E-book Booklet

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Tracer Study on the Application of
Financial Investigation Knowledge
AAPTIP Indonesia Country Office
August 29th – September 1st, 2016
Erwien Temasmico - Indonesia NMEIO
Floryda Sabar-Dame – Indonesia CPFAM
CONTENTS
A.
Tracer Study Background ......................................................................................................................... 3
Purpose of the Tracer Study .................................................................................................................... 4
B.
Key Findings............................................................................................................................................. 4
Process of Data Collection and Methodology .......................................................................................... 5
Limitation during Data Collection ............................................................................................................ 8
C.
Detailed Analysis of Findings ................................................................................................................... 8
1. Training Content................................................................................................................................. 8
1.1. Respondent’s views of most interesting content from the training ............................................ 8
1.2. Learned from the Training ........................................................................................................ 10
2. Using Knowledge and Skill in Workplace .......................................................................................... 11
2.1. Knowledge Sharing ................................................................................................................... 11
2.2. Specific Skills Utilised ............................................................................................................... 13
2.3. Current Situation & Practices ................................................................................................... 14
3. Network Utilising ............................................................................................................................. 17
3.1. Utilising the Contact List ........................................................................................................... 17
4. Challenges and Recommendations ................................................................................................... 18
4.1. Gaps, Challenges Identified ...................................................................................................... 18
4.2. Respondents Suggestion/Recommendation ............................................................................. 19
D.
Conclusions............................................................................................................................................ 20
Opportunities for AAPTIP ...................................................................................................................... 21
SUCCESS STORY: ............................................................................................................................................ 22
Success Story One .................................................................................................................................. 22
Success Story Two.................................................................................................................................. 24
ANNEXES: ...................................................................................................................................................... 25
Key Question Guideline ......................................................................................................................... 25
Rundown Seminar Held in Bandung Organised by West Java Provincial Police ...................................... 26
Indonesia CPC Mission Report ............................................................................................................... 27
Page 2 of 28
A. TRACER STUDY BACKGROUND
From Feb 29 to March 3 2016, AAPTIP delivered training on financial investigations to 28 multidisciplinary practitioners in Bogor, Indonesia.
Program Goal:
Within the legal and procedural limitations of their roles, to provide the participants with the requisite
skills and knowledge to enable them to identify, implement and manage the use of financial
investigation techniques so as to identify, sequestrate and seek the confiscation of the proceeds and
instruments of trafficking crime.
Program Learning Objectives:
At the end of the program, participants will be able to:
1. Fully describe the multi-faceted rationale for the use of financial investigation and confiscation
powers in trafficking cases
2. Demonstrate sound knowledge of the legislative and procedural requirements of Indonesia
law on financial investigation and confiscation of the proceeds and instruments of crime.
3. Have a sound grasp of the mandate, structure and operation of the Anti-Money Laundering
Council and of the mechanisms for cooperation with it.
4. Identify and describe the current range of money laundering typologies that are commonly
associated with trafficking crime.
5. Demonstrate a range of practical skills in the development of financial investigation strategies
and evidence gathering techniques to facilitate the identification, sequestration and
confiscation of the proceeds and instruments of trafficking crime.
Based on the evaluation results of the training, it was found that 96% of the workshop
participants had increased knowledge following the training course.
Fifteen of the twenty-five participants indicated that they were willing to apply the
techniques/knowledge/abilities in their working environment and they also wished to share this
knowledge with their colleagues. Some participants also mentioned that they would change their
way of thinking – for example, they would look more closely at evidence, or find evidence that
would lead them to be capable of seizing assets owned by perpetrators. This study also reviewed
the application of knowledge gained by the investigators in relation to seizing assets of criminals
of trafficking in persons.
Page 3 of 28
PURPOSE OF THE TRACER STUDY
The objective of this study was to measure or capture the current situation as to if and how the
participants have applied the knowledge gained while attending the workshop in their work and
if not, why? How participants used the training network introduced through the training course
was also a focus of the study.
The questions focused on the application of new knowledge and skills in their work activities.
B. KEY FINDINGS
Key findings of the study are:
•
•
•
All investigators who were the targets (respondents) of the study reported difficulties in
proving money laundering crimes because the arrested criminals were those who only
played a role as the field recruiters. The investigation was incapable of reaching the main
perpetrators or the corporate perpetrators. They also mentioned that the biggest
challenge in the process of financial investigation in TIP crimes was how the investigation
process of the original TIP crimes could be attributed to money laundering crimes;
therefore, the investigators needed concrete examples on the application of addressing
money laundering crimes in original TIP crimes;
The West Java Provincial Police had managed to do some activities with regard to the
dissemination of information about money laundering, such as the technical coordination
meeting held in June 2016, which was attended by the Criminal Investigation Unit Head
and the Women and Children Services Unit in the West Java Police. This meeting
discussed issues of the application of addressing money laundering crimes in original TIP
crimes. In August 2016, the West Java Police conducted a seminar discussing the
insolvency of TIP perpetrators through the application of addressing money laundering
crimes, which was initiated by the head of sub-directorate IV of the West Java Provincial
Police (who was a participant of the financial investigation workshop implemented by
AAPTIP). In this event, he also shared his knowledge about money laundering crimes
associated with TIP crimes;
After the financial investigation workshop in February, the Cianjur District Police handled
a TIP case (sexual exploitation) in which the file was returned by the prosecutor (who was
a participant of the financial investigation training) with instructions to the investigator
to undertake a money laundering investigation. Currently Cianjur District Police’s
investigator is preparing the evidence relating to the money laundering crime to be
submitted back to the prosecutor;
Page 4 of 28
•
•
•
•
In the Sukabumi District Police no TIP cases have been handled since the training, but
there was one case of human smuggling handled by the investigator (who was also a
participant of the financial investigation workshop). Currently, the investigator is
attempting to incorporate money laundering elements in the investigation;
Three TIP cases (two sexual exploitation cases and one forced labour case) were handled
by two respondents from the TIP taskforce at ATUs of Indonesian National Police
Headquarter after the financial investigation workshop. Similar to the West Java Police’s
investigators, they also found it difficult to prove the flow of funds to capture the
perpetrators under the money laundering articles, in spite of the fact that the
perpetrators’ bank accounts had been seized – they did not find any suspicious or
unnatural financial flows, and the amount of money in the accounts was also fairly small;
So far, the participant list distributed at the workshop as part of strengthening of network
has not been fully or optimally utilised by the participants. From this study, it was only
found that investigators at the district police level had used the participant list to contact
senior investigators of regional police but had never communicated intensively with the
participants from other institutions, such as the Indonesian Centre for Financial
Transaction Reporting and Analysis (“PPATK”); and
Advanced training was reportedly highly needed by investigators to improve their skills,
abilities, and knowledge. With regard to the methods used in the financial investigation
workshop in February, it was deemed “very good” and would be better if more case study
examples from Indonesia or from cases occurring in ASEAN regions were provided.
PROCESS OF DATA COLLECTION AND METHODOLOGY
The data collection process was conducted in four regions (offices) that were the target areas of
the AAPTIP program, namely the Criminal Investigation Division of the Indonesian National Police
Headquarter, the West Java Provincial Police, the Cianjur District Police, and the Sukabumi District
Police. Selected respondents were 16 investigators of the four regions participating in the
financial investigation workshop held in Bogor on February 29 to March 3 2016 (4 females, 12
males – 3 from the TIP Task Force at the Criminal Investigation Division of INP Headquarter, 7
from the West Java Police, 3 from the Cianjur Police, and 3 from the Sukabumi Police).
As some investigators were unavailable, the actual invetsigators who could be involved in the
study were 10 people as follows: 2 male investigators from the TIP Task Force of INP Headquarter,
3 male investigators and 2 female investigators from the West Java provincial Police office, 1 male
investigator from the Cianjur district Police, and 1 male and 1 female investigator from the
Sukabumi district Police, plus 5 additional respondents (3 males and 2 females) as comparison
respondents, as shown in chart 1.
Page 5 of 28
5
3
2 2
3
0 0
West Java
Provincial Police
Office, Bandung
3
1
2 1 1 1
Cianjur District Sukabumi District
Police Office,
Police Office,
Cianjur
Pelabuhan Ratu
3
2
0 0
0 2 0
INP ATUs
Other
Respondents
Planned Female
2
0
2
0
0
Actual Female
2
0
1
0
2
Planned Male
5
3
1
3
0
Actual Male
3
1
1
2
3
Chart 1-Planned and actual number of respondents per location and gender
Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was selected as the method of data collection in this study due to
time saving opportunities in collecting data in four different locations, as well as learning from
the experience of Rapid Assessment data collection in January which showed that respondents
preferred to do the data collection in groups.
However, respondents to each FGD were limited to only involving three respondents for each
FGD in order for the respondents to be more focused and to minimise the possibility of
respondents being affected by more dominant respondents (please see the table of respondents
below).
Location
Name of Respondent
Bandung, August
29th, 2016
1. AIPTU1 Rosmawati
2. AIPDA2 Suharwoyo
3. BRIPKA3 Gugun Sudrajat
Gender
Female
Male
Male
Bandung, August
30th, 2016
1. AKP4 Dini Hardiati
2. AKBP5 Ade Mulyana
Female
Male
1
AIPTU = First Police Inspector Adjutant
AIPDA = Second Police Inspector Adjutant
3
BRIPKA = Chief Police Brigadier
4
AKP = Police commissioner Adjutant
5
AKBP = Police Grand Commissioner Adjutant/Superintendent
2
Page 6 of 28
Cianjur, August
31st, 2016
Sukabumi,
September 1st,
2016
1. AIPTU Dhomir
Male
Additional Respondents:
Female
Male
BRIPTU6
1.
Putri Ayu
2. AKP Benny
1. BRIGADIER Muhammad Fajar
2. BRIPDA Sherly
Male
Female
Additional Respondent:
Male
1. BRIPKA Anton Pebrianto
By Phone:
Jakarta,
September 2nd,
2016
Jakarta,
September 20th,
2016
1. Agatha C Wangge – Functional
Prosecutor Cianjur
2. IPDA7 Dory – Kanit PPA POLSEK Parung
Kuda
1. IPDA M Ashary Firmansyah
2. IPDA I Gede Dewa Ady Sugihartha
Female
Male
Male
Male
For the main respondents of FGDs, open-structure questions were employed, which were divided
into four categories, whereas for the comparison respondents, two open-structure questions
were used (please refer to the annexes for more details).
Respondents were selected using two sampling methods:
1. Purposive sampling – The target respondents (main respondents) were determined prior to
the implementation of the study, involving investigators who participated in the financial
investigation workshop in four working areas of AAPTIP (the Criminal Investigation Division
of the Indonesian National Police Headquarter, the West Java Provincial Police, the Cianjur
District Police, and the Sukabumi District Police); therefore, when a target respondent was
unable to attend the FGD process, his/her representation could not be replaced by another
investigator who was not a participant.
2. Snowball sampling - Respondents were selected when their names appeared in the
discussions with the main respondents. The process itself could be regarded as the
Triangulation process8, where the results of interviews with these respondents could validate
the statements of the main respondents.
6
BRIPTU = First Police Brigadier
IPDA = Second Police Inspector
8
Tracing and measurement process of a series or network of triangles in order to determine the distance and
relative positions of points – Michael Quinn Patton, Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods, SAGE
publication, 2002
7
Page 7 of 28
LIMITATION DURING DATA COLLECTION
There were several factors that have had an impact on the quality and consistency of data from
respondents, as follows:
o
o
o
o
4 (1 from the Trafficking Task Force at INP Headquarter, 2 from the Cianjur District Police,
and 1 from the Sukabumi District Police) of the 16 workshop participants selected to be the
respondents were not in the same positions and/or unit as when they participated in the
event, making it difficult to gather information relating to the application new skills in TIP
cases because they no longer handle TIP cases;
The use of FGD in the data collection method had some limitations in the data analysis: for
example, a response given in group was difficult to attribute as individual response, making
it very difficult to separate data by gender and level of experience or training;
The absence of some target respondents – 2 respondents from the West Java Provincial
Police were unable to attend because of one person being out for assignment and another
being sick; 2 respondents from Cianjur district police office were also unable to attend
because of having investigations while they also have been transferred to other units; 2
respondents from the Sukabumi District Police were busy with an investigation; and one
person from the Trafficking Task Force of INP Headquarter had been transferred to the West
Kalimantan Regional Police. Previously all the target respondents had agreed to attend the
FGD on the day in their respective regions except the investigator from the Trafficking Task
Force of INP Headquarter who has been transferred to another area;
The results of this study might not represent the conditions and situations of Indonesia
entirely due to the small samples taken in this study, but it represents the situations and
conditions in the four offices taken as the targets of the AAPTIP program.
C. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS
1. TRAINING CONTENT
1.1. RESPONDENT’S VIEWS OF MOST INTERESTING CONTENT
FROM THE TRAINING
Although money laundering is not a new issue for the participants, the subject of
money laundering in TIP cases is new knowledge and/or new skills for all participants
(100%), especially the procedures for the application of money laundering
components in TIP investigations.
Page 8 of 28
Money Laundering channels and mechanism
Victim management
Company Financial analysis method & collecting the
evidences
2
2
0
0
0
0
4
1
1
1
3
0
Indonesian Anti Money Laundering Law
2
1
2
2
INP ATUs
Sukabumi District Police Office
Cianjur District Police Office
West Java Provincial Police Office
Chart 2 - Interesting Content (n = 10, Multiple Answer)
The interesting content according to the respondents in the financial investigations
workshop as followed:
a) Indonesian Anti-Money Laundering Law – 50% of the respondents stated that
they acquired new knowledge in which TIP cases could also be related to money
laundering cases.
b) Company’s Financial Analysis Methods, including the tricks and how to collect
evidence – 60% of the respondents were interested in the methods or strategies
to collect evidence and how to analyse it.
c) Victim Management – 20% of the respondents acquired lessons on how to
manage victims, including paying attention to the rights of victims.
d) Money Laundering Mechanisms and Channels – 80% of the respondents said
that another advantage/benefits to participate in the workshop was they (the
participants) had a network or a new channel for the collection of evidence and
came to know about the roles and responsibilities as well as abilities of
institutions including PPATK.
The analysis methods of financial investigations and evidence collection strategies
were the most interesting contents, while the biggest advantage they acquired from
the workshop was to get a new network, and then became more understanding
about the mechanisms to conduct financial investigations.
Page 9 of 28
1.2. LEARNED FROM THE TRAINING
The respondents reported having learned many things from this workshop.
The investigators from the West Java Provincial Police stated that before the
workshop they never imagined how to conduct an investigation of money laundering
on TIP cases, because all this time the respondents in the target regions of the
AAPTIP program had never handled such cases.
According to the respondents, there were three important things they learned from
the workshop, as follows:
1. Planning – How to make plans to conduct financial investigations.
2. Strategy – Thinking about what strategies were the best and most effective, and
appropriate to conduct financial investigations.
3. Tactics – Developing some choices/options when conducting financial
investigations.
In terms of financial investigation, the respondents believed that in Indonesia so far
there has been no concrete examples in which TIP perpetrators were also charged
with money laundering offenses.
Because not all investigators and even prosecutors understood how to relate TIP
cases to money laundering cases; most of them related money laundering to
corruption cases as stated by one investigator from Cianjur:
“BEFORE BECOMING A PARTICIPANT I THOUGHT THAT MONEY LAUNDERING ONLY
RELATED TO CORRUPTION, BUT IT DOES NOT. IN FACT, ALL TYPES OF CRIMES THAT
GENERATE HUGE AMOUNTS OF MONEY HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR MONEY
LAUNDERING CRIMES, SUCH AS TIP. THE WORKSHOP HELD BY AAPTIP HAS OPENED
MY MIND AND EYES ON IT.”
The respondents from the Sukabumi District Police mentioned that what they
learned from the workshop was an understanding of coordination
channels/mechanisms with PPATK, coordination with prosecutors, and relating the
TIP law to law No. 8 of 2010 on money laundering.
From the data obtained in this study, it can be concluded that the relating of TIP
cases to money laundering cases was new knowledge for the participants, and
overall, the financial investigation workshop held by AAPTIP in February improved
the participants’ knowledge and awareness of financial investigations in TIP cases
and opened their minds to the links between TIP and money laundering.
