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Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies (Fourth edition)
Description:
"Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies" is widely regarded as the standard work in its field.
Part one covers management issues such as HACCP, quality control, process control and product
development. Part two deals with the selection of raw materials and ingredients. The range and types of
biscuits is covered in part three, while part four covers the main production processes and equipment, from
bulk handling and metering of ingredients to packaging, storage and waste management.
Eight expert authors have joined Duncan Manley in extensively updating and expanding the book, which is
now some 25% longer than the previous edition. Part one now includes a new chapter on sustainability in
the biscuit industry and the discussion of process and efficiency control is more detailed. In part two the
information on wheat flour has been extensively revised to reflect recent developments and there are
entirely new chapters on fats and oils and packaging materials. Photographs of the major types of biscuits
now illustrate chapters in part three, which also includes a newly-composed chapter on the position of
biscuits in nutrition. Finally, part four has been comprehensively reviewed and revised with the assistance of
an author from a major machinery manufacturer.
With its distinguished editor and team of expert contributors this new edition consolidates the position of
"Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies" as the standard reference work in the industry.
Key features:
- widely regarded as the standard work in its field
- covers management issues such as HACCP, quality control, process control and product development
- deals with the selection of raw materials and ingredients
- fourth edition now includes a new chapter on sustainability in the biscuit industry
Contents:
Setting the scene: A history and the position of biscuits
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- The beginnings of biscuit manufacturing
- Ingredients and formulation development
- Engineering
- References and useful reading
PART 1: MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY IN BISCUIT MANUFACTURE
The role of the technical department in biscuit manufacture
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- The requirements of the technical (or technology) department
- Selection of staff for the technical department
- Facilities for the technical department
- Liaison with other technical establishments
- Support for purchasing
- Support for training
- Management of technical developments
- Reference
- Useful reading
Quality management systems and (HACCP) in biscuit manufacture
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Quality management
- Management of product safety
- Useful reading
Quality control and good manufacturing practice (GMP) in the biscuit industry
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Principles and management
- Quality control tasks for finished product inspection
- Quality control tasks for ingredient and packaging materials
- Good manufacturing practice (GMP)
- Hygiene surveys
- References
- Useful reading
Process and efficiency control in biscuit manufacture
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK and M Wilkes, MW Associates, UK
- Process control and efficiency
- Process audit
- Process control checks and records for plants with no continuous monitoring sensors
- Making process control measurements
- Action procedures as a result of product measurements
- Instrumentation for monitoring
- Efficiency and integrated plant control
- Outline of the instrumentation that is available - Troubleshooting
- Energy efficiency
- References
- Useful reading and contacts
Product development in the biscuit industry
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Product development
- Facilities for process and product development
- Assessing products
- Establishing the product specification
- References
- Useful reading
Sustainability in the biscuit industry
R Brightwell, United Biscuits, UK
- Introduction
- Key drivers for sustainability in the biscuit industry
- Carbon emissions and energy use
- Reducing water use
- Reducing waste
- Packaging
- Other options for improving sustainability
PART 2: MATERIALS AND INGREDIENTS FOR BISCUIT MANUFACTURE
Choosing materials for biscuit production
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Important technical aspects
- Important commercial aspects
- Programme for the meeting with a supplier
Wheat flour and vital wheat gluten as biscuit ingredients
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK, B Pareyt and J A Delcour, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven,
Belgium
- Introduction
- Flour from the viewpoint of the miller
- Flour from the viewpoint of the biscuit manufacturer
- Vital wheat gluten
- References
- Useful reading
Meals, grits, flours and starches (other than wheat)
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Cereal based materials
