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EIN 4365 FACILITIES PLANNING AND
MATERIAL HANDLING
Lecture 10
Layout Planning Models and Design
Algorithms
Outline
•
•
•
Systematic Layout Planning (SLP)
Procedure
A constructive algorithm
An improvement algorithm
Facility Layout Procedures
• Naddler’s Ideal System Approach (1961)
• Immer’s Basic Steps (1950)
• Apple’s Plant Layout Procedure (1977)
• Reed’s Plant Layout Procedure (1961)
• Muther’s Systematic Layout Planning (1961)
Naddler’s Ideal System Approach
The ideal system approach is based on the
following hierarchical approach toward
design:
1. Aim for the “theoretical ideal system.”
2. Conceptualize the “ultimate ideal
system.”
3. Design the “technologically workable
ideal system.”
4. Install the “recommended system.”
Theoretical ideal system
Ultimate ideal system
Technologically workable system
Recommended system
Present system
Immer’s Basic Steps
Immer described the analysis of a layout problem as follows: “This
analysis should be composed of three simple steps, which can be
applied to any type of layout problem. These steps are:
1. Put the problem on the paper.
2. Show lines of flow.
3. Convert flow lines to machine lines.
Apple’s Plant Layout Procedure
Apple recommended that the following detailed sequence of steps be used in
designing a plant layout.
1. Procure the basic data.
11. Determine storage requirements
2. Analyze the basic data.
12. Plan service and auxiliary activities.
3. Design the productive process.
13. Determine space requirements.
4. Plan the material flow pattern.
14. Allocate activities to total space.
5. Consider the general material handling plan. 15. Consider building type
6. Calculate equipment requirements.
16. Consider master layouts.
7. Plan individual work stations.
17. Evaluate, adjust and check the layout.
8. Select specific material handling equipment. 18. Obtain approval.
9. Coordinate groups of related operations.
19. Install the layout.
10. Design activity relationships.
20. Follow up on implementation of the layout.
Reed’s Plant Layout Procedure
In “planning for and preparing the layout,” Reed recommended that the
following steps be taken in his “systematic plan of attack”:
1. Analyze the product to be produced.
2. Determine the process required to manufacture the product.
3. Prepare layout planning charts.
4. Determine work stations.
5. Analyze storage area requirements.
6. Establish minimum aisle widths.
7. Establish office requirements.
8. Consider personnel facilities and services.
9. Survey plant services.
10. Provide for future expansion.
Systematic Layout Procedure (overview)
Steps
1) Determine the flow between departments and
form the relationship chart.
2) Develop a graphical representation of the
relationship chart.
3) Determine the space requirement for each
department.
4) Develop templates to represent each area.
5) Arrange the templates in the same fashion as the
graphical representation.
An Example
Determine a good layout for a small manufacturing firm
consisting of the following departments.
Production (Pr)
Warehouse (WH)
Office (Of)
Tool Room (TR)
Food Services (FS)
Maintenance (Mn)
Locker Room (LR)
Shipping/Receiving (SR)
Warning!
• This is not a precise method. Rather, it is an
approach to help find a good layout. Any
two people applying the approach, working
independently, will probably not obtain the
same layout. This problem is a design
problem – not an analysis problem.
Input data for the example
From-to Chart
Production
Production
Warehouse
Shipping/Receiving
2000
300
Total flow between departments
Production
Production
Warehouse
Shipping/Receiving
Warehouse
600
Shipping
100
600
2000
Warehouse
Shipping
2600
400
2600
Relationship Chart
Nodes
Pr
WH
Production (Pr) A
Warehouse (WH)
Office (Of)
Tool Room (TR)
Food Services (FS)
Maintenance (Mn)
Locker Room (LR)
Shipping/Receiving (SR)
Of
E
O
-
TR
A
O
Relationship chart priority codes
A  4, E  3, I  2, O  1, U  0, X  -1
-
FS
E
O
O
-
Mn
A
O
O
A
LR
E
-
SR Total
E
24
A
11
O
7
10
5
O
11
3
9
Relationship Diagram
• Objective: To arrange the
nodes so that there is a
minimum number of
departments crossed when
going from one to another.
SR
WH
Of
FS
Pr
LR
Mn
• Method:
• 1) Select the dept. with the
highest total, place it in the
center
• 2) Locate around it any dept’s
that have 4-rel with it.
• 3) Continue the procedure with
each dept. in the diagram
• 4) After all 4-rels are exhausted,
if some departments are not in
the diagram, continue with 3TR
rels, then 2-rels and 1-rels until
all departments are in the
diagram.
Space Requirements
Office
Area (sq. ft.)
Production (Pr)
4800
Warehouse (WH)
3050
Office (Of)
2400
Toolroom (TR)
1150
Food Services (FS)
750
Maintenance (Mn)
1000
Locker Room (LR)
600
Shipping/Receiving (SR)
1900
Total
15,650 sq. ft.
Blocks
12
8
6
3
2
2
2
5
40
If one grid
= 20*20 =
400 ft2
Department Templates
Pr
FS
LR
Of
Mn
TR
WH
SR
Space Relationship Diagram
WH
SR
Of
Pr
TR
FS
Mn
LR
Layout
SR
Doing this well is
more difficult
than it looks.