Page 10 of 28
2. USING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL IN WORKPLACE
2.1. KNOWLEDGE SHARING
All the respondents said that they had shared the knowledge they gained from the
financial investigation workshop with their colleagues, through a variety of methods
and/or ways.
a) West Java Provincial Police
After the workshop in February 2016, the West Java Provincial Police had
conducted two activities with regard to money laundering investigations related
to original TIP crimes as the topics. These two activities were:
1. Rakornis (Technical Coordination Meeting), held in July 2016 in Bandung,
attended by the Criminal Investigation Unit Head and the Women and
Children Services Unit 9 , in which the investigators participating in the
financial investigation workshop shared a wide range of knowledge and
experiences learned during the workshop held by AAPTIP.
2. On August 9, 2016, the West Java Provincial Police held a seminar with the
theme “Impoverishment of TIP Perpetrators through the Money
Laundering Law Enforcement”, which was attended by academics, law
enforcement officials, NGOs, and AAPTIP (please see annex for evidence).
To validate this information, the triangulation process was applied by
interviewing participants in the seminar, one of whom was an investigator of the
Sukabumi District Police on behalf of head of CID. He stated that the seminar
content was new for most participants, i.e. how to link TIP cases to money
laundering cases. Additionally, the Country Program Coordinator(CPC) of AAPTIP
Indonesia also verified the statement since CPC AAPTIP Indonesia was present
at the seminar.
Both activities were 100% funded by the West Java Police. The organiser AKBP
Ade Mulyana (the Head of Sub-directorate IV, the General Crime Detective
Directorate) stated that the event was inspired by the workshop in February held
by AAPTIP in Bogor.
9
(AAPTIP attempted to verify the event to the head of CID Cianjur but he was not present at the event while new head of CID unit of
Cianjur only been served two weeks in Cianjur District Police; whereas Head of CID Sukabumi District Police was out for other duty while
the new Chief of Unit in charge has just been assigned for less than one month).
Page 11 of 28
“THIS SEMINAR WAS ACCOMPLISHED DUE TO THE INSPIRATION FROM THE
EVENT THAT I ATTENDED IN FEBRUARY WITH AAPTIP WHERE RELATING TIP
CASES TO MONEY LAUNDERING CASES WAS AN INTERESTING TOPIC;
THEREFORE, I FIRST PROPOSED FUNDING FOR THIS EVENT TO AAPTIP BUT IT
SEEMED THAT AAPTIP HAD DIFFICULTIES TO FUND THIS ACTIVITY, SO I TRIED
TO PROPOSE TO USE THE WEST JAVA PROVINCIAL POLICE’S BUDGET AND IT
WAS APPROVED BY THE LEADERSHIP. IN ORDER FOR THIS EVENT TO ECHO
EVERYWHERE AND BE ABLE TO INSPIRE ALL PEOPLE, I DID NOT ONLY INVITE
LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS BUT ALSO ACADEMICS AND NGOS.”
b) Cianjur District Police
In Cianjur District Police, the respondents also shared their knowledge through
a direct interaction during the case handling process and indirectly by sharing
the workshop materials using a USB stick.
This was confirmed by the statement of an investigator from the Cianjur Police
who was not a participant of the financial investigation workshop.
“MR. DHOMIR (ONE OF THE WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS FROM THE CIANJUR
POLICE) DISTRIBUTED WORKSHOP MATERIALS TO THE INVESTIGATORS AT THE
WOMEN AND CHILDREN PROTECTION UNIT WHILE INFORMALLY SHARING HIS
EXPERIENCE WHEN PARTICIPATING IN THE WORKSHOP. HE EMPHASISED THAT
WHEN WE HANDLED TIP CASES, AS FAR AS POSSIBLE WE SHOULD ALSO
INCORPORATE MONEY LAUNDERING ELEMENTS.”
In Cianjur there was no opportunity to organise a similar activity to the event
organised in West Java.
c)
Sukabumi District Police
The Sukabumi respondents also shared their knowledge directly and indirectly.
In July 2016, the Sukabumi Police’s Criminal Investigation Unit invited Criminal
Investigation Units of Sub-district Police Offices under the Sukabumi Police’s
supervision to attend a technical guidance event held by the Sukabumi District
Police in Pelabuhan Ratu. One of the topics of discussion was the handling of TIP
cases related to money laundering cases, and to provide information on
investigation processes and mechanisms to how to coordinate with PPATK.
d) INP Headquarters – Anti Trafficking Unit
The post-workshop knowledge sharing process was conducted by the
participants from ATU of INP Headquarters through informal ways. They
reportedly shared their knowledge gained from the workshop held by AAPTIP
while having their case conferences or in informal discussions. They stated that
Page 12 of 28
they had never shared the knowledge through formal activities such as technical
assistance or seminars or roundtable discussions and others.
The initiative shown by the West Java Provincial Police in disseminating the
knowledge and instructing to include money laundering components in each TIP
investigation process indicates a level of progress in terms of awareness of including
money laundering investigations when handling TIP cases.
2.2. SPECIFIC SKILLS UTILISED
The Cianjur District Police investigators handled one TIP case after the financial
investigation workshop in February 2016. ATU of the INP Headquarters handled
three TIP cases after the financial investigation workshop, while the Sukabumi
District Police handled a human smuggling case, rather than TIP cases.
In particular, skills that were utilised by the respondents so far in the handling of TIP
cases related to money laundering components are:
1. Collection of data/evidence to find the existence of replaced money/funds – In
one case it was important to understand that not all TIP cases always relate to
money laundering. The case was an online trafficking case, in which the
perpetrator was poor and working alone, no other businesses were identified,
thus money laundering was difficult to prove based on the data or evidence
obtained from the inquiry or investigation results.
2. Designing and managing data – Use of the technique of how to process the
data as material for the investigation and writing of case files; some examples of
questions to collect data are: (1) how many victims of TIP have been identified?
(2) How much income or advantage has been gained by the perpetrators? In
relation to financial investigation – to whom and where has the money gone?
(Follow the money) and to which account? – As taught by Paul Holmes (the
Transnational and Financial Investigations Adviser) at the financial investigation
workshop according to the respondents.
Unfortunately, the respondents have not been able to apply these skills optimally,
due to the lack of TIP cases investigated and cases to which money laundering
components could be included. This is in part due to the low level of perpetrator
targeted as noted previously.
Only three respondents (2 females; 1 male) from the West Java Provincial Police
mentioned that they were collecting data targeting the perpetrators under money
laundering law (for a sexual exploitation case); and one male respondent from
Sukabumi had yet to started including money laundering components in the
Page 13 of 28
investigation but thought to include such components later into the investigation of
the human smuggling case he was handling.
On the other hand, there was one sexual exploitation case handled by the Cianjur
District Police, (not involving any investigators who participated in the financial
investigation workshop), in which the case file was returned by the appointed
prosecutor (P19), (who was one of the financial investigation workshop
participants); the prosecutor requested the Sukabumi Police investigator to collect
evidence in relation to money laundering in the investigation file.
The same problem was also faced by the respondents from the anti-trafficking unit
at the Criminal Investigation Unit of INP Headquarter. While they were handling
three TIP cases (1 labour trafficking case, two sexual exploitation cases), they were
having difficulties in finding evidence for money laundering cases, but at least they
had tried to seize the savings accounts of the suspects as part of the evidence
collecting process.
2.3. CURRENT SITUATION & PRACTICES
Three of the thirteen target respondents were transferred and did no longer serve the
same positions as they were when becoming the participants of the financial
investigation workshop. For more details please see the chart below).
16
12
7
7
3
0
POLDA Jawa Barat
2
3
1
POLRES Cianjur
1
2
POLRES Sukabumi
Participants
Displacement
4
3
1
2
INP ATUs
TOTAL
Current
Chart 3-Respondent Position Before and After Training
There was no displacement or transfer at the West Java Provincial Police; two
respondents from the Cianjur District Police were transferred to other units, one
person being transferred to the drug unit and another being transferred to the
properties and objects unit; one respondent from the Sukabumi District Police was
transferred to the human smuggling unit; while one respondent from ATU Task Force
Page 14 of 28
of the Criminal Investigation Unit at INP Headquarter was transferred to the West
Kalimantan Provincial Police.
As mentioned earlier, a case at the Cianjur District Police was returned by the
prosecutor requesting additional money laundering investigations – the prosecutor
was a participant of the financial investigation workshop in February 2016.
Referring to the method used in this tracer study, M&E AAPTIP interviewed the
prosecutor as part of the triangulation process. According to the prosecutor, the case
file submitted by the Cianjur Police’s investigator did not include restitution
components and money laundering components – according to her, this is because of
lack of capacity of the Police’s investigator, as stated by the prosecutor:
“IN CIANJUR NOWADAYS THERE HAS BEEN A DECREASE IN THE QUALITY OF THE
INVESTIGATORS, ESPECIALLY THE INVESTIGATORS HANDLING TIP CASES – THIS IS
BECAUSE NOW THE INVESTIGATORS IN THIS UNIT ARE NEW INVESTIGATORS AND
NEVER RECEIVED TRAINING IN THE FINANCIAL INVESTIGATION. WITH REGARD TO
THE CASE FILE I RETURNED BACK, I WANTED THEM TO INVESTIGATE THE FINANCIAL
INVESTIGATION BASED ON THE SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE THAT I RECEIVED FROM
THE FINANCIAL INVESTIGATION WORKSHOP HELD BY AAPTIP IN FEBRUARY AND
THIS IS THE INTERESTING PART OF THE WORKSHOP TO RELATE TIP CASES TO MONEY
LAUNDERING CASES.”
A respondent in Sukabumi who was transferred to the human smuggling unit was
currently handling a human smuggling case and attempted to incorporate financial
investigation components into the smuggling investigation process as per the
knowledge received from the financial investigation workshop organised by AAPTIP.
It proved that the knowledge they gained could still be applied by them even though
their jobs were no longer related to the handling of TIP cases.
With regard to the number of cases being handled by the respondents after February
2016, it is shown in the chart below:
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
West Java Provincial Police
Office
Cianjur District Police Office
Sexual
Labor
INP ATUs
Total
Chart 4-Cases handling post workshop by Office
Page 15 of 28
The West Java Provincial Police handled an online sexual exploitation case and it was
still under investigation by the respondents; the Cianjur District Police had a sexual
exploitation case, with the case file being returned to the Cianjur Police’s investigator
by the prosecutor and the investigator was collecting evidence to include money
laundering components; the respondents from ATU of the Criminal Investigation Unit
at INP Headquarter were handling three TIP cases, two sexual exploitation cases (Bali
and NTT) and a forced labour case (Japan). Meanwhile, no TIP cases were handled by
the Sukabumi District Police’s respondents.
It was reported by the respondents that the difference the implementation of the new
skills they received made were as follows:
a) One male respondent from the West Java Provincial Police said that he put more
effort to find evidence to prove that TIP cases had occurred and the possibility of
money laundering;
b) One male respondent and one female respondent said that they were more
concerned with accommodating the rights of victims, such as restitution, so that
victims knew their rights to restitution – for example, to seek restitution for the
victims, the investigators attempted to seize the perpetrators’ assets;
c) One female respondent from the West Java Provincial Police has been more
thorough and more careful in listening to answers/reports of the victims. She
made the questions more detailed against the perpetrators to see if there was a
possibility of money laundering;
d) One male respondent from Cianjur said that two years ago there was a forced
labour case in Banten involving Cianjur residents with the perpetrators being
charged by labour articles only. Now the Cianjur District Police were considering
reopening the case and applying TIP and money laundering articles;
e) Two male respondents and two female respondents said that after receiving the
knowledge from AAPTIP, when they found new cases they did not need to read a
book or make a guess, they already knew the entry to financial investigations;
f) Almost all respondents, 7 (4 males, 3 females) of 8 respondents desired to always
try to show and relate TIP cases to money laundering cases;
g) One male respondent from Sukabumi mentioned that he become more confident
and did not hesitate to conduct TIP investigations and relate them to money
laundering cases.
Based on the above data, the financial investigation workshop provided the
respondents with positive feedback. Unfortunately, not all respondents had handled
or were handling TIP cases after the financial investigation workshop, yet at least they
were able to identify changes in work that had happened or would happen when they
implement their skills. (Please see the chart below)
Page 16 of 28
Efforts to find evidence
Accommodate victims’ rights about
restitution
Provide more detailed questions
5
3
1
1
1
Relate it to Major Labor Law
knew the entry to money laundering
always try to express and relate TIP
issues with money laundering
will be no hesitation and they have
become self-confident
1
2
2
5
3
1
Male
Female
Chart 5 – Practices in implementing their new skills by Gender -Multiple Answer (n = 10)
3. NETWORK UTILISING
3.1. UTILISING THE CONTACT LIST
All the participants admitted that they still kept the contact list of participants
provided by AAPTIP so that they could contact the speakers when they need them for
consultation.
For example, a respondent from the West Java Provincial Police when planning for the
implementation of the seminar used the contact list of participants to invite
participants from FTRAC and AMLU, including CPC AAPTIP as the speakers.
At the district police level (Cianjur and Sukabumi), they used the contact list to consult
with the senior investigators at the West Java Provincial Police, such as AKBP Ade
Mulyana, AKP (Major) Dini, IPDA Herman, AIPTU Rosmawati and AIPDA Suharwoyo.
In general, after the workshop they said that they almost never communicated with
other bodies or institutions, but while having the training they intensely discussed and
shared experiences.
Page 17 of 28
4. CHALLENGES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1. GAPS, CHALLENGES IDENTIFIED
Some challenges or gaps that have been identified while trying to implement financial
investigation in TIP cases are as follows:
•
•
•
•
Sometimes the application of money laundering components to TIP
perpetrators becomes impossible when it relates to large companies;
investigators need to chase the owners, but are only able to reach
perpetrators at the manager, recruiter or coordinator level.
The main perpetrators are very clever in the management system to have a
broken connection between the owners and the company management.
When the owners hire a manager to their entertainment venues, they will
create a labour contract under which the manager is fully responsible for the
running of the companies and the owners will only give directions through
other people who are not known to the manager; in other words, the owners
will be free from operational aspects. Therefore, if investigators want to know
whether or not money laundering cases have occurred, they need to be aware
of all transactions made, and to find it out, they need to know the owner
identity, which is sometimes impossible to do. Consequently, the financial
investigation will be very difficult to implement.
Another example is migrant workers becoming victims of human trafficking
by labour recruitment agencies (PJTKI); the question is why money laundering
cases cannot be imposed on the companies? Because in many cases the
companies are not proved to have committed such crimes. They have
complete documentation retained, and if fraud is found with regard to the
victim’s age, it will be claimed to have been committed by recruiters or
parents or sponsors, giving the companies an escape from the crimes.
To this day, it is very difficult to find corporate involvement in TIP cases, let
alone to investigate money laundering cases; thus, the prosecution for
restitution is difficult because officially they have complete data on the
labourers.
Referring to the respondents, the application of financial investigations in
original TIP cases is interesting to them; there are some difficulties, such as
openness or fear of the victims themselves, are found to be the investigators’
limitations.
According to the Criminal Investigation Unit Head of the Cianjur District Police
in an interview on August 31, 2016, Cianjur and Indramayu are the largest
sending regions, and to date there have been no TIP cases which have been
proved to involve money laundering. Money laundering is very difficult to
prove because it involves a long chain.
Page 18 of 28
The difficulties are caused by several issues such as:
1. Regarding the investigator’s capacity to uncover the main perpetrators;
2. The real number of crimes is not big (not significant) in terms of the
amount of money earned, while even the perpetrators still live in rented
houses, rather than having their own houses; thus, it is not possible to
execute seizure for restitution.
3. The field recruiters would not confess who the boss is or who asks them
to commit such crimes. Thus, the information becomes disconnected to
the recruiter level only, rather than to the owner or "Big Fish".
This shows the real challenges encountered by investigators in the attempts
to conduct financial investigations, one of which is to make the recruiters
disclose information or say who the people asking or having them or paying
them to provide those who will become TIP victims, making it difficult to
uncover money laundering cases.
In connection with the above limitations, the respondents said that both individually
and institutionally they have done some activities to overcome these problems, such
as:
•
•
•
Starting to disseminate information to police officers at the sub-district level
– many questions were raised by them as to when they could apply financial
investigations and how? What kind of evidence must be collected in the field?
This demonstrates an interest from police officers at lower levels to at least
know what the financial investigation is.
As frequently as possible, inviting labour recruitment agencies to discuss the
role of companies in the prevention of this issue (trafficking in humans).
Strengthening the coordination between senior investigators at the provincial
police level or INP headquarter level who are experienced in handling money
laundering cases.
