeZgVi^c\bVcjVa#+i]
ZY#HdacV/HlZYZc0&..)6gicd#+.,-,+&:(&(:#
. IVc>@H!D]I:#BZX]Vc^XVakZci^aVidgnhjeedgi#>c/
D]I:!ZY^idg#>ciZch^kZXVgZbVcjVa!)i]ZY#Dm[dgY/
7jiiZgldgi]"=Z^cZbVcc0&..,#
&% IdW^cB?#BZX]Vc^XVakZci^aVi^dc#C:c\a?BZY#&..)0
((%/&%*+"+&#
&
'%(
&& =^aYZWgVcY [email protected]# HiVi^hi^XVa i]^c`^c\ [dg WZ]Vk^djgVa
hX^Zci^hih#7dhidc/9jmWjgn0&.-+#
&' BjcgdZ7=!EV\Z:7#HiVi^hi^XVabZi]dYh[dg]ZVai]
XVgZ gZhZVgX]! 'cY ZY# E]^aVYZae]^V/ ?7 A^ee^cXgd[i0
&..(#
&( AZ]bVc GH# HiVi^hi^XVa VcY gZhZVgX] YZh^\c ^c i]Z
WZ]Vk^djgVahX^ZcXZh#7Zabdci/LVcYhldgi]0&..&#
&) H`^ccZg B# KZci^aVidg [jcXi^dc jcYZg ]neZgWVg^X
XdcY^i^dch#HEJBH?#&..-0'-/+'",&#
&* =daXdbW?G!BVidh"CVkVggd6N!<daYbVcGL#8g^i^XVa
XVgZ^ci]Z]neZgWVg^XX]VbWZg#>c/9Vk^[email protected]!
ZY^idgh#EgdWaZbldjcYh/i]ZgdaZd[dmn\Zc#CZlNdg`/
:ahZk^Zg0&.--#
&+ D]I:!ZY^idg#>ciZch^kZXVgZbVcjVa!)i]ZY#Dm[dgY/
7jiiZgldgi]"=Z^cZbVcc0&..,#
&, E^ZgXZ AC7# <j^YZ id bZX]Vc^XVa kZci^aVi^dc VcY
^ciZch^kZ gZhe^gVidgn XVgZ# E]^aVYZae]^V/ HVjcYZgh0
&..*#
<dgYdc 7^c\]Vb! 76=dch BCHX GC! 8a^c^XVa CjghZ
HeZX^Va^hi!=neZgWVg^XJc^i!6a[gZY=dhe^iVaVcYBVhiZgd[
Cjgh^c\HijYZci!HX]ddad[Cjgh^c\B^Yl^[Zgn!AVIgdWZ
Jc^kZgh^in!
7^[email protected]]!GCE]9!HZc^dgAZXijgZgVcY
<ZgVaY^cZAZZ!E<9:7HXGC!AZXijgZg!HX]ddad[Cjgh^c\
B^Yl^[Zgn!AVIgdWZJc^kZgh^in!BZaWdjgcZVcY
>Vc B^aaVg! B77H ;6;DB 9^e9=B! Jc^i 9^gZXidg!
=neZgWVg^XBZY^X^cZ!6a[gZY=dhe^iVa!BZaWdjgcZ
6YYgZhh[dgXdggZhedcYZcXZ/
<dgYdc7^c\]Vb
=neZgWVg^XJc^i!6a[gZY=dhe^iVa
8dbbZgX^VaGdVY!BZaWdjgcZ(%%)
E]dcZ/ +&"%(".%,+"(,+%
;Vm/ +&"%(".%,+"(.(:"bV^a/1\#W^c\]Vb5Va[gZY#dg\#Vj3
International Life Saving World Drowning Report 2007
I]Z >ciZgcVi^dc A^[Z HVk^c\ ;ZYZgVi^dc >A; LdgaY
9gdlc^c\GZedgilVhegZhZciZYVii]ZLdgaYLViZgHV[Zin
8dc[ZgZcXZ^cEdgij\VagZXZcian#I]Z[daadl^c\VgZZmXZgeih
[gdbi]VigZedgi#
™
™
™
™
I]ZLdgaY=ZVai]Dg\Vc^hVi^dcL=DcdiZYi]ViYgdlc^c\
^hi]Zi]^gYaZVY^c\XVjhZd[jc^ciZci^dcVaYZVi]\adWVaanV[iZg
gdVYigV[ÄX^c_jg^ZhVcY[VaahLdgaY=ZVai]GZedgi'%%)
BdhigZedgihdcYgdlc^c\^c_jgncdiZi]ZY^[ÄXjai^ZhVcY
jcgZa^VW^a^ind[YViVXdaaZXi^dc^cYZkZade^c\Xdjcig^Zh#
CZlOZVaVcY]Vhi]Zi]^gY]^\]ZhiYgdlc^c\idaaVi(#(eZg
&%%!%%%edejaVi^dc^ci]ZldgaY!WZ]^cY7gVo^a(#*VcY
;^caVcY(#)#6jhigVa^V^hh^mi]]^\]Zhi&#*#
>AHYViV^YZci^ÄZY`Zn\gdjehdgadXVi^dchbdhihjhXZei^WaZ
idYgdlc^c\/
™ 8]^aYgZcjcYZgÄkZnZVghVcYVYjaih!&-·).nZVgh
™ <ZcYZgbVaZ
™ EaVXZd[dXXjggZcXZg^kZgh!aV`Zh!dXZVchVcYXgZZ`h
8a^bViZXdcY^i^dchadliZbeZgVijgZ
HV[ZinZfj^ebZcicda^[Z_VX`Zi
JhZd[VaXd]da[dgbZcl]ZcWdVi^c\VcYhl^bb^c\
EVgZciVahjeZgk^h^dcaVX`i]ZgZd[[dgndjc\X]^aYgZc
CZl OZVaVcY lVh V\V^c cdiZY [dg i]Z VXXjgVXn d[ ^ih
Ygdlc^c\ YViV Vadc\ l^i] i]Z ZVhZ l^i] l]^X] i]Zn VgZ
XdaaZXiZY#
I]ZVW^a^inidYZkZadeYgdlc^c\egZkZci^dc^c^i^Vi^kZh[gdb
gZa^VWaZ Zk^YZcXZ ^h Xg^i^XVa id gZYjX^c\ i]Z ^cX^YZcXZ d[
Ygdlc^c\ dkZg i^bZ! hdbZi]^c\ i]Vi ]Vh jcfjZhi^dcVWan
dXXjggZY^cCZlOZVaVcYh^cXZ&.-%[gdbl]ZcYZiV^aZY
[ViVaYgdlc^c\YViV]VkZWZZcgZXdgYZY#
Download
Random flashcards
Rekening Agen Resmi De Nature Indonesia

9 Cards denaturerumahsehat

Secuplik Kuliner Sepanjang Danau Babakan

2 Cards oauth2_google_2e219703-8a29-4353-9cf2-b8dae956302e

Card

2 Cards

Create flashcards