- Non-cereal flours and starches
- References
- Useful reading and addresses
Sugars and syrups as biscuit ingredients
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Common sugar, sucrose
- Syrups
- Sugars and syrups from starches - glucose
- Non-diastatic malt extract
- Maillard reaction
- Polyols
- Useful reading
Fats and oils as biscuit ingredients
G Atkinson, AarhusKarlshamn UK Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- The role of fat in biscuits
- The chemistry and physical properties of fats
- Quality and handling issues of fats
- Key characteristics of fats for biscuits
- Quality control of fats
- General specification requirements for oils and fats
- Challenges for the biscuit manufacturer
- References
- Useful reading
Emulsifiers (surfactants) and antioxidants as biscuit ingredients
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Function of emulsifiers in biscuits
- Types of food emulsifiers
- Reduced fat biscuits
- General use of emulsifiers in biscuit doughs
- Application help
- Anti-oxidants
- References
- Useful reading
Milk products and egg as biscuit ingredients
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Milk and milk products
- Egg
- References
- Useful reading
Dried fruits and nuts as biscuit ingredients
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Dried grapes
- Other dried fruits used in biscuits
- Fruit pastes and syrups
- Tree nuts
- Peanuts, arachis or ground nut
- Health problems associated with nuts
- References
- Useful reading
Yeast and enzymes as biscuit ingredients
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Yeast
- Enzymes
- References
- Useful reading
Flavours, spices and flavour enhancers as biscuit ingredients
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Sources and types of flavours
- Suitability of a flavour material
- Flavouring of biscuits
- Flavour enhancers
- Storage of flavours and quality control
- References
- Useful reading
Additives as biscuit ingredients
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Common salt (sodium chloride, NaCl)
- Leavening agents
- Processing aids
- Food acids
- Colours
- Artificial sweeteners
- References
- Useful reading
Chocolate and cocoa as biscuit ingredients
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- The flavour of chocolate
- Chocolate viscosity
- Cocoa butter, cocoa butter equivalents and hard butters
- Definitions of cocoa and chocolate products
- Types of chocolate
- Supply and storage of chocolate
- Chocolate drops and chips
- Cocoa
- Handling of chocolate and chocolate chips
- Compound chocolate
- Carob powder
- References
- Useful reading
Packaging materials for biscuits and their influence on shelf life
G L Robertson, Food - Packaging - Environment and University of Queensland, Australia
- Introduction
- Packaging materials
- Packaging and shelf life
- Indices of failure (IoFs)
- Package requirements to address (IoFs)
- References
- Useful reading
PART 3: TYPES OF BISCUITS
Classification of biscuits
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Classification based on enrichment of the formulation
- Conversion of units
- Reference
- Useful reading
Cream crackers
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- History and introduction to cream crackers
- Mixing and fermentation of cream cracker doughs
- Dough piece forming
- Baking of cream crackers
- Yields from fermented doughs
- References
- Useful reading
Soda crackers
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Dough preparation
- Outline of typical soda cracker manufacturing techniques
- References
Savoury or snack crackers
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- General description
- Manufacturing technology
- Post-oven oil spraying
- Useful reading
Matzos and water biscuits
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Matzos
- Water biscuits
- Typical recipes
- Useful reading
Puff biscuits
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- General description
- Puff dough preparation
- Baking of puff biscuits
- Puff biscuit production techniques
- References
- Useful reading
Hard sweet, semi-sweet and Garibaldi fruit sandwich biscuits
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- General description of this group of biscuits
- Ingredients and recipes
- Dough mixing
- Mixer instrumentation
- Dough piece forming
- Instrumentation of the forming machine
- Baking
- Flavouring of biscuits
- Cooling and handling of biscuits
- Continental semi-sweet biscuits
- Garibaldi or fruit sandwich biscuits
- References
- Useful reading
Short dough biscuits
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK, B Pareyt and J A Delcour, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven,
Belgium
- Description of the group
- Recipes and ingredients
- Dough mixing
- Dough piece forming
- Instrumentation of the forming machine
- Baking
- Factors affecting dough piece spread during baking
- References
- Useful reading
Deposited soft dough and sponge drop biscuits
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Description of deposited biscuits
- Description of sponge batter drops