4.2. RESPONDENTS SUGGESTION/RECOMMENDATION
Some suggestions and recommendations raised by the respondents of the workshop
in relation to overcoming obstacles in financial investigation in TIP cases:
a) Continuing the training and training with advanced-level topics - Involving
PPATK in training activities since their review is expected to assist to lead to
the financial investigation components. Given that the activities in February
was still very general, the respondents believed that if the training was
continued, there would be more police officers who understood money
laundering cases in TIP cases. On the other hand, through this training, police
Page 19 of 28
b)
c)
d)
e)
officers would have the opportunity to meet other police officers from other
areas and they would be able to share various experiences and knowledge.
Supporting an increase in TIP experts – convincing prosecutors needs
reinforcement of information or views from experts; thus, having TIP experts
that can be presented before court and have strong arguments would be a
great advantage.
Supporting a shared understanding - Organising specialist training for the
criminal justice system in Cianjur to increase uniformity of views between
police officers and prosecutors in handling TIP cases for faster and better
implementation. In this case, both police officers and prosecutors can jointly
review and discuss the cases together.
Organising seminars or special training on money laundering.
Involving female police investigators in every training event in order for them
to have the right skills in investigation.
D. CONCLUSIONS
Based on the above findings, several conclusions were identified, as follows:
 The financial investigation workshop in February has changed the behaviours and ways of
thinking, including perspectives of the majority of respondents, making them more cautious
and careful in finding evidence, attempting to see any possibility of money laundering cases,
and thinking that money laundering did not occur in corruption cases only.
 Increased capacity of the respondents was identified, especially in the investigation of money
laundering cases and they became more confident to incorporate money laundering
components in the investigation of TIP cases.
 It would be better if in the training the case studies given were cases having occurred in
Indonesia to give the participants an exact idea, rather than cases from other countries
(recognising there are limited cases to use).
 The involvement of various agencies within the criminal justice system was an important
element as shown in Cianjur, where the prosecutor suggested or directed the investigator to
incorporate money laundering components in the investigation of TIP case.
 Displacement or transfer of members was not really a big problem because if they were still
able to use or apply their knowledge in their new positions, for example in the people
smuggling unit in Sukabumi Police.
 With regard to the above point, the investigators can be internal resources in their present
positions, thereby they could share their knowledge in technical assistance activities, for
example.
 Obstacles to financial investigations include bureaucratic red tape which prevents direct
contact with PPATK and difficulties with investigations of corporations or companies.
Page 20 of 28
 The tracer study activities could address the indicators belonging to AAPTIP, as follows:
• 73% (8 out of 11; 5 males and 3 females) of the training participants sampled provided
credible examples of their use of new knowledge and skills in TIP investigation (including
one investigator in Sukabumi District Police using the skills for people smuggling),
particularly in the collection of evidence – despite the complexity to prove TIP cases.
• Several of these examples can be considered success cases of promising practice in the
implementation of new knowledge and skills – these will be followed up in more detail
OPPORTUNITIES FOR AAPTIP
 A Local Champion has been identified; the Head of Sub-directorate IV of West Java Provincial
AKBP Ade Mulyana and his staff have proved that they have a high initiative to share and
disseminate the knowledge they have acquired from AAPTIP through the financial
investigation workshop.
 Assisting the police in issuing regulations to simplify the bureaucratic procedures for district
police-level investigators so that they can deal directly with PPATK.
 The enthusiasm of the investigators within AAPTIP’s working areas means these are suitable
locations to serve as pilot areas of AAPTIP’s financial investigation programs in Indonesia.
 Great opportunities for cost-sharing between AAPTIP and counterparts.
Page 21 of 28
SUCCESS STORY:
Success STORY ONE
Name of Actor
Office
Position
Date of Data Collection
Data Collector Name
: Ms Agatha C Wange
: Cianjur District Prosecutor Office
: Functional Prosecutor
: Oct 29th, 2016
: Erwien Temasmico
Trained Prosecutor Encourages Investigator to do Financial Investigation on TIP
Cases
Agatha C Wange is a Prosecutor of the Cianjur District Prosecutor Office who has
prosecuted many TIP cases, particularly in the Cianjur Area. This is why she has been
invited by AAPTIP to participate in AAPTIP events where the involvement of
prosecutors is important. One of these events was the Financial Investigation Workshop (Under
Project 4 in the AAPTIP workplan) held in Bogor on 29 February – 3 March 2016.
On 31 August 2016 AAPTIP conducted a Tracer study of the participants of the Financial Investigations
(FI) Training course, including the Cianjur District Police Office, looking in particular at evidence of
promising practice change. One of the informants of the Tracer Study was an investigator from this
office. The interview process revealed much more than practice change on the part of the investigator,
it provided credible evidence that the FI training had changed another participant – The prosecutor of
a case that the law enforcement informant was investigating. It was revealed that Prosecutor Wange
had returned a case file to the investigator with an instruction to complete the file with financial
investigation evidence (as learned at the training).
On 29 October 2016 AAPTIP had an opportunity to interview Prosecutor Wange in her office (Cianjur
District Prosecutor Office) to clarify the findings from the interview with the investigator.
Prosecutor Wange explained that on 9 August 2016 the Cianjur investigator sent the TIP case file to
her. The file revealed that 20 million rupiah was transferred to the accused, and according to that
piece of evidence, she remembered the content of the Financial Investigation workshop organized by
AAPTIP which encouraged investigators to “follow the Money”, especially where it may lead to
catching the “Big Fish”. This case was complex and involved a woman who had allegedly recruited
underage girls to send to Malaysia and/or middle-east through Batam.
In the beginning the investigators refused to do financial investigation because they did not have any
confidence that the investigation would reveal anything other than small amounts of crime money,
but Prosecutor Wange insisted that the investigators do a financial investigation and at least put effort
in to digging into the possibility of there being some money laundering on this case.
Prosecutor Wange admitted during entire her life as prosecutor this is the first time she has given an
instruction to investigators to do a financial investigation on TIP cases. She also admitted that her
Page 22 of 28
participation in the FI workshop in Bogor on 29 February – 3 March 2016 had inspired her to encourage
the TIP investigators to look at the financial elements of TIP cases and at least try to reveal higher
networks so that the victim’s right to get restitution can be accommodated (which was a key message
in the financial investigation workshop).
he case is still being investigated but Prosecutor Wange is hopeful that with AAPTIP support,
investigators can improve their capacity and confidence in financial investigations, especially in TIP
cases.
As a follow up, the feedback from Prosecutor Wange directly led to the organisation of a one-day
workshop in Jakarta – that has in turn led to the formation of a Technical Working Group to draft a
Standard Operating Procedure for cooperation between the Financial Investigation Unit (PPATK), the
Indonesia National Police (INP) Anti-Money Laundering Unit, the INP Anti-Trafficking unit and INP
officers at the provincial and district levels.
Several of AAPTIP’s intermediate outcomes are reflected in this success story but the most significant
outcome is that “prosecutors coordinate better with investigators” which contributes to “improved
prosecutions of exploiters”. Another intermediate outcome is that “male and female investigators
know their jobs”, which includes financial investigation of TIP cases.
Page 23 of 28
SUCCESS STORY TWO
Name of Actor
Office
Position
Date of Data Collection
Data Collector Name
: Superintendent Ade Mulyana
: West Java Provincial Police Office
: Chief of Sub-Directorate IV
: Nov 1st, 2016
: Erwien Temasmico
Wider Dissemination on Financial Investigation on TIP Cases
The West Java provincial police office conducted a Seminar on Impoverishing
Traffickers/Corporations involved in Trafficking in Persons using Law No.8 year
2010 regarding Countermeasure and Eradication of Money Laundering and invited
150 people from District Police office within West Java, academia, and NGOs.
This event was initiated by Superintendent Ade Mulyana as Chief of sub-directorate IV Women and
Children of West Java General Crime Directorate who participated in the Financial Investigation
workshop held in Bogor on 29 February – 3 March 2016 organized by AAPTIP (under Project 4). One
of the objectives of the training was for participants to increase dissemination of knowledge gained
from the workshop to other officers in the workplace.
According to the results of an interview with Superintendent Ade Mulyana, it was found that financial
investigation in TIP cases is a new issue especially for West Java Provincial Police Office and perhaps
for Indonesia National Police in general because so far only corruption cases had been considered
suitable for financial investigation. As a “new issue”, Superintendent Ade Mulyana took the initiative
to arrange the workshop to disseminate this knowledge that he learned in the financial investigation
workshop to heads of units in the district police. He expected that the commanders at the district level
would subsequently be able to instruct the investigators under their supervision to do financial
investigations on TIP cases to catch the higher level of perpetrator.
One of the challenges he faced was around the budget for this workshop, which at that time was
outside the West Java Provincial Police Office budget. Superintendent Ade Mulyana then asked
AAPTIP to fund this seminar event but unfortunately AAPTIP was unable to assist on this occasion, so
undeterred, Superintendent Ade Mulyana proposed this event to the local government of West Java
Province through several relevant government agencies and finally the local government agreed to
fund 100% of this event.
Outcomes that this success story reflect include “Influential relationships fostered and achieved”
demonstrated by the Superintendent’s willingness to take forward learnings from the FI training,
beyond what was expected. His efforts and success at sourcing funding for the workshop provides
indications of sustainability and relevance. There is also a level of innovation revealed by this story –
encouraging partners to explore new ideas and approach old problems with new strategies.
Page 24 of 28
ANNEXES:
KEY QUESTION GUIDELINE
For Respondents:
1. Refresher of the training content
• What was the most interesting content? Why?
• What did you learn from participating in the Financial Investigation workshop?
2. Using of knowledge and skills in workplace
• Are you still in the same position as you were in the previous workshop?
• Did you share the knowledge that you received with other colleagues in your
workplace? If yes, How? If not, Why?
• Have you investigated TIP cases since the workshop? If yes, how did you apply the
newly acquired knowledge of financial investigations during the investigation?
• What specific skills have you been able to use?
• What difference did applying these skills make to you?
3. Utilising the networks from the workshop
• Do you still have the contact list that you got from the training?
• Which person (in contact list) have you contacted since the workshop? How? Why?
4. Identify gaps and support needed?
• What is the most challenging to applying the knowledge? How can the challenges
be addressed?
• What kind of support do you need to apply the knowledge? And from whom?
For Additional Informant:
1. Colleagues on Sharing Knowledge
• Have you heard about financial investigations? From whom?
• What did you learn?
2. Other Training Attendances
• How the respondents contacted them?
• What kind of content they mostly talk about?
Page 25 of 28
RUNDOWN SEMINAR HELD IN BANDUNG ORGANISED BY WEST JAVA
PROVINCIAL POLICE
Day & Date
Selasa,
Agustus
2016
9
Time
Activity/Presentation
07.00-08.00
Participant Registration
08.00-08.05
Sing “National Anthem”
08.05-08.15
Greeting/speech from Committee chairman
08.15-08.30
Greeting/speech from Chief of West Java Provincial police office
and open the event
08.30-09.15
Keynote Speaker
Ninik Rahayu, SH., MS selaku Anggota Ombudsman Republik
Indonesia
Topic
Political Law in relation with human crime on TIP through
application of money laundering law
09.15-09.20
Certificate granting
09.20-09.30
Prayer
09.30-10.00
Coffe break
10.00-12.30
Panels Discussion
10.00-10.20
Panel
1. ATTP
TIP crime trend in ASIA regional countries in relation with
modus operandi and treatment.
10.20-10.40
2. Prof Dr. Edy Setiadi, SH., MH
Topic
Applying money laundering law on the TIP case
10.40-11.00
3. INP CID
Topic
Reveal Tactics and technique and collecting evidence of TIP
case on applying money laundering law
11.00-11.20
4. FTRAC
Topic
Financial transaction tracer on TIP case
11.20-12.30
5. Pararel Session
12.30-12.45
Greeting/speech from Unisba Rector and closing the seminar
12.45-12.50
Sing “padamu Negri”
12.50-13.00
Cordial activity
Page 26 of 28
INDONESIA CPC MISSION REPORT
MISSION REPORT
NAME
OFFICE
SUBJECT
Date
: Fatimana Agustinanto – Country Program Coordinator
: Jakarta Office
: Presentation on Trafficking in Person Typology and Its Handling in ASEAN
: 9 August 2016
Purpose
•
To present on Trafficking in Persons Typology and Its Handling in ASEAN
Background
The Provincial Police Office of West Java invited representative from AAPTIP in Indonesia to deliver
presentations on Trafficking in Persons Typology and Its Handling in ASEAN at the National Seminar
on Impoverishing Traffickers/Corporations involved in Trafficking in Persons using Law
No.8 year 2010 regarding Countermeasure and Eradication of Money Laundering.
Activity
Based on the invitation received and upon approval from AAPTIP Management, CPC delivered
presentations on 9 August 2016 at Horison Hotel Bandung at the above mentioned national seminar to
around one hundred fifty (150) police investigators working for Women and Children Protection Unit
and Criminal Investigation Department in district level within West Java Province, academicians, civil
society organisations’ activists and post graduate students.
CPC’s presentation contains main four (4) topics: (1) Definition of Human Trafficking according to
Indonesia’s Anti Trafficking Law No.21 year 2007, (2) Magnitude of the Human Trafficking Problem
including Human Trafficking Typology in ASEAN, (3) Challenges in Addressing Human Trafficking in
ASEAN and (4) Efforts to Address Human Trafficking in ASEAN. CPC emphasised his presentation to
promote formal and non-formal cooperation with other countries which can be done by specialised
investigators to combat trafficking through international legal cooperation including mutual legal
assistance mechanism as well as the implementation of ad-hoc meetings.
Following the presentations, CPC received four (4) responses and questions from participants. They
clarified regarding AAPTIP current program to address human trafficking problem, feedbacks for police
to improve its investigation works, the involvement of private migrant worker placement agency in
trafficking and the role of government to address the problem.
Page 27 of 28
Other presenters at the seminar were:
1) Ms. Ninik Rahayu of Ombudsman Indonesia delivered a presentation on Legal Politics
on Human Trafficking Crime Through the Implementation of Law No.21/2007 on the
Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons.
2) Prof. Edy Setiadi of Bandung Islamic University delivered a presentation on the
Implementation of Law No.8/2010 on Countermeasure and Eradication of Money
Laundering.
3) Superintendent Julianto Sirait of Anti-Trafficking Unit of INP delivered a presentation
on Tactics and Techniques in Collecting Evidences on Human Trafficking Crime to
Support the Implementation of Law No.8/2010 on Countermeasure and Eradication of
Money Laundering.
4) Mr. Asep of Indonesian Financial Transaction Reports and Analysis Center delivered
a presentation on Searching of Financial Transactions in Human Trafficking Crime.
Signed:
Fatimana Agustinanto – Country Program Coordinator.
Page 28 of 28
Tracer Study on the Application
of Reactive Investigation
Knowledge
AAPTIP Indonesia Country Office
August 29th – September 1st, 2016
Picture 1 - POLDA Sumut
Erwien Temasmico - Indonesia NMEIO
Floryda Sabar-Dame – Indonesia CPFAM
CONTENTS
A.
Tracer Study Background .......................................................................................................................4
Purpose of the Tracer Study ...................................................................................................................4
B.
Key findings ............................................................................................................................................4
Process of Data Collection & Methodology ........................................................................................... 5
Limitations during Data Collection ........................................................................................................9
C.
Analysis of Findings ................................................................................................................................9
1. Training Content ............................................................................................................................. 11
1.1. Most Interesting Content ........................................................................................................ 11
1.2. Most Useful Content from the Training .................................................................................. 12
1.3. Things to be studied more deeply by the Participants ........................................................... 14
2. Using Knowledge and Skill in Workplace ....................................................................................... 15
2.1. Knowledge and Experience Sharing ....................................................................................... 15
2.2. Respondent Position and Number of Cases Handled ............................................................. 19
2.3. Specific Skills Utilised and the Application ............................................................................. 20
2.4. Difference made when applying knowledge .......................................................................... 22
3. Network Utilising ............................................................................................................................ 23
3.1. Utilising the Contact List ........................................................................................................ 23
4. Challenges and Recommendations ................................................................................................ 23
4.1. Gaps and Challenges Identified .............................................................................................. 23
4.2. Respondents Suggestion/Recommendation .......................................................................... 26
D.