Expect a mess the
first few times
you try it.
WH
Of
Pr
TR
FS
LR
Mn
Rectilinear Distance
• The rectilinear distance between (x,y) and
(u,v) is |x – u| + |y – v|. It is used with right
angle street and aisle networks.
(x,y) o
|y-v|
o (u,v)
|x-u|
Effectiveness of the Layout
SR
WH
Of
Pr
Nodes Pr WH Of TR FS
(Pr)
- 4*0 3*0 4*0 3*0
(WH)
- 1*1 1*0
(Of)
1*0
(TR)
- 1*3
(FS)
TR (Mn)
(LR)
(SR)
Mn LR SR Sum
4*0 3*0 3*0
0
1*3
4*0
4
1*3
1*0
3
4*0
3
0
1*4
4
0
0
FS
LR
Mn
Total:
14
Effectiveness of an Alternative
Layout
SR
WH
Of Pr
FS
LR
Nodes Pr WH Of TR FS
(Pr)
- 4*0 3*0 4*0 3*0
(WH)
- 1*1 1*0
TR (Of)
1*0
(TR)
- 1*3
(FS)
(Mn)
Mn (LR)
(SR)
Total:
Mn LR SR Sum
4*0 3*0 3*0
0
1*2
4*0
3
1*3
1*0
3
4*0
3
0
1*4
4
0
0
13
Transformation to a Block Plan
SR
WH
TR
Of
Pr
Mn
FS
LR
Second Example
Proposed production plan:
Product
Sequence
1
A-C-D-A-F
2
B-A-C-D-F
3
E-B-C-A-F
Space Requirements
Dept.
A
B
C
D
E
F
Area (sq. ft.)
200
300
400
300
100
500
Production
500
1000
300
Flow>1600
1200<Flow<1600
800<Flow<1200
250<Flow<800
Flow<250
Building: 30 ft.*60 ft.
:A
:E
:I
:O
:U
Relationship Chart
Proposed production plan:
Product
Sequence
1
A-C-D-A-F
2
B-A-C-D-F
3
E-B-C-A-F
Production
500
1000
300
Flow>1600
1200<Flow<1600
800<Flow<1200
250<Flow<800
Flow<250
I
From-to chart
A B
C
D
A
- 1500
B 1000 300
C 300
1500
D
E
300
F
E
F
800
1500
-
Total flow
A B
C
A
1000 1800
B
300
C
D
E
F
A
:A
:E
:I
:O
:U
E
O
D
E
F
800
300
1500
-
1500
-
Relationship Diagram
Nodes
A
B
C
D
E
F
A
-
B
I
-
C
A
O
-
D
E
F
I
O
E
-
E
-
E
C
D
A
F
B
Total
8
4
8
6
1
5
Space Requirement and Layout
Dept.
A
B
C
D
E
F
Area Blocks
200
2
300
3
400
4
300
3
100
1
500 5
E
C
D
B
A
F
A
B
C
D
E
F
E
F
F
F
F
F
B
B
A
A
D
D
B
C
C
C
C
D
E
F
0
A
-
B
0
-
C
0
0
-
D
0
0
-
0
-
Sum
0
0
0
0
0
0
Alternative Layout
F
E
C
F
F
F
F
D
E
A
A
C
C
D
B
B
B
C
C
D
D
B
A
F
A
B
C
D
E
F
A
-
B
0
-
C
0
0
-
D
E
F
0
0
0
-
0
-
Sum
0
0
0
0
0
0
Block Plan
E
F
A
B
D
C
E
F
A
B
C
D
An Improvement Algorithm
• A construction algorithm starts from scratch; however,
improvement algorithms need an initial solution.
Pairwise Exchange Method for Layout Improvement
• Exchanging the locations of pairs of departments and
calculating the benefit
• Useful in redesigning an existing facility, which is
typically triggered by:
–
–
–
–
Addition of a new machine
Changes in the product mix
Decisions related to the contraction and expansion of storage areas
Simple realization that the old layout is no longer adequate for its
needs
An Example
Four departments of the same size.
Initial Layout
1
2
Flow between departments:
1
2
3
4
1
10
15
20
2
10
5
3
5
4
-
3
4
TC = 10 (1) + 15(2)
+ 20 (3) +
10 (1) + 5 (2) +
5 (1)
= 10 + 30 + 60 + 10
+10 + 5 = 125
Pairwise Exchange
Four departments of the same size.
Try Layout
3
2
Flow between departments:
3
2
1
4
3
5
2
10
5
1
15
10
20
4
-
1
4
TC = 10 (1) + 15(2)
+ 20 (1) +
10 (1) + 5 (2) +
5 (3)
= 10 + 30 + 20 + 10
+10 + 15 = 95
Pairwise Exchange
Four departments of the same size.
Try Layout
2
3
Flow between departments:
2
3
1
4
2
10
5
3
5
1
10
15
20
4
-
1
4
TC = 10 (2) + 15(1)
+ 20 (1) +
10 (1) + 5 (3) +
5 (2)
= 20 + 15 + 20 + 10
+15 + 10 = 90
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