- Typical recipes
- Useful reading
Wafer biscuits
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- The wafer oven or wafer baker
- Wafer sheet production
- Batter mixing
- Batter handling
- Batter deposition and baking
- Sheet handling, creaming and cutting
- Process control of wafer production
- Hollow rolled wafer sticks
- References
- Useful reading
The position of biscuits in nutrition
H Smith, Cereal Partners United Kingdom (CPUK), UK
- Introduction
- Biscuits in our diets
- The evolution of biscuit nutrition
- Different biscuits for different people
- Food labelling can help – only when you understand it
- References
- Useful reading
Miscellaneous biscuit-like products
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Products that are made on a type of biscuit plant
- Products that are not made on conventional biscuit plant
- References
PART 4: BISCUIT PRODUCTION PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENT
Bulk handling and metering of biscuit ingredients
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK, reviewed by H Clark, Baker Perkins Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Bulk handling
- Some technical aspects of bulk handling
- Process control in bulk storage
- Metering of ingredients to mixers
- References
- Useful reading
Mixing and premixes in biscuit manufacture
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK, reviewed by H Clark, Baker Perkins Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- General conditions for mixing
- Process control and instrumentation of mixers
- Considerations in the selection of a mixer
- Types of mixer available for biscuit doughs
- Integrated mixing schemes in the future
- Premixes
- References
- Useful reading
Sheeting, gauging and cutting in biscuit manufacture
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK, reviewed by H Clark, Baker Perkins Ltd, UK
- Principles
- Sheeters
- Gauge rolls
- Multiple roller gauging units
- Dough relaxation units
- Cutting
- Cutter scrap dough handling
- Dough piece garnishing and panning
- Control of biscuit cutting machines
- Operator maintenance requirements
- Useful reading
Laminating in biscuit manufacture
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK, reviewed by H Clark, Baker Perkins Ltd, UK
- Principles and techniques of laminating
- Types of automatic laminator
- Is laminating really necessary?
- Process control during laminating
- Useful reading
Rotary moulding in biscuit manufacture
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK, reviewed by H Clark, Baker Perkins Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- General description of the rotary moulding machine
- The formation of the dough piece
- Dough piece weight control
- Differential speeds of moulding roller and extraction roller
- Common difficulties that may be encountered with rotary moulders
- Instrumentation of a rotary moulder
- Disadvantages of a rotary moulder
- The soft dough rotary moulder and roto depositor
- Printing on dough pieces
- Reference
- Useful reading
Extruding and depositing of biscuit dough
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK, reviewed by H Clark, Baker Perkins Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- General description of extruding and depositing machines for doughs
- Process control of extruded and deposited biscuits
- Sponge batter drops and lady finger biscuits
- Useful reading
Biscuit baking
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK, reviewed by H Clark, Baker Perkins Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Changes to the dough piece during baking
- Oven conditions
- Typical baking profiles
- Types of oven
- Preparation and care of oven bands
- Measurement and control in baking
- Post oven oil spraying
- References
- Useful reading
Biscuit cooling and handling
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK, reviewed by H Clark, Baker Perkins Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Checking
- Methods and speeds of cooling
- Biscuit handling prior to packaging
- References
- Useful reading
Secondary processing of biscuits
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK, reviewed by H Clark, Baker Perkins Ltd, UK
- General considerations
- Sandwich creams
- Icing
- Jams, jellies, caramels and marshmallows
- Chocolate and chocolate flavoured coatings
- References
Biscuit packaging and storage
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK, reviewed by H Clark, Baker Perkins Ltd, UK
- Introduction
- Functions of a pack
- Types of primary packages
- Collation and feeding to wrapping machines
- Biscuit size variations
- Post wrapping operations
- Process and quality control
- Storage
- Robotics
- Useful reading and address
Recycling, handling and disposal of waste biscuit materials
D Manley, Consultant, Duncan Manley Ltd, UK, reviewed by H Clark, Baker Perkins Ltd, UK
- Management of waste
- Sources of waste materials
- Estimating the size of the problem
- Recycling
- Disposal of waste materials which are not recycled
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