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 27
Opportunities for AAPTIP .................................................................................................................... 28
ANNEXES: ..................................................................................................................................................... 29
Tracer Study’s Key Questions ................................................................................................................ 29
Page 2 of 30
CHART LIST
Chart 1 - Distribusi Actual number of respondents in areas by gender ..............................................................6
Chart 2 – Percentage Actual number of respondents by gender ....................................................................... 7
Chart 3 - Number of TIP cases handling prior and after Training ..................................................................... 10
Chart 4 – Number and percentage of respondents who were attended TIP Training ...................................... 10
Chart 5 – Most Interesting Content (n = 16, Multiple Answer) ......................................................................... 11
Chart 6 – things to be studied more by respondent (n= 14, Multiple answer) .................................................. 15
Chart 7 – Way of Sharing knowledge & number of colleagues were shared .................................................... 15
Chart 8 – Percentage of Skill utilized by gender.............................................................................................. 21
TABLE LIST
Table 1 – Distribution of Respondents by areas ................................................................................................6
Table 2 – First Phase of Data Collection ...........................................................................................................8
Table 3 – Second Phase of Data Collection .......................................................................................................8
Table 4 – Third phase of Data Collection ..........................................................................................................9
Table 5 – Number of TIP case handling by responden post training ................................................................ 19
Table 6 – Type of Skill by region/area ............................................................................................................. 21
PICTURE LIST
Picture 1 - POLDA Sumut ................................................................................................................................. 1
Picture 2 - Discussion Session in POLDA Sumut ............................................................................................... 5
Picture 3 - One-on-One Interview in Anti-Trafficking Task force ....................................................................... 7
Picture 4 - Brigadier Salamun (POLDA Kepri) ................................................................................................. 17
Page 3 of 30
A. TRACER STUDY BACKGROUND
PURPOSE OF THE TRACER STUDY
The purpose of this study was to measure or capture how the participants have been able to
apply the knowledge and skills they gained while attending the reactive investigation training
on May 23 to May 27, 2016, and if not, why?
Furthermore, it was to measure the achievement of the two indicators of AAPTIP below:
a) Quantitative indicator: % of training participants sampled who provide credible examples
of their use of new knowledge and skills in TIP investigation
b) Qualitative indicator: Capturing success cases where trainees (LE) have used
new/enhanced knowledge and skills
The questions focus on the current practices in the application of new knowledge and skills in
their workplace.
With reference to the evaluation results of the training in May, it has been found that 77% of
the participants had increased knowledge in the reactive investigation knowledge.
Based on the pre- and post-test results of 27 respondents (21 males, 6 females) of the 32
participants (26 males, 6 females), male participants had increased knowledge by 11.19 points
where female participants had increased knowledge by 14.67 points; in other words, the
participants as a whole had increased knowledge by 26%.
In terms of the participants’ assessment of the training, it was found that 73% of the
participants agreed that the topic or material was very relevant to their day-to-day work as
investigators. On the other hand, 79% of the male participants reported that their knowledge
and skills have increased in the reactive investigation techniques of TIP cases, while 71% of
the female participants reported that their knowledge and skills have increased.
B. KEY FINDINGS
Key findings of the study were:
•
•
In spite of the fact that reactive investigation was not new for investigators, some
techniques taught in the reactive investigation training were a new thing for
investigators, such as sensitive interview techniques, use of technology in evidence
collection and victim identification techniques;
There was an increase in the number of cases handled by the respondents, especially in
border areas; however, in-depth research is required on the relationship between the
knowledge gained by the respondents from the reactive training and the increase in the
number of TIP cases handled;
Page 4 of 30
•
•
•
•
•
In the North Sumatra Regional Police, there remained the TIP Task Force; thus, TIP cases
in North Sumatra were directly handled by the Task Force, while investigators at the
Women and Children Services unit were sometimes consulted by the Task Force;
After the reactive investigation training in Jakarta in May, nearly 40% of the participants
were transferred to other units giving them no chances to handle TIP cases;
The content on Elements of Crime of TIP cases was most interesting for the participants;
Respondents shared their knowledge and experiences in attending the reactive
investigation training informally;
The application of the reactive investigation knowledge could not be made optimally due
to some differences of opinion and knowledge between investigators and prosecutors.
PROCESS OF DATA COLLECTION & METHODOLOGY
The data collection process was conducted
in five regions (offices) that were the target
areas of the AAPTIP program, namely the
Criminal Investigation Division of the
Indonesian National Police Headquarter,
the West Java Provincial Police, the Cianjur
District Police, the Sukabumi District Police
and the Maluku Provincial Police including
the Aru Islands District Police. In addition,
Picture 2 - Discussion Session in POLDA Sumut
the data collection was also carried out in
three border areas between Indonesia and Malaysia, i.e. the North Sumatra Provincial Police, the
Riau Islands Provincial Police, and the West Kalimantan Provincial Police, including Sanggau
District Police with respondents who were investigators from all the regions participating in the
reactive investigation workshop conducted in Jakarta on May 23 to May 27, 2016. This involved
26 investigators (6 females, 20 males - four from the TIP Task Force of the Indonesian National
Police Headquarter, 2 from the North Sumatra Provincial Police, one from the Tanjung Balai
District Police, 2 from the Riau Islands Provincial Police, one from the Barelang District Police, 2
from the West Kalimantan Provincial Police, one from the Sanggau District Police, three from the
West Java Provincial Police, 3 from the Cianjur District Police, 3 from the Sukabumi District Police,
2 from the Maluku Provincial Police, and 2 from the Aru Islands District Police). It also involved 6
educators (1 female and 5 males) from the INP’s education and training institution.
The actual respondents who could be involved in the study were 16 people with the details shown
in table1.
Page 5 of 30
Candidate
Respondents
Region/Areas
Actual Responden
Male
Female
Male
Female
Anti Trafficking Task Force of CID INP HQ
3
-
1
-
POLDA (Provincial) Maluku
-
2
-
2
POLRES (District) Aru Island
1
-
1
-
POLDA (Provincial) North Sumatera
-
2
-
2
POLDA (Provincial) Riau Island
1
1
1
1
POLDA (Provincial) West Kalimantan
2
-
2
-
POLRES (District) Sanggau
-
-
1
-
POLDA (Provincial) West Java
3
-
2
-
POLRES (District) Cianjur
3
-
2
-
POLRES (District) Sukabumi
2
1
1
-
Additional Respondents
-
-
1
2
TOTAL RESPONDENTS
15
6
12
7
Table 1 – Distribution of Respondents by areas
Male
Female
0
0
0
2
2
2
1
0
2
1
HT
TASKFORCE
0
2
1
0
POLDA
MALUKU
POLRES KEP
ARU
2
1
0
POLDA
SUMUT
POLDA
KEPRI
0
1
POLDA
KALBAR
POLRES
SANGGAU
POLDA
JABAR
POLRES
CIANJUR
0
1
1
POLRES
SUKABUMI
ADDITIONAL
Chart 1 - Distribusi Actual number of respondents in areas by gender
Page 6 of 30
Male; 69%
Female;
31%
Chart 2 – Percentage Actual number of respondents by gender
The one-on-one interview was selected as the
data collection method in this study as the
purpose of this study to be able to describe the
situations and circumstances of the respondents
individually, so as to enrich the results of this
study and be used as a reference for the
implementation of AAPTIP activities.
The main respondents were asked open-structure
questions, which were divided into six categories
of questions, while the comparison respondents
were asked two open-structure questions (please refer to annexes for more details).
Picture 3 - One-on-One Interview in Anti-Trafficking Task
force
The respondents were selected using two sampling techniques, namely:
1. Purposive sampling – The target respondents (main respondents) were determined prior to
the implementation of the study, involving investigators who participated in the reactive
investigation workshop in five working areas of AAPTIP (the Criminal Investigation Division of
the Indonesian National Police Headquarter, the West Java Provincial Police, the Cianjur
District Police, the Sukabumi District Police and the Maluku Provincial Police including the Aru
Islands District Police) and also involving three border areas (the North Sumatra Provincial
Police, the Riau Islands Provincial Police, and the West Kalimantan Provincial Police) not
randomly selected; therefore, when a target respondent was not able to attend at the time
of the study, he/she could not be replaced by other investigators who was not a participant.
In addition, the workshop participants coming from the INP’s education and training
Page 7 of 30
institution were excluded from the list of respondents since they could not contribute to the
purpose of this study and with the consideration that their day-to-day tasks and roles were
not as investigators.
2. Snowball sampling - Respondents were selected when their names appeared in the
discussions with the main respondents. The process itself could be regarded as the
Triangulation process1, where the results of interviews with these respondents could validate
the statements of the main respondents.
The data collection process was conducted in three phases as follows:
Date2
Location
Respondent Name
Wed, 14 Sept 2016
Maluku Provincial Police Office
Herlin Weredity
Thurs, 15 Sept 2016
Maluku Provincial Police Office
• Charly B Konyanan
• Shenny Rering
Fri, 16 Sept 2016
Aru Island District Police Office
La Ode Harmono
Table 2 – First Phase of Data Collection
Date
Location
Respondent Name
Mon, 7 November
2016
North Sumatera Provincial Police
Office
Mardianta Br Ginting
Tue, 8 November 2016
North Sumatera Provincial Police
Office
• Desy Tezby R Sidabutar
• Feriana
Wed, 9 November
2016
Riau Island Provincial Police
Office
•
•
Kamis, 10 November
2016
West Kalimantan Provincial
Police Office
• Edi Junaedy
• Boy Awaluddin
Salamun
Yunita Stevani
Table 3 – Second Phase of Data Collection
Date
Location
Respondent Name
Thurs, 17 Nov 20163
Cianjur District Police Office
Deding Supriatna
Tue, 22 Nov 2016
Sukabumi District Police Office
• Mohammad Fajar
• Adit (By Phone)
Wed, 23 Nov 2016
Cianjur District Police Office
Widi Eryadi Febrian
Thurs, 24 Nov 2016
West Java Provincial Police
Office
• Haris Fachruddin
• Endang Mulyana
Thurs, 8 Des 2016
Sanggau District Police Office
Tarsius Erwin (By Phone)
1
Tracing and measurement process of a series or network of triangles in order to determine the distance and relative positions of points –
Michael Quinn Patton, Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods, SAGE publication, 2002
2 Interview
3
Occurred during “Multi-Agency workshop on TIP in Fishing Industry” event in Ambon
Interview Occurred during “Multy-Agency workshop on TIP for Force Labor” event in Bandung
Page 8 of 30
Fri, 9 Des 2016
Anti-Trafficking Taskforce of CID
INP HQ
Asyari Firmansyah
Table 4 – Third phase of Data Collection
LIMITATIONS DURING DATA COLLECTION
There were several factors that are likely to have an impact on the quality and consistency of
data from respondents, as follows:
o
o
o
o
6 (1 from the Trafficking Task Force at INP Headquarter, 1 from the Cianjur District Police,
one of the Sukabumi District Police, 2 from the West Java Provincial Police, and 1 from the
Sanggau District Police) of the 21 workshop participants selected to be the respondents
were not in the same positions and offices as those when they participated in the event,
making it difficult to gather information relating to the application of new investigation
knowledge in TIP cases because they no longer handle TIP cases;
Limited time of the respondents during the tracer study’s interview process making the
interview sometimes interrupted or accelerated due to other commitments;
The absence of the target respondents – 2 respondents from the anti-trafficking Task Force
of the INP Headquarter were unable to attend because of one person being out for
assignment and another being was attending training; 2 respondents from the Sukabumi
District Police were having investigations; 1 respondent from the West Java Provincial
Police had been transferred; while one investigator from Cianjur had been transferred to
another District Police;
The results of this study might not represent the condition and situation of Indonesia as a
whole because of the small samples taken in this study but it could describe the situation in
10 police stations which were the targets of this Tracer Study.
C. ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS
From the results of the two initial questions about the cases handled before attending the
training, it was found that 13% (all were males) never handled TIP cases; 44% of the total
respondents (29% males, 71% females) at the time of the training were not handling TIP cases
but they previously did; 19% (all were male respondents) said that they very rarely handled cases
and expected that in the future they could handle a lot of TIP cases; while the remaining 25% (all
were males) said that both before and during the implementation of the training they had
handled or were handling a lot of and/or some TIP cases, as presented by chart 3 below.
Page 9 of 30
5
4
3
2
2
0
Never
Not at the Time
Pria
0
0
Infrequent
Significant
Wanita
Chart 3 - Number of TIP cases handling prior and after Training
Furthermore, with regard to the TIP investigation training they had attended before the reactive
investigation training by AAPTIP, it was found that of the three categories questioned (never,
rarely, and often) only two categories having the answers: 38% of the respondents (50% males,
50% females) had never attended investigation training especially TIP-specific investigation,
while 62% (80% males; 20% females) said they had attended some training on investigation and
only a few had attended TIP investigation training, such as one respondent from the antitrafficking task force of the INP Headquarter and one respondent from the Sukabumi District
Police stating that they attended TIP financial investigation training held by AAPTIP in early
2016, while the other was non-TIP-specific general investigation training held by the INP’s
Criminal investigation Education Centre.
10
8
38%
6
3
62%
3
2
Never
Male
Infrequent
Female
Total
Never
Infrequent
Chart 4 – Number and percentage of respondents who were attended TIP Training
From the above results, it can be concluded that most participants of the reactive investigation
training did not have a deep understanding of how to conduct TIP investigation although they
had self-taught knowledge and capacity in conducting investigations of general crimes. Two
Page 10 of 30
participants who had previously been trained in TIP financial investigation had high scores at the
pre-test4.
1. TRAINING CONTENT
1.1. MOST INTERESTING CONTENT
In spite of the fact that all respondents were investigators and used to having
interviews while interviewing victims and perpetrators, the techniques of TIP
interviews with victims were the most interesting content, according to the
respondents, as shown in chart 5 below:
Palermo Protocol
0
P.E.A.C.E Methods/Model
0
Cross-border Cooperation
0
Evidences Collection
0
1
1
2
2
2
2
Victims Identification
3
3
TIP Element of Crime
Interview Technique
1
7
Female
Male
Chart 5 – Most Interesting Content (n = 16, Multiple Answer)
The interesting contents according to the respondents in the reactive investigation
training were:
a) Victim interview techniques – 50% of the respondents stated that the victim
interview techniques were new things and they were very pleased with the
simulation or role play during the training.
b) The content on the elements of TIP crimes in the application of TIP articles – 38%
of the respondents were interested in the elements of TIP crimes, including
4
Reactive investigation training pre and post test result
Page 11 of 30
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
Process, Method, and Purpose, both given by Adviser Paul Holmes and
presented by the speaker (AKBP Ari Dharmanto). Based on the observation,
many respondents posted the content on the walls of their offices as a
reference.
Victim identification – 25% of the respondents mentioned how to identify TIP
victims as most interesting to see the fulfilment of the elements of TIP crimes
(see the point above).
Evidence Collection – 13% of the respondents said that they practiced the
knowledge gained from the investigation training especially in the evidence
collection techniques, for example, investigators in the West Kalimantan
Provincial Police always recorded the whole process of investigation as part of
the evidence in both audio and video forms using their mobile phones.
International Cooperation - 13% (all female) of the respondents also said that
the international cooperation content was highly interesting, especially when
there was involvement of foreign nationals either as victims or as perpetrators,
as was the case in Benjina – Maluku.
The P.E.A.C.E. (Preparation, Engage & Explain, Account, Closure, Evaluate)
Model – although there were only 6% of the respondents who explicitly stated
that this method guided them when they would make TIP investigation planning,
but the above points also clearly illustrated that investigation was also one part
of this model.
The Palermo Protocol – 6% of the respondents were interested in this content
because it is new knowledge to them.
Based on the findings above, anti-trafficking law dissemination was highly
important because many of respondents stated that they learned much on three
elements of TIP in that training and the Palermo Protocol were new things also for
them it is shown that many of them did not have well - knowledge in term of
trafficking; on the other hand, even though Indonesia has signed the TIP
Eradication Law Number 21 of 2007 but many of investigators in region just recently
known about that laws.
1.2. MOST USEFUL CONTENT FROM THE TRAINING
The respondents said that they have learned a lot of things from the training.
There were two aspects that were most useful to the respondents and relevant to
their day-to-day activities as investigators. While all the contents were useful for
them some respondents said that there were some things that were not quite right
or inconsistent with the system of law in Indonesia, which was different from the
system in the UK.
Page 12 of 30
The two most useful contents according to the respondents were as follows:
1. Victim Interview Techniques – The victim interview techniques promoting
humanity enabled investigators to dig up as much information as possible from
the victims;
2. Three elements of TIP - with respondents’ increased understanding of the
elements of TIP, i.e. process, method, and purpose, investigators were able to
identify the victims by seeing whether or not the aforementioned elements
were fulfilled, such as in the case of recruitment, transportation, sheltering,
delivery, and acts by force, then trafficking in persons has occurred.
When the investigators already had the ability to dig up as much information as
possible from the victims using the interview techniques taught in the reactive
investigation training, the possibility of fulfilment of the TIP elements becomes
clearer so as to be easier for them to identify victims and collect evidence.
”ACTUALLY, I HAVE EXPERIENCE IN ALL
THE CONTENT/TECHNIQUE THAT
WAS TAUGHT IN THIS TRAINING, BUT I NEVER REALISED THAT SOME CASES
COULD BE TIP CASES.”
The discussion and group work methods according to the respondents were highly
effective to improve their knowledge, experience, and insight, mainly in the
methods of TIP case handling, where they could share their knowledge and
experience in their groups.
In connection with the relevance of the contents taught in the reactive investigation
training with their day-to-day jobs, 100% of the respondents said that what was
taught was highly relevant to their day-to-day jobs and they even have applied
some techniques all this time but this training opened up their horizons and
creativities for more innovations in applying these techniques so that at least they
would be more helpful in revealing cases (investigation).
On the other hand, according to the participants in connection with the Palermo
Protocol and some examples presented by the facilitator (Paul), they were contrary
to or the same as the laws and regulations in Indonesia because of different legal
systems.
Page 13 of 30
“(IT IS) VERY USEFUL, EVEN I POSTED THIS CONTENT ON THE WALL SO I
WOULD NOT FORGET IT. ALL I NEED IS TO WRITE DOWN THE INTERVIEW
RESULTS WITH THE VICTIMS, AND THEN I WRITE DOWN THE MOST
APPROPRIATE ARTICLES FOR THE ALLEGED OFFENDERS AND VICTIMS.”
1.3. THINGS TO BE STUDIED MORE DEEPLY BY THE
PARTICIPANTS
Some reasons were given by the respondents with regard to what they wanted to
learn or understand better regarding the contents taught during the training as
depicted in chart 6.
Based on the findings from the interviews with the respondents, it was found that
18% said that they needed advanced training with regard to all the contents taught,
while other 18% mentioned more specifically that they wanted to know more about
investigation of corporation, including money laundering investigation because
from the trend happening now, many TIP cases were committed by or used
corporation so the possibility of money laundering cases was larger. 12% of the
respondents said it would be more interesting if the contents on techniques or
methods of evidence collection (including the use of technology) were further
deepened so that they became aware of what kind of evidence they needed to
collect, other 12% were interested in and needed to know more about international
cooperation (including cases involving foreign nationals) so that the handling of TIP
cases would be optimal when transnational cooperation existed. 6% of the
respondents wanted to find concrete examples where the reactive investigation
techniques have been successfully applied so as to be a reference for them, and
other 6% said that the training time was very short because there were many things
they wanted to learn from the facilitators and speakers. 29% of the respondents
suggested that such training should also be attended by participants from other
agencies, especially prosecutors on the ground that prosecutors also had the same
understanding as investigators.
Page 14 of 30
4
3
2
2
1
1
0
Advance
Training
1
1
1
Concreate
Example
Time
Allocation
Other
Institution
0
Corporation
Evidence
Collection
International
Cooperation
Male
Female
Chart 6 – things to be studied more by respondent (n= 14, Multiple answer)
2. USING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL IN WORKPLACE
2.1. KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE SHARING
All the respondents said that they had distributed the knowledge they gained from
the workshop to their colleagues informally (88%) and formally (12%).
14
35
9
5
2
15
2
0
Formal
Male
Informal
Female
5
3
POLDA
Maluku
POLRES
Kep Aru
10
5
POLDA POLDA
Sumut Kep Riau
Total
POLDA
Kalbar
4
2
POLRES POLRES POLRES
Sanggau Sukabumi Cianjur
5
5
POLDA
HT
Jabar Taskforce
* Prediction Number
Chart 7 – Way of Sharing knowledge & number of colleagues were shared
Page 15 of 30
a) Maluku Provincial Police
According to two respondents from the Maluku Provincial Police (both were
females), they shared their knowledge with other colleagues by way of informal
discussions either within the workspace or while resting or while handling cases;
in addition, they also distributed materials to their colleagues, and this was
confirmed by Shenny Rening, an investigator at the women and children
protection unit who was a co-worker of the respondents, that they often invited
her to discuss how to handle TIP cases.
They shared such knowledge to roughly five of their colleagues, however they
never shared such knowledge to parties outside their work environment.
b) Aru Islands District Police
Just as the Maluku Provincial Police’s investigators, a male investigator from the
Aru Islands District Police who was a respondent shared his knowledge to his 3
subordinates at his unit through informal discussions and distributing hand-outs
obtained from the training.
c) Sumatera Utara Provincial Police
The respondents from the North Sumatra Provincial Police (both were females)
shared their knowledge informally through discussions within their workspace.
Since the North Sumatra Provincial Police had an anti-trafficking task force, they
shared their knowledge with members of the task force during TIP case handling;
confirmed by the anti-Trafficking task force head of the North Sumatra Provincial
Police, Police Commissioner Feriana Gultom, who stated that the task force was
helped by inputs from the respondents when dealing with TIP cases.
The respondents stated that they have shared their knowledge with their 5
colleagues, including members of the anti-trafficking task force of the North
Sumatra Provincial Police and they shared their knowledge informally with
prosecutors when consulted in case handling.
d) Riau Islands Provincial Police
The respondents from the Riau Islands Provincial Police (1 male and 1 female)
also shared their knowledge informally with 15 investigators within the Riau
Islands Provincial Police; according to one respondent each year the Riau Islands
Provincial Police had an annual agenda to hold trafficking training, but this year
(2016) it had been held before the reactive investigation training; thus, it might
be scheduled for next year (2017).
Page 16 of 30
“SOMETIMES (POLICE) FROM REGIONS
(DISTRICT POLICE) CONTACTED US, ASKING
WHETHER (A CASE) WAS INCLUDED IN THE
TRAFFICKING CASE. I THEN CAPTURED
RECORDS FROM MY WALL AND SENT THEM
VIA WHATSAPP. I INFORMED ABOUT THE
FULFILMENT OF ELEMENTS, WHAT THEY
NEED IS TO TAKE ONE OF THE MOST
APPROPRIATE ELEMENTS (FROM EACH OF
THE THREE BASIC ELEMENTS OF TIP).
BESIDES, I AM ALSO A MENTOR OF
TRAFFICKING CASES.”
Picture 4 - Brigadier Salamun (POLDA Kepri)
With regard to parties outside the police, the respondents informally shared
their knowledge in discussions with prosecutors.
e) West Kalimantan Provincial Police
Within the Sub-directorate III of General Criminal Investigation, the West
Kalimantan Provincial Police had a routine every Tuesday to have an inter-unit
meeting, in which every member of each unit disclosed information about
individual unit. The respondents (both were males) used this opportunity to
convey learnings from the reactive investigation training, primarily on TIP
elements, objectives, forms, and indications and there were present 10
investigators of the Sub-directorate III. In addition to delivering through this
mechanism, the respondents also actively shared knowledge via informal
discussions.
Due to gaps of understanding between investigators and prosecutors, especially
in TIP cases, investigators also attempted to informally discuss and share their
knowledge about the TIP elements as mentioned in the Palermo Protocol and
Law Number 21 of 2007.
f) Sanggau District Police
One male respondent from the Sanggau District Police who was not a TIP
investigator said that after returning from the reactive investigation training he
distributed the materials and knowledge to four investigators from a dedicated
unit for TIP handling.
g) Sukabumi District Police
Approximately two weeks after attending the reactive investigation training, the
(male) respondent was requested by the Criminal Investigation Unit Head of the
Sukabumi District Police to explain learnings the reactive investigation training
held by AAPTIP. The respondent specifically described the rule of law,
classification of victims, examination techniques, interview techniques for
victims and perpetrators, as well as evidence collection techniques; the event
was attended by approximately 35 members of the Sukabumi District Police.
One of the participants was Brigadier Adit, a Criminal Investigation Unit member
Page 17 of 30
of the Sukabumi District Police, who confirmed what was done by the
respondent and he came to understand how interviews should be done
sensitively with the victims.
“AFTER HAVING THE TRAINING FROM AAPTIP WE WERE DIRECTLY
INSTRUCTED BY THE CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION UNIT HEAD TO HAVE A
PRESENTATION AT THE CONFERENCE ROOM AND WE DIRECTLY
PRESENTED ALL WE GOT TO ALL MEMBERS PERFORM OF THE CRIMINAL
INVESTIGATION UNIT AND EXPLAINED CONTENTS RECEIVED AT THE
TRAINING”
The respondent did not share his knowledge with regard to the reactive
investigation techniques with other parties outside the Sukabumi District Police.
h) Cianjur District Police
Two respondents (both were males) of the Cianjur District Police said that they
distributed materials from USB-Stick shared by AAPTIP to other two
investigators within their unit in addition to having discussions on an informal
basis when discussing the handling of cases but never held a formal event to
share their knowledge.
They also had never shared their knowledge of reactive investigation to other
parties/ outsiders since it was not very relevant if they shared such knowledge
with non-investigators.
i) West Java Provincial Police
Two respondents (both were males) of the West Java Provincial Police never
held/ implemented a formal event to share the knowledge they had as a result
of the reactive investigation training. They only engaged in informal discussions
with other investigators within their offices, mainly about TIP elements, handling
methods, and articles thereof.
The interesting thing was one of the respondents in the West Java Provincial
Police said that he shared this knowledge to his wife and brother who was a
lecturer, and colleagues at the university (the respondent was having the Master
program) and they were very keen on these topics, especially about how to
identify the victims (sexual exploitation victims).
j) INP Headquarter – Anti-Trafficking Task Force
Of the three prospective participants of the reactive investigation training from
the task force, there was only one participant available to be a respondent and
the respondent said that he shared it informally with other 5 task force members
on reactive investigation techniques, and never shared this knowledge with
other parties because as the Cianjur investigators he did not notice any
relevance to other parties.
Page 18 of 30
The initiatives of leadership were required in relation to formal dissemination of
knowledge or information as indicated by the Criminal Investigation Unit Head of the
Sukabumi District Police who provided a stage and opportunity for his member
recently returning from the training to formally share his knowledge.
Sharing of knowledge on how to identify victims to parties other than investigators
was deemed useful allowing parties other than investigators to be watch-dogs for
trafficking crimes within their environment.
2.2. RESPONDENT POSITION AND NUMBER OF CASES
HANDLED
Of the 16 respondents (male: 11, female: 5) who were interviewed, two people were
not holding the same positions (1 male investigator from the Sukabumi District
Police and one male investigator from the West Java Provincial Police) so that in the
post-training of reactive investigation they never handled TIP cases. On the other
hand, one respondent from the Sanggau District Police attending the reactive
investigation training was not a TIP investigator.
The number of cases handled by the respondents after the reactive investigation
training were as follows:
Region/Area
Cases
Number
Type of Cases
Maluku Provincial Police
1
Sex Exploitation
Aru Island District Police
2
Forced Labor
North Sumatera Provincial Police
4
Un-specified (mostly sex exploitation)
Riau Island Provincial Police
7
Un-specified (mostly sex exploitation)
West Kalimantan Provincial Police
8
Un-specified (mostly sex exploitation)
Sukabumi District Police
2
Un-spesified
Cianjur District Police
1
Sex Exploitation
West Java Provincial Police
3
Sex Exploitation
HT Taskforce
3
1 sex exploitation, 2 force labor
Total
31
Table 5 – Number of TIP case handling by responden post training
Of the total 31 cases, not all were new cases. Some cases were transferred from
other investigators to the respondents, such as the case being handled by the
respondent from the Aru Islands District Police, while the respondent from the
Sanggau District Police did not handle TIP cases because he was not in charge of it.
When asking the investigators about the number of handling of TIP cases in respect
of sexual exploitation as compared with forced labour, the respondents noted little
awareness and reluctance of forced labour victims to report their cases.
Page 19 of 30
2.3. SPECIFIC SKILLS UTILISED AND THE APPLICATION
So far the respondents (who were handling cases) stated that they have been trying
to apply some techniques taught in the reactive investigation training, but there
were some constraints and challenges faced by them (see point 4.1).
Some skills used and applied by the respondents in the handling of TIP cases were
as follows:
1. Interviews with victims and/or perpetrators – 63% of the total 16 respondents
said that so far they applied the sensitive interview techniques with the victims
so that they could gather as much information as possible from them in a short
time.
2. Victim Identification – an understanding of the TIP elements (process, method,
and purpose) allowed 31% of the respondents to more easily identify victims
quickly and accurately.
3. Evidence Collection – the evidence collection techniques such as the use of video
and/or audio footage as conducted by the investigators in the West Kalimantan
Provincial Police and the Task Force of the INP Headquarter allowing them to
more easily get information from the victims (related to the activities in point 1)
as mentioned by 13% of the respondents
4. Victim Handling - 13% of the respondents had tried to contact the Victim Service
Agency (VSA) to provide support or assistance to them during the transition
period (sheltering), recovery, trial, as well as repatriation, such as coordinating
with social service, local P2TP2A, NGOs and others.
5. P.E.A.C.E. Model – 13% of the respondents also said that they tried to
implement this model, despite not being 100% optimal but at least they tried to
always evaluate every stage of the investigation process.
6. Inter-Agency Coordination – 6% of the respondents said that investigators
coordinate closely, especially with institutions having a victim service function
(see point 4)
7. Application of Articles – 6% of the respondents stated that it became more
easily in the application of articles under law Number 21 of 2007 on TIP, because
these respondents already had a guide in respect of the three elements of TIP.
Other 19% respondents stated that they did not have the opportunity to apply the
skills and knowledge they acquired from the reactive investigation training because
they had not handled TIP cases, despite some respondents stating that the skills
and knowledge were still relevant to be applied in non-TIP cases (general).
Page 20 of 30
Victim
Identification
Interview
Interagency
cooperation
Evidence
Collection
Victims
Support
Charge
Applied
P.E.A.C.E
Model
POLDA
Maluku
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
POLRES
Kep Aru
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
POLDA
Sumut
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
POLDA
Kep Riau
1
1
-
-
1
1
-
POLDA
Kalbar
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
POLRES
Sukabumi
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
POLDA
Jabar
1
2
-
-
-
-
1
HT
Taskforce
-
1
1
-
-
-
Total
5
10
2
1
1
2
Skill
1
Table 6 – Type of Skill by region/area
19%
44%
6%
25%
Interview
Victim
Identification
6%
6%
Evidence
Collection
13%
0%
Victims
Support
Male
6%
6%
P.E.A.C.E
Model
6%
0%
Interagency
Cooperation
6%
0%
Charge
Applied
Female
Chart 8 – Percentage of Skill utilized by gender
From the chart above, it shows that female respondents were more dominant in
considering the interests and needs of rights of the victims than male respondents,
while male respondents focused more on victim identification and information
gathering (interviews) of victims and perpetrators. Female respondents reported
used a wider range of skills than their male colleagues, including interagency
cooperation and application of the law.
Page 21 of 30
2.4. DIFFERENCE MADE WHEN APPLYING KNOWLEDGE
Based on the results of interviews with 16 respondents in 10 regions, it was found that
the application of the above skills and knowledge (see point 2.3) had an impact on
their work.
When asked about the difference that implementing the new skills and knowledge
made, respondents reported:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
The data obtained was more detailed and also became richer and greater in
number;
Victims who were initially afraid to report because they would be intimidated by
the perpetrators were brave to testify – because the respondents coordinated
with the victim protection agency;
Previously, when making identification they needed to make repeated checks,
now it is sufficient to check once or twice;
The respondents were becoming more confident in implementing the violation
articles because they understood about victim identification and TIP elements;
Using interview techniques. Previously, the respondents more actively asked
questions to the victims, now they asked a little and the victims gave a lot of
information;
The respondent of Sukabumi said that investigator’s treatment would be equal
between male and female perpetrators, but after the training the respondent
tried to be more gentle to female perpetrators and the perpetrators could provide
information truthfully and honestly in accordance with what they did, without
convoluted process, without pressure or scolding;
Faster handling because at the time of inspection, the perpetrators or victims
more quickly provided right information and did not forget, and did not
complicate the respondents as investigators.
Based on the above data, the reactive investigation training provided useful
knoweldge for them (the respondents), especially in identification, collection of data/
information, and creating time efficiency and effectiveness, although not all
respondents felt the difference. Where a few respondents said that the subjects
taught were similar to what they had done so far, resulting in no significant
difference, while there were some respondents (31% - all of them are male
respondents) felt that not all techniques taught could be applied due to differences
in legal systems of the trainees’ and trainer’s countries (UK).
Page 22 of 30
3. NETWORK UTILISING
3.1. UTILISING THE CONTACT LIST
All the participants admitted that they still kept the contact list of participants
provided by AAPTIP so that they could contact the speakers when they need them
for consultation. They could also contact other participants for coordination and/or
asking for help.
In one case the Riau Islands Provincial Police contacted the West Kalimantan
Provincial Police when finding victims coming from West Kalimantan, enabling the
West Kalimantan Provincial Police to bring the victims back to West Kalimantan. In
cases involving victims of Sukabumi, the Sukabumi District Police asked for
assistance of the West Kalimantan Provincial Police to provide temporary security for
the victims before being picked up by the Sukabumi District Police’s investigators.
At other times, the West Kalimantan Provincial Police asked for assistance of
investigators from the anti-trafficking task force of the INP Headquarter to contact
the Banten Provincial Police in relation to victims of Singkawang in Banten together
with the perpetrators, for the Banten Provincial Police to secure the victims and the
perpetrators, and a few days later they were picked up by the West Kalimantan
Provincial Police’s investigators.
Furthermore, the respondents often kept in touch for merely exchanging information
or inquiring about developments in their respective areas, such as the case between
investigators of the Cianjur District Police and the Sukabumi District Police and the
Sukabumi District Police and the North Sumatra Provincial Police.
4. CHALLENGES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1. GAPS AND CHALLENGES IDENTIFIED
Some challenges or gaps that have been identified while trying to implement some
reactive investigation techniques shall be as follows:
•
With regard to the victims, many victims still did not provide information
truthfully with a variety of factors/ reasons such as:
a) The victims did not believe in the investigators;
b) The victims were traumatized or afraid of being intimidated by employers/
perpetrators;
c) The victims have not known/ did not know their rights.
Page 23 of 30
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
When the victims were foreign nationals, it was difficult to find interpreters if the
victims came from non-English speaking countries that did not use English as their
language of communication; the complexity of the bureaucratic process is a
hindrance to the investigators (in regions) when asking for assistance of
interpreters from foreign embassies.
In addition, there were found many victims who did not feel that they were
victims, especially in sex trafficking cases, requiring the investigators to
repeatedly explain to the victims that they have been TIP victims. On the other
hand, many victims have made reports, but refused to continue pursuing the case
in the course of investigation.
The difficulty of gathering evidence requested by prosecutors, such as evidence
of tickets and others since the incidents had occurred several months or even
several years ago making it difficult to find the evidence. It was also related to the
different understanding of prosecutors from that of investigators thus
occasionally interrupting the course of investigation or evidence collection
and/or repeated submission of files.
The unavailability of competent and adequate victim protection services in
regions, since the Witness and Victim Protection Agency (LPSK) only existed at
the national level, while more cases were handled in regions. Moreover, the lack
of investigators’ knowledge on the method or mechanism for accessing the
LPSK’s services for the victims.
The unavailability of interpreters (see point 2), psychiatrists – making it difficult
for investigators to dig up information from the victims while the victims were
still traumatized, TIP experts – prosecutors often requested to present TIP
experts and this was the biggest challenge for investigators as they should bring
in expert witnesses from Jakarta.
The lack of dissemination of Law Number 21 of 20017 on TIP in regions, thus
many investigators not to understand; even if this law was passed in 2007, it was
a new thing for investigators in regions. It was as mentioned by the respondent
from the Aru Islands District Police. Because he already handled the Benjina case,
he only understood about TIP (there were 3 main elements of TIP). However,
when having case conferences, many of those present did not understand about
it, for example, exploitation was mostly included in the child protection law, while
it was regulated in TIP law, making them deciding to choose to apply the child
protection law rather than the TIP law.
Less supportive equipment – as in evidence collection, investigators were more
likely to use their personal mobile phones with not quite good quality. Similarly,
the Detection Finder (DF) was out-dated or not updated making the investigators
difficult to detect the existence of perpetrators.
The huge number of local officials who involved in the cases, such as in the
making of passports, they helped the perpetrators make false passports (or
authentic passports with false identities) for the victims. Or in other conditions
where front-line officers were lack of understanding to identify the victims.
Page 24 of 30
•
Limitation of funds owned by the police institutions. The respondents were aware
that TIP investigators should also conduct pro-active investigations, one of which
was to conduct undercover investigations; however, they were constrained by
budget, making many investigators passive by just waiting for reports from
newspapers or victims’ families.
In connection with the above limitations, the respondents said that both individually
and institutionally they have made some efforts to address the problems, such as:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Coordinating closely with Social Departments and/or other relevant agencies
in the provision of temporary shelter for the victims.
Seeking advice from superiors, such as unit heads or sub-directorate heads or
regional police heads primarily in relation to investigation budget.
In conjunction with interpreters – learning from the Benjina case of the Aru
Islands District Police in coordination with the Criminal Investigation Unit of
the INP Headquarter invoking to provide an interpreter from Jakarta.
Initially asking for directions from prosecutors to prevent from repeated
submission of files, but this depended on the closeness between investigators
and prosecutors.
In connection with the repatriation of victims, the respondents coordinated
with shelters or safe houses, such as Rumah VI (in Batam) when the victims
were under age.
In the case of TIP especially related to sexual exploitation cases, most victims
were women; thus, investigators made approaches through Female Police
making the victims feel comfortable and made religious approaches, for
example when the victims were Muslims, the investigators would invite them
to mosques or Islamic gatherings.
With regard to victims who did not feel themselves as victims and victims who
decided not to pursue the cases after making reports, the respondents would
as maximally as possible approach the victims’ families more actively by
directly visiting their residence and inviting them to discuss and give
information although the victims’ families had not objections on their children
being employed in Malaysia, but the Indonesian law regulated that the cases
should be processed.
Having formal coordination, for example passport issues, when an
investigator did not know from which immigration office a passport was
issued, he/she should make a letter to the provincial office of the Law and
Human Rights Ministry, and from the Law and Human Rights Ministry, it
should be forwarded back to the immigration office in the region, thus taking
quite a long time, which was then forwarded to the police. Moreover, the
immigration office refused to give information orally, or to sufficiently give
the victim’s name registered with the immigration office and checking in their
computer data whether or not the victim’s name was registered since they
Page 25 of 30
could be subject to the Information and Electronic Transactions Law, requiring
the whole processes to be formal and made in writing.
4.2. RESPONDENTS SUGGESTION/RECOMMENDATION
Some suggestions and recommendations raised by the respondents of the workshop,
regarding the implementation of the reactive investigation or problems and
obstacles they encountered as discussed earlier, suggestions to the internal police or
suggestions to the external parties, were as follows:
a) There was no problem with the facilitation methods; Paul delivered the
training excellently; there might be problems in the interpretation; it could be
possible that what was delivered by Paul was interpreted differently by the
interpreter. However, it did not matter. The contents were good; it should be
added with some examples of case studies.
b) The training time was very short; the next training should provide longer
training time.
c) If possible, training should be attended by all investigators at the district
police level thus giving knowledge not only to provincial police-level
investigators on what to do when finding a victim of trafficking.
d) The handling of TIP cases was more difficult than that of other cases, because
TIP involved more than one country (transnational). In general, victims were
brought to foreign countries, thus requiring involving many stakeholders such
as immigration offices, social departments. Therefore, agreements or
performance standards might be made and/or inter-agency coordination
might be required.
e) Prosecutors and judges should be involved in the investigation training thus
prosecutors and judges should have the same understanding with
investigators in implementing the TIP law.
f) Female police investigators should be involved in the training for them to have
the right skills in conducting investigation.
g) With regard to budget, it required support from the INP’s leadership, other
agencies associated with TIP eradication, as well as donors such as AAPTIP and
others.
Page 26 of 30
D. CONCLUSION
Based on the above findings, several conclusions were identified, as follows:
 There were three items learned during the Reactive Investigation Training that were most
relevant, interesting and applied by most respondents: interview techniques, elements of TIP
crimes, and identification of victims;
 The interviews of victims and/or perpetrators as a part of information collection was not new
to the respondents because as investigators these were the main activities that they did, but
the techniques taught by the facilitators in the training were new techniques, in which Paul
as the facilitator promoted sensitivity in doing interviews with both victims and perpetrators;
“WE ALSO CONSIDER VICTIMS’ RIGHTS MORE, ARE MORE CAREFUL WHEN
COLLECTING VICTIMS’ IDENTITY, AND WE ALSO INTERVIEW THEM WITHOUT
PRESSURE BECAUSE WE KNOW THEY ARE SCARED.”
 Since the post-training of reactive investigation, the number of TIP cases handled in some
regions where the respondents served increased, although a further study to see the
relationship between the training results and the increasing number of TIP cases was
required;
 The use of knowledge and skills in interviewing gained from the reactive investigation
training resulted in more and better information from victims and suspects;
 The biggest challenge faced by the respondents was the strong differences of understanding
in viewing TIP cases between investigators and prosecutors, making TIP cases sometimes
miss the essential elements and the investigation process more difficult and complicated
because the files were returned for many times for completion and sometimes prosecutors
requested to present expert witnesses;
 In addition, the process of inter-agency coordination was still weak, for example when
investigators needed shelters or safe houses for temporary shelters of the victims, there was
no agency or institution that could help while LPSK only existed at the national level;
 In addition to the need for advanced level training for investigators, victim identification
training was also needed for frontline officers and involvement of other law enforcement
officers as well as prosecutors and judges in training in order that all components of the
criminal justice system have a common understanding in the legal process of TIP;
 Almost all respondents shared the knowledge gained with their colleagues, at least in an
informal manner; only 2 respondents did it formally. This was due to the absence of
opportunity and lack of fund of regional police stations;
 External support (donors) was still needed to enhance the capacity of investigators,
especially investigators in regions in the case of a reactive investigation as proposed by the
North Sumatra Provincial Police to train investigators at the district police level;
 Stabilization of transnational TIP case handling issues to be crucial issues, especially for
regions bordering other countries, so that they were able to handle cases involving foreign
nationals;
Page 27 of 30
 Strengthening the network between the Indonesian police and polices of other countries in
ASEAN through bilateral meetings. On the other hand, strengthening networks among
institutions/ agencies was also a homework, which could be done by implementing multiagency meetings/ workshops, roundtable meetings, and/or strengthening of existing task
force, especially in the handling of victims;
 The typical constraint was lack of government budget in investigation activities, especially in
pro-active investigations;
 The tracer study could address the AAPTIP’s indicators, as follows:
• 75% (12 out of 16; 8 males, 4 females) of the training participants sampled who provided
credible examples of their use of new knowledge and skills in TIP investigation, even if
the respondents did not 100% apply the knowledge gained from the reactive
investigation training, at least most respondents applied the interview techniques.
• Several of these examples can be considered success cases of promising practice in the
implementation of new knowledge and skills – these will be followed up in more detail
OPPORTUNITIES FOR AAPTIP
 The high enthusiasm of investigators and leaders at the regional level (provincial police) and
national police (INP Headquarter) on the TIP law enforcement resulted in very good
reception of both local and national polices.
 The interest of some regional polices to hold reactive investigation training for investigators
at the district police level was a great opportunity for AAPTIP to do cost-sharing.
 The implementation of roundtable and multi-agency meetings would be the priorities and
concerns of the counterparts.
 Viewing the great and big needs of the counterparts, while they were lack of budget sources
(funding) and human resources led to an opportunity for the Australian government to
extend the program before it was actually handed over to the counterparts.
Page 28 of 30
ANNEXES:
TRACER STUDY’S KEY QUESTIONS
For Main Respondents:
During the training, how far could you handle or expect to handle TIP cases?
a)
Not at all
b) Not at the time, but expecting in the future
c)
Yes, but not too often
d) It is the most significant part of my job at that time
During the training, how many criminal investigation training activities that you have
attended before?
a)
None
b)
Very little
c)
Sufficient number of training
A.
Training materials
1. Think back to the time while having the reactive investigation training, what do you
remember the most of the contents provided at the training?
2. During the training, what did you learn that you think will be very useful for your
jobs?
3. Do you still think that it is the most useful or you have changed your mind then?
Why? (Probing): do you think that the contents are suitable or relevant to your
jobs?)
4. Think back, what do you want to learn more deeply during the training? Why?
B.
Knowledge sharing
1. How far have you shared the knowledge that you gained with your colleagues
within your workplace? How many colleagues with whom the information you
have learned during the training was shared? Specifically what did you share?
2. Did you also share your knowledge with people outside your workplace? If so, to
whom and how? If not, why?
C.
Current situation
1. Do you still serve the same position as when you have the reactive investigation
training?
2. Did you conduct TIP investigations after the training? If so, how many
investigations did you conduct?
3. If any, how far have you been able to apply the knowledge and skills you gained
from the reactive investigation training when conducting the investigations?
Page 29 of 30
D.
Application of specific knowledge in workplace
1. If you could apply the skills from the reactive training in TIP investigation,
specifically which skill have you used? How did you use it? Which technique did
you most frequently use when working in such cases?
2. What was the difference happening to you or your case after using the skill? What
has happened then?
3. Think about the last time you used the skill in the TIP investigation in detail and
what have you done differently.
4. What were the challenges you encountered while applying the skill?
5. How did you overcome these challenges?
6. What support did you need to implement the training? From whom?
E.
Use of the network of training
1. Do you still keep the list of contacts that you obtained during the training?
2. Who have you contacted after the training? How? Why?
For Additional Respondents:
1. Colleagues on Sharing Knowledge
• Do you know about the financial investigation? From whom?
• What did you learn?
2. Other Training Attendances
• How did the respondents contact them?
• What is the most frequently asked content?
Page 30 of 30
Tracer Study on the Application of
Training Knowledge of Commanders
AAPTIP Indonesia Country Office
September 14rd – October 20th, 2017
Erwien Temasmico - Indonesia NMEIO
Contents
A.
Background of the Tracer Study........................................................................................................ 3
Objective of the Tracer Study ........................................................................................................... 3
B.
Key findings..................................................................................................................................... 3
Data Collection Process & Methodology .......................................................................................... 5
Limitations During Data Collection ................................................................................................... 6
C.
Analysis of the Findings .................................................................................................................. 7
Result of Individual Interview .......................................................................................................... 8
D.
Conclusions.................................................................................................................................... 18
Annex one – Result of training evaluation ............................................................................................ 19
Annex two - Respondent profile and data collection phases ................................................................ 20
Annex three - Guideline Question ........................................................................................................ 22
LIST OF CHARTS
Chart 1 -Number of TPPO Cases Handled before and during training ................................................................... 7
Chart 2 – Data on the Handling of TPPO Cases in 2016 & 2017 ............................................................................ 8
Chart 3 – Respondents Candidate Vs Actual Respondents........................................................................................ 20
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 - List of Primary Respondents ............................................................................................................................. 6
Table 2 - List of Secondary Respondents ........................................................................................................................ 6
Table 3 – Distribution of comparison of respondents ................................................................................................. 20
Table 4 – First Phase of Data Collection ....................................................................................................................... 21
Table 5 – Second Phase of Data Collection ................................................................................................................. 21
Table 6 – Third Phase of Data Collection ..................................................................................................................... 21
Page 2 of 23
A. Background of the Tracer Study
Objective of the Tracer Study
The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which participants of the Anti-Trafficking
Unit Commanders’ Training course (31 October – 4 November 2016) have been able to use the
skills and knowledge gained at that workshop.
Two AAPTIP M&E indicators are relevant to this study:
a) Quantitative Indicator: % of training participants who are able to provide credible
examples of the application of knowledge and skills in their work.
b) Qualitative Indicator: Capture successful cases in which the participants have applied the
knowledge and skills
In addition, the inquiry focused on the extent of application of the action plans which were
prepared on the last day of the training.
There were 20 participants of the training (2F, 18M), although some participants did not attend
the full five days. The topics of the training were:
• Objective, Role and Responsibilities of Trafficking Unit;
•
•
Management and Leadership;
Developing midterm (3 yr) strategic plan;
•
Developing and ensuring professional ethical standard;
•
Main challenges on supervision and effective management;
•
Lead unit operation;
•
Gathered, evaluated, and managed information;
•
Developing investigation plan and lead the reactive and pro-active investigation;
• Planning and lead the detained and confiscation process;
According to self-report training evaluation data, 98% of participants considered the topics of
the training to be relevant to their duties. Initially targeting 14, 11 participants (2F) were
followed up for this tracer study (55%) 1 . The interviews for this study also included five
secondary respondents who were consulted for triangulation purposes.
B. Key findings
The key findings of this study are as follows:
Ability to use new skills and knowledge
•
•
1
Overall seven (1F) of the 11 respondents (63%) were able to use the new knowledge and
skills on TIP or other cases.
Three (all male) of the 11 respondents (27%) handled TIP cases and used the new skills
and knowledge in these cases with good results. The remainder did not handle TIP cases
after the training.
See annex X for details
Page 3 of 23
•
•
•
In addition, five respondents2 (1F) out of the 11 (45%) reported using the new skills and
knowledge in non-TIP cases.
The main skills and knowledge used were management skills (division of labour), SWOT
analysis and risk assessment and coordination with prosecutors.
While only one respondent remembered the contents of their Action Plans developed on
day five of the training, he and two others (M) were able to implement all or part of their
action plans
Success factors and results
•
Cianjur has seen a dramatic increase in TIP cases being handled by the police from 2 in
2016 to 14 in 2017 – the Commander believes this is due to increased training for
investigators in that district and high-level attention to TIP.
•
Results of application of the new skills include overcoming obstacles such as mishandling of
cases, reducing custody times for suspects, better identification of TIP cases with new modus
operandi, better management practices, and successful application of strategy resulting in
the arrest of higher level suspects.
Hindering factors and challenges
•
•
•
•
2
The key hindering factor was the lack of TIP cases, in some instances due to transfers of
officers and in other instances, there were reports of no TIP cases being identified by the
unit (despite the district being a source region for TIP victims).
Most respondents reported that they were not able to handle transnational TIP cases
because these need to be referred to Regional or National police – therefore the training
on transnational cooperation was not relevant.
Gender barriers exist which limit the meaningful involvement of female investigators. Some
commanders do not send married women to the field if they need to stay overnight.
Some of the respondents did not attend the full training because some nominated
participants delegated their places to others on some of the days.
Including one of the three able to use the skills in TIP cases
Page 4 of 23
Data Collection Process & Methodology
The data collection process was
conducted in 13 areas of police
(stations) consisting of 1 at the
national
level
(BARESKRIM
MABES POLRI), 1 Provincial level
Police (West Java Provincial
Police), and 11 police stations at
the regency/city level consisting
of Cianjur District Police,
Sukabumi Regency District Police,
Cirebon Regency District Police,
Bandung Barat District Police,
Majalengka Regency District
Police, Subang Regency District Police, Indramayu Regency District Police, Kuningan Regency District
Police, Karawang Regency District Police, Bandung Major City District Police and Kepulauan Aru
District Police. The selection of the twelve regions is based on the national data in which the regions
are the main sources of manpower dispatch and the high potential of occurrence of human
trafficking crime.
One-on-One interview was selected as the data
collection method in this study in order that the results
of this study will be able to describe the situation and
condition of the respondents individually in their roles
as commanders. For the selected primary respondents,
open-structure questions were used, divided into 4
question categories (for more details, please see the
annexes), while for the secondary respondents, the
questions were intended more to triangulate and verify
that the information provided by the primary respondents, particularly concerning the application
of knowledge and implementation of action plan of the primary respondents.
The Primary respondents were selected by using Random Purposive sampling techniques and the
secondary respondents were chosen on the basis of their relationship to the primary respondent.
Primary respondents are as follows:
No Name
1
Julianto P Sirait
2
Abdul W Nasution
3
Asep Mulia WS
Position During Training
Chief of Anti Trafficking Unit of
CID of INP HQ
Head of Operation of Cianjur
District Police Office
Head of Operation of Cimahi
District Police Office
Recent Status
Same Position
Same Position
Moved to Cipatat SubDistrict Police Office
Page 5 of 23
4
Ade Mulyana
5
Yandrimono
6
Novita Rindi P
7
Dahroji
8
H. Komar
9
Ahmad Nurahmad
10
Herwit Yuanita
11
Agung Tri Purbowo
Chief of Sub directorate of West
Java Provincial Police Office
Chief of CID of Subang District
Police Office
Chief of Women and Children
Protection Unit of Majalengka
District Police Office
Chief of Women and Children
Protection Unit of Kuningan
District Police Office
Head of Operation of Cirebon
District Police Office
Head
of
Operation
of
Indramayu District Police Office
Chief of Women and Children
Protection Unit of Karawang
District Police Office
Head of Operation of Sukabumi
District Police Office
Same Position
Moved – School
Same Position
Same Position
Moved to Gempol SubDistrict Police Office
Same Position
Same Position
Moved to another unit
Table 1 - List of Primary Respondents
o
There are two categories to select the secondary respondents, the first is the head of Women
and Children Protection unit or a senior investigator in the unit as a direct subordinate of a
primary respondent. This process itself can be considered as a Triangulation process whereby
the results of interview with the respondent can validate the questions from the primary
respondents.
No
1
Name
Deding Supriatna
2
Euis Yuningsih
3
Nenden Nurpatimah
4
Iwa Mashadi
5
Indrie Hapsari
Position
Investigator of Women and
Children Protection Unit of
Cianjur District Police Office
Chief of Anti Trafficking Unit of
West Java Provincial Police
Office
Chief of Women and Children
Protection Unit of Subang
District Police Office
Chief of Women and Children
Protection Unit of Cirebon
District Police Office
Chief of Women and Children
Protection Unit of Indramayu
District Police Office
Related with
Abdul Wahid Nasution
Ade Mulyana
Yandrimono
H Komar
Ahmad Nurahmad
Table 2 - List of Secondary Respondents
Limitations During Data Collection
There are several factors affecting the quality and quantity of data from the respondents:
o
3 (1 from Bandung Major City District Police, 1 from Maluku Provincial Police Office and 1
from Kepulauan Aru District Police) of the original 14 selected respondents could not be
contacted.
Page 6 of 23
o
Of the remaining 11 respondents, 4 respondents have been transferred, therefore, they could
not provide concrete evidence of the application and implementation of their action plans, the
following is the list of respondents who have been transferred to a new position:
Name
Yandrimono
Previous Position
Chief of CID Subang District
Police Office
KBO Cirebon District Police
Office
KBO Sukabumi District Police
Office
Komar
Chief of CID of Gempol SubDistrict Police Office
Chief of Raid unit of
Sukabumi District Police
Office
KBO Cimahi District Police Chief of Prevention &
Office
Promotion of Cipatat subdistrict police office
Agung Tri purbowo
Asep Mulia WS
o
o
o
o
o
New Position
School
In-depth interviews were often interrupted by urgent assignments which resulted in the
suspension or acceleration of the interview process;
The training attendance list was not completed correctly and some participants sent delegates
(subordinates) to attend on some days. In some cases, the name recorded in the attendance list
was not the name of the participant, such as Karawang and Kuningan – the name written on
attendance is the chief of CID but it was delegated to a subordinate and the subordinate did
not change the name on attendance list.
Lack of commitment some participants to attend the full training. For instance, the participants
from Majalengka changed each day and some only attended 1 or 2 days out of 5 days
training.
The lack of gender balance in respondents making it difficult to understand any difference in
skills and knowledge application between female participants/respondents and male
participants/respondents.
The results of this study cannot represent the overall situation in Indonesia due to the small size
of the samples, however, it can describe the situation and condition in the 10 police stations
which were the target of this Tracer Study.
C. Analysis of the Findings
At the time of the training, only one of the study’s respondents reported having more than infrequent
TIP cases in their units as the chart below outlines.
4
3
1
1
1
0
Not At All
1
0
Not at the time, but
expected to in future
Male
Yes, but infrequent
It was significant part of
my work at the time
Female
Chart 1 -Number of TPPO Cases Handled before and during training
Page 7 of 23
16
17
14
3
INP HQ CID
5
2
West Java
Provincial Police
2016
Cianjur District
Police
Since the training, three respondents have
reported handling or supervising TIP cases (all
male) one from Cianjur District Police (14
cases; Bareskrim Mabes POLRI (17 cases);
and, the West Java Provincial Police (5 cases)
All other respondents reported that since the
training there have not been any TPPO case
which they handled.
2017
Chart 2 – Data on the Handling of TPPO Cases in 2016 & 2017
Result of Individual Interview
Interviews were conducted using two main key questions as a tool in collecting the data or
information. The two Key question as follow:
1. To what extent have commanders been able to apply new knowledge and skills acquired from the
commanders’ course?
2. To what extent have commanders been able to implement their action plans as expected?
The summary results of interviews with the 11 respondents are as follows:
1) Julianto P Sirait (M)
• In the same position as when he attended the training (head of the Anti-Trafficking
Unit) and self-assessed his training levels prior to the Commanders’ course as
“adequate”.
•
Supervises 39 investigators, comprising 12 investigators in the unit (4 female) and 19
investigators in the task force (1 female).
•
Throughout 2017 the unit handled 17 TIP cases, up from 16 the year before, applied
knowledge and skills such as SWOT analysis and close coordination.
•
Remembered the content of the Commanders’ training, especially investigation
management.
•
Remembered and implemented action plan
The skills and knowledge obtained from the
training have been implemented in TIP cases,
mainly the application of the Anti-Trafficking in
Persons
law,
including
identification.
Coordination with prosecutors has also been
important to ensure that cases submitted to
“By conducting investigation management,
we are able to manage case handling starting
from the community’s reports and taken
higher as information report, and then we
truly examine as to whether or not TPPO is
present, and prepare the police report again
and the call the witnesses, it was all taught in
the training”
public prosecutors and the court are successful.
Page 8 of 23
Results of application of skills and knowledge reported by respondent:
•
By applying the knowledge and skill, the respondent reports being able to overcome
many obstacles, such as mishandling of cases by investigators. In addition, proper
documentation of the case handling process has been able to make the investigators’
tasks easier.
•
The unit has been establishing close coordination with public prosecutors from the
early phase of case handling, so that they can minimize the time spent by suspects in
custody to less than 120 days (the maximum time for holding suspects in custody
before the submission of case brief to the public prosecutors’ office).
•
The success is due to the cooperation and efforts made by the team (Unit), while the
SWOT analysis has been very useful for senior investigators and commanders.
One of the challenges encountered while applying the new skill is disagreement among law
enforcement officers with some having an open mind and others not sharing this approach.
Another challenge is the low capacity and knowledge of investigators at the lower levels
(Regional Police, District Police, and Sub-District Police) leading to many human trafficking
cases not being identified. In order to address this problem, the respondent believes that
better coordination should be maintained with the team and other institutions.
Implementation of the Action Plan
The respondent still remembered the Action plan prepared
during the commanders’ training in Bandung (and was the only
respondent to do so).
The action plan involved applying SWOT analysis to all criminal
cases handled by his unit.
The respondent reported using SWOT analysis to evaluate
progress in the handling of cases. The difficulty encountered while conducting SWOT analysis
is finding the SWOT variables. For example, how to perform inquiry or investigation with
limited number of personnel, and what lessons can be learned.
2) Abdul Wahid Nasution (M)
• In the same position as when he attended the training (head of the Operations Section Cianjur
District Police) and self-assessed his training levels prior to the Commanders’ course as
“adequate” (investigation skills).
•
The Women and Children Protection (PPA) unit has 6 investigators (but has annual rotations).
•
Throughout 2017 the unit handled 14 TIP cases, up from 2 the year before, applied knowledge
and skills including investigation techniques and management.
•
Remembered the content of the Commanders’ training, especially investigation
management.
•
Not able to remember or implement action plan.
Page 9 of 23
The respondent has been able to apply the knowledge and skills to TIP cases, including the
techniques of an arrest operation and filing process in accordance with the standard operating
procedure (SOP). For example, in the last human trafficking case, the victims were moved
before being sent abroad. As the unit received the information, they analyzed and then
decided on the most appropriate technique to arrest, as was learned in the training. When the
suspects left the location, the team followed them and arrested them when the time was right
by blocking their vehicle. Before the arrest operation, they had a briefing meeting to assign
tasks to each person involved about the actions and the persons responsible for the actions.
In addition to assigning personnel for the field team, he also assigned personnel to oversee
preparing administration of operation as well as documentation.
Results of application of knowledge and skills:
•
Respondent reports being able to identify the latest modus of human trafficking,
because perpetrators are continuously learning and developing new methods to
evade punishment.
Success factors include increased attention to trafficking on the part of the commander and
high capacity among investigators in Cianjur, many of whom have attended TIP training.
The only challenge is that transnational cases are not handled by the District level police so
these must be referred to the National or Provincial level.
According to Deding (an Investigator of Cianjur District
Police) the attention paid by the commanders of
Cianjur District Police to the Women and Children
Protection unit cases is not limited only to human
trafficking cases. The attention is given not only by the
Head of Operations but also by the head of the
criminal investigation division, who have always
“The superior officer’s attention is very
high on the cases handled by the (PPA)
unit, in which not only the KBO who
paid attention, the kasatreskrim also paid
attention, they always participated in
each inquiry or investigation of TPPO
cases, therefore, this year alone, we
(District Police) has been handling
numerous TPPO cases” (unit
investigator)
participated in every inquiry and investigation of Human trafficking cases. The secondary
respondent suggests that this is the reason for the sharp increase in TIP cases handled by the
Cianjur District Police in 2017.
Implementation of the Action plan
The respondent did not remember the action plan prepared during the training which was to
establish specialist investigators of TIP crimes. He reported that ultimately it was not feasible
to specialize only for TIP because the PPA unit handles other cases and there are limited
human resources.
Page 10 of 23
3) Asep Mulia WS (M)
•
Has been transferred since the training (three months later) and self-assessed his training
levels prior to the Commanders’ course as “very little”.
•
No TIP cases since the training but reported application of management skills in non-TIP
cases.
•
Needed to be reminded of the content of the Commanders’ training as he had forgotten.
•
Not able to remember action plan but when reminded reported partial implementation.
Despite not having any TIP cases the respondent reported applying the knowledge related to
investigation management, for example, by giving directives to investigators in their
investigation tasks and monitoring their performance. Even though the investigation process
was not new, he learned new knowledge in relation to human trafficking cases, including the
importance of coordination with regional government, such as the social service agency and
P2TP2A (Integrated Services for women and children empowerment protection).
In addition to management application, the respondent also shared the knowledge with
subordinates following the training. He met with the head of the Woman and Children
Protection unit as well as its investigators and emphasized the importance of accelerating the
investigation process if the victims are children because they may potentially experience
trauma, therefore the handling of the victims must be prioritized.
Challenges identified
There are several things that are likely to pose obstacles in the application of knowledge and
skill, such as:
1.
Investigators are not confident to use Trafficking in Person law because they have
limited knowledge of human trafficking crimes;
2.
Limitations for female investigators due to restrictions on their movements once
married (if investigations involve staying overnight in remote locations, married female
officers must “go home before midnight”).
According to the respondent, the challenges can be overcome by encouraging or directing
investigators to seek more convincing evidence, and seek or place unmarried female
investigators so that they have unlimited time and can focus on the handling of cases, in addition
to asking their commitment to work fully.
Implementation of the Action plan
The respondent did not remember the action plan he wrote on the last day of the
commanders’ training which involved:
1.
Transfer knowledge obtained in training to colleagues and subordinates;
2.
Give motivation to subordinates to solve Human trafficking cases;
3.
Improve investigation of Human trafficking cases.
Page 11 of 23
After the training the respondent met with investigators at the Women and Children Protection
unit informally to convey the materials of the training and especially the SOPs for TIP crimes that
must be considered by the investigators.
4) Ade Mulyana (M)
• In the same position as when he attended the training (head of the sub-directorate of
Youth, Children and Women in the West Java Provincial police) and self-assessed his
training levels prior to the Commanders’ course as “adequate”.
•
Supervises 5 units with 35 investigators.
•
Throughout 2017 the unit handled 5 TIP cases (including transnational case with
Malaysia), up from 3 the year before. Reported application of skills and knowledge in
terms of managing TIP investigations and other non-TIP cases.
•
Needed reminding of the content of the Commanders’ training because he had forgotten.
•
Did not remember his action plan.
This respondent reported applying the knowledge and skill when giving briefings to
investigators, at the time of elaboration of a case before the implementation of investigation,
at the time of operation of arrest and raids. These are usually performed using a flowchart to
identify problems and solutions, tasks and responsibilities, as well as briefing at the time of
analysis and final evaluation. Then, if there is an urgent need he will give briefing through a
“WhatsApp” group.
In addition to application on TIP cases, this respondent also applied the knowledge to other
units under his supervision such as the child protection unit, such as how to manage
investigators when intending to make an arrest, go undercover and others. He considered the
training to be broadly applicable in terms of assisting risk management.
Results: In one case, he reported that the unit obtained information from Purwakarta District
Police that there was child exploitation case in an Spa in Bandung (the victim at that time had
returned to Purwakarta), and instead of rushing in to raid, the unit gathered the required
evidence to prove the case. Once sufficient evidence was secured, they took actions of arrest
and raids and obtained 4 suspects not only the recruiter. The respondent noted that if they
had not worked strategically and carefully the result would have been different.
Other example was performing an undercover activity in advance before finally successfully
rescuing 5 victims – three of them were children - after that the perpetrator was prosecuted
with two laws i.e. Trafficking in Person law and child protection law.
Page 12 of 23
The success factors of the process above is reported by the respondent as good planning and
clear division of tasks. If for example the division of task is unclear, it will likely cause loss of
evidence and a “dead end” to the investigation.
Challenges noted were limited technical and other resources owned by the National Police
generally and Regional Police especially, such as equipment to access information or to track
perpetrators’ communication equipment (e.g., handphones). This results in lower level
perpetrators getting caught (perpetrators of the second or the third layer) whereas the main
perpetrators (big fish) are very rarely revealed. In addition to the lack of human resources in
terms of numbers of investigators, the unit has difficulty working across jurisdictions. In these
cases, the unit must ask the national level or other provincial police for support.
The biggest challenge reported is when cases involve other countries, for example Malaysia.
The different legal system becomes the biggest barrier mainly if the perpetrator is a Malaysian
citizen. For example, the newest case handled by West Java Provincial Police with assistance
of the Headquarters of the National Police had one Indonesian suspect in Indonesia and one
Malaysian suspect in Malaysia but finally the Indonesian Police could only arrest and detain
the Indonesian citizen recruiter in the field and the perpetrator in Malaysia could not be
arrested.
Implementation of Action Plan
The respondent did not recall the items on the action plan prepared at the training. He was
reminded that there were three items on the action plan:
1.
Preparing an annual strategic plan, mainly related to budget of handling of cases (not only
Human trafficking cases);
2.
Evaluating human trafficking crimes perpetrator Networks; and
3.
Strengthening coordination with agencies or institutions or other entities.
Despite not recalling the specific items, the respondent felt that he had been able to implement
most of the action plan, except for combating trafficking crime networks, especially overseas.
For the other items he could coordinate with victim support agencies to
use their budgets and facilities to assist victims. He also held a seminar
using local government resources and providing resource persons to map
human trafficking in West Java.
According to Euis Yuningsih (the respondent’s subordinate), the head of
the sub-directorate always gives full support to unit to perform
investigation of Human trafficking cases, as well as facilitating
coordination with related parties, for example when there is a need to
pick up victims out of town, he always coordinates with P2TP2A and BNP2TKI.
Page 13 of 23
5) Yandrimono (M)
•
Has left position to continue studies since the training (in January 2017) and selfassessed his training levels prior to the Commanders’ course as “adequate”.
•
During his tenure at Subang District Police he supervised 65 investigators in 5 units.
•
Has applied knowledge and skills on other cases, in particular, management and
coordination.
•
Needed to be reminded of the content of the Commanders’ training as he had
forgotten.
•
Not able to remember action plan but once reminded was able to report partial
application.
Specifically, the knowledge and skill that this
respondent could apply related to management,
(dividing tasks among investigators or maximizing
resources at the District Police), and the knowledge
“at the time of the training, we were
handling 1 TPPO case, the training was
useful as it gave us the knowledge on
what needs to be done in relation to the
handling of this case and the application of
the elements”
of the importance of coordinating with public
prosecutor’s office. Knowledge that could not be applied related to the handling of
transnational human trafficking crimes.
After the training, the respondent tried to review some existing cases in the jurisdiction of
Subang District Police and realized that there were many potential human trafficking cases in
Subang but they were rarely prosecuted. They were being terminated by the public
prosecutor. Then there was an order from the Regional Police to focus on Human trafficking
cases because Subang is one of the source regions of human trafficking crimes. Until then
Subang District Police had been more focused on conventional crimes, such as theft, murder,
and sexual assault. Human trafficking cases in Subang are usually related to prostitution and
most victims do not identify as victims which is a complicating factor. In the last Human
trafficking cases he handled together with Subang District Police, the perpetrator was
convicted to 5 years in prison.
Success factors include team cooperation and applying learnings from the training regarding
division of responsibilities and coordination and consultation with senior colleagues who also
attended the training.
A key challenge this respondent noted was bias of police towards their local community
members (who may be implicated in criminal acts) and lack of knowledge of human trafficking
among investigators.
Page 14 of 23
Implementation of the Action Plan
This respondent did not remember his action plan but when reminded that it involved using
SWOT analysis noted that he did use SWOT, but only for difficult or high-profile cases.
The secondary respondent (Nenden Nurpatima - Head of Women and Children Protection unit
of Subang District Police) confirmed that the primary respondent undertook analysis and
briefing of the team
6) Novita Rindi Pratama (F)
• In the same position as when she attended the training (Chief of the Women and
Children’s Unit Majalengka District Police) and self-assessed her training levels prior to the
Commanders’ course as “very little”.
•
Supervises 7 investigators.
•
No TIP cases reported in this District (but many victims come from here). Recruitment and
exploitation reportedly occur elsewhere.
•
Did not remember training, only attended one day of the five.
•
No action plan.
7) Dahroji (M)
•
In the same position as when he attended the training (Chief of the Women and Children’s
Protection Unit, Kuningan District Police) and self-assessed his training levels prior to the
Commanders’ course as “adequate”.
•
Supervises 5 investigators (3 F).
•
No TIP cases reported in this District.
•
Did not remember training.
•
No action plan.
“the case study (in the training) was irrelevant
since normally the cases in our region are only
local cases, unlike those taught in the training,
which discussed a lot about cases with national
and international scale”
This respondent believes that the success factors for all criminal cases is team cooperation.
Key challenges relate to differences of opinion between the police and prosecutors. For
example, last year there was one suspected case Human Trafficking and the respondent
wanted to charge under the Trafficking in Person law but finally the public prosecutor only
charged with pimp activity because according to the public prosecutor the elements of human
trafficking cannot be proven by the evidences collected by investigators.
Page 15 of 23
8) Komar (M)
•
Transferred since he attended the training (now Gempol Sub-District Police head of
Criminal Detective Unit), and self-assessed his training levels prior to the Commanders’
course as “very little”.
•
In previous post (Cirebon) supervised 58 investigators in 5 units.
•
No TIP cases reported in current or previous District, however able to use SWOT analysis
on other cases such as theft.
•
Did not remember training.
•
Did not remember action plan.
“All methods of handling have
been provided, but indeed the
lack of TPPO cases has led to
non-maximum application”
Recently this respondent was able to assist Cirebon police
with evidence collection - identifying TIP a victim and
perpetrator in his current jurisdiction - but it is not a case
being handled by his unit (assistance confirmed by Iwa
Mashadi (Head of Women and Children Protection unit of Cirebon District Police).
Challenges include low awareness and knowledge of TIP among investigators and
transnational cases which are handled by the Regional or National Police.
Implementation of action plan
This respondent’s action plan was limited to knowledge sharing which he reportedly did on
returning from the training, mainly at Women and Children Protection unit. He needed to be
reminded of the plan.
9) Ahmad Nurahmad (M)
• In same position as when he attended the training (Head of Operation Section of
Indramayu District Police), and self-assessed his training levels prior to the Commanders’
course as “adequate”.
•
No TIP cases reported in District, despite having many victims from Indramayu, the District
police only assist West Java Police or HQ on cases.
•
Did not remember training.
•
Did not remember action plan.
Implementation of action plan
This respondent’s action plan was limited to knowledge sharing which he reportedly did on
returning from the training, with subordinates and his superior.
Page 16 of 23
10) Herwit Yuanita (F)
•
In same position as when she attended the training (Head of Women and Children
Protection unit of Karawang District Police), and self-assessed her training levels prior to
the Commanders’ course as “very little”.
•
Supervises 13 (5F, 8M) investigators in unit.
•
No TIP cases reported in District, but has been able to apply knowledge on other cases,
especially division of tasks among investigators.
•
Remembers training, especially management of investigators and capacity assessment.
•
No action plan, did not attend final day of training.
Results: In a recent situation, this respondent handled a case where a baby was detained by
hospital in Karawang due to unpaid bills and the respondent obtained the information in
accordance with the training on briefing of leader, and then performed the inquiry process.
This involved dividing her investigators into
four teams – the first team oversaw collecting
information from the hospital; the second
team collected information from the victim’s
“By applying the method of distribution of
duties, the process becomes faster according to
the motto, PROMOTER (profesional, modern and
terpercaya/professional, modern and reliable),
therefore, the public increase their confidence
in the police”
place; the third team contacted newspaper;
whereas the fourth team oversaw preparing
the administration of inquiry at the office. By the application of the knowledge she reports
feeling “everything becomes more organized than previously” when she divided the roles of
every member only based on the need. Using the new method, the inquiry process becomes
faster.
11)
•
Agung Tri Purbowo (M)
Transferred after the training (to the field and not as a supervisor), and self-assessed his
training levels prior to the Commanders’ course as “very little”.
•
Never handled a TIP case.
•
Did not remember training.
•
Did not remember action plan but when reminded reported not being able to because of
transfer.
Page 17 of 23
D. Conclusions
Based on the above findings, several conclusions are identified, namely as follows:
• Three out of 11 respondents (all male) were able to implement the skills and knowledge
gained from the Commanders’ course on TIP cases and these three were the only
respondents reporting having handled TIP cases since the training.
• Five of the 11 respondents reported using the skills and knowledge on other cases such as
cases involving child victims, prostitution.
• Two of the three respondents reporting use of new skills on TIP cases did not have many
cases at the time of the training – this has increased significantly for one of the respondents
(from 2 to 14 in one year). The third respondent using the training skills on TIP cases had a
high TIP caseload at the time of the training and this has continued.
• More than one third (n=4) of respondents had moved position since the training (all male).
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Only three out of 11 of the respondents (2 male, 1 female) still remembered the content of
the training (the 2 males are in the group who have used the training skills on TIP cases since
the training), however the other 8 respondents (7 male, 1 female) did not remember the
training materials 10 months following the course. One of the males who did not remember
the training content reported being able to use the skills, once reminded of the content.
Only one respondent (also one of the three able to use the training skills) remembered the
action plan developed as part of the training, but two more have partially implemented.
The main skills and knowledge used for TIP and non-TIP cases involved investigation skills,
coordination, and investigation management.
Five of the 11 respondents reported no challenges (all male) while four respondents
reported that lack of TIP knowledge and awareness were key constraints (including 2 F) as
well as lack of knowledge of TIP trends (1 M) and suitable technology (1 M).
One male respondent also noted significant obstacles for married female investigators in
terms of freedom to travel to remote areas – indicating that gender barriers are substantial
and affect the tasking and meaningful participation of women in operational police work.
Investigation management and unit management materials were the most interesting and
most useful materials for the respondents so far, and are highly relevant to their daily tasks
as commander or superior officers, particularly when mapping the capacity of the
investigators who will assigned to investigate a case, as well as distribute the investigators’
duties according to their competencies. The materials that are slightly irrelevant to their
daily tasks are materials on handling transnational cases, although the respondents stated
that it was also important for them to know;
Specifically, the knowledge and skills widely used by the respondents are the distribution
of tasks of investigator as part of the materials on unit management. In addition, SWOT
analysis and the knowledge about coordination is also used by the respondents;
This tracer study activity can answer the indicators which AAPTIP have, namely as follows:
o 63% of Training Participants (9%F n=1) sampled were able to provide credible
examples of their use of new knowledge and skills, although only 27% was on TIP
cases.
o Success cases where trainees (LE) have used new/enhanced knowledge and skills, with
the increase number of case handling in INP CID Headquarter, the West Java
Provincial Police and the Cianjur District Police.
Page 18 of 23
Annex one – Result of training evaluation
Page 19 of 23
Annex two - Respondent profile and data collection
phases
The total actual respondents who were able to be involved in this study is 11 persons as primary
respondents with the details as follows: 1 male investigator from the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit of
Bareskrim Mabes POLRI, 1 male investigator from the West Java Provincial Police, 1 male
investigator from Cianjur District Police, 1 male investigator from Sukabumi Regency District Police,
1 female investigator from Karawang District Police, 1 male investigator from Cirebon Regency
District Police, 1 female investigator from Majalengka District Police, 1 male investigator from
Bandung Barat District Police, 1 male investigator from Subang District Police, and 1 male
investigator from Kuningan District Police. This study also engaged 5 Respondents (2 male and 3
female) as Secondary Respondents, as shown in table 1.
Respondent Candidate
Male
Female
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
13
0
Region
Trafficking Task Force of Mabes POLRI
West Java Provincial Police
Karawang District Police
Cianjur District Police
Sukabumi Regency District Police
Cirebon Regency District Police
Bandung Barat District Police
Subang District Police
Majalengka District Police
Kuningan District Police
Indramayu District Police
Bandung Major City District Police
Kep Aru District Police
Maluku Provincial Police Office
TOTAL RESPONDENTS
Actual Respondent
Male
Female
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
9
2
Table 3 – Distribution of comparison of respondents
Male
Female
13
9
2
R E S P O N D E N T C A N D 0I D A T E
ACTUAL RESPONDENT
Chart 3 – Respondents Candidate Vs Actual Respondents
Page 20 of 23
The data collection process is conducted in three phases as follows:
Date
Thursday,
2017
14
Sept
Friday, 15 Sept 2017
Location
Cianjur District Police
ATU Bareskrim Mabes POLRI
Respondent Name
• Abdul Wahid Nasution (Primary
Respondent)
• Deding Supriatna (Secondary
Respondent)
Julianto
P
Sirait
(Primary
Respondent)
Table 4 – First Phase of Data Collection
Date
Monday, 18 Sept 2017
Location
Cipatat Sectoral Police
Tuesday, 19 Sept 2017
West Java Provincial Police
SPN Cisarua Bandung
Wednesday,
2017
20
Sept
Majalengka District Police
Subang District Police
Thursday, 21 Sept 2017
Kuningan District Police
Cirebon District Police
Friday, 22 Sept 2017
Gempol Sectoral Police
District Police Indramayu
Respondent Name
Asep
Mulia
WS
(Primary
Respondent)
• Ade
Mulyana
(Primary
Respondent)
• Euis Yuningsih (Secondary
Respondent)
• Yandrimono
(Primary
Respondent)
Novita Rindi Pratama (Primary
Respondent)
Nenden Nurpatimah (Secondary
Respondent)
Dahroji (Primary Respondent)
Iwa
Mashadi
(Secondary
Respondent)
Komar (Primary Respondent)
• Ahmad Nurahmad (Primary
Respondent)
• Indrie Hapsari (Secondary
Respondent)
Table 5 – Second Phase of Data Collection
Date
Thursday, 19 Oct
2017
Tuesday, 20 Oct 2017
Location
Karawang District Police
Respondent Name
Herwit Yuanita (Primary Respondent)
Sukabumi District Police
Agung Tri Purbowo
Respondent) (by Phone)
(Primary
Table 6 – Third Phase of Data Collection
Page 21 of 23
Annex three - Guideline Question
Introductory questions
At the time of the ATU Commander course, to what extent did you handle or expect to handle TIP
cases
a)
Not at all
b)
Not at the time, but expected to in future
c)
Yes, but infrequent
d)
It was a significant part of my work at the time
At the time of the training, how much criminal investigation skills training had you received
previously
a)
None
b)
Very little
c)
Adequate training
At the time of the training, how many staff were you in charge of?
d)
Under 5
e)
5-10
f)
More than 10
Are you in the same position as you were during the Commanders Training? Yes / no (if no, where are you
now?)
If you are in the same position, how many TIP cases has your unit handled since the training?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Less than 5
5-10
10-20
More than 20
Training Content
1. Thinking about the ATU Commander course you did in November, what do you remember
most about the content of that training?
2. At the time of the training, what did you think would be the most useful thing you learned
for your job?
3. Do you still think it was the most useful or have you changed your mind since then? Why?
(probing): do you think that content is really appropriate or relevant with your duty?)
4. Thinking back, what would you have liked to have learned more about in the training?
Why?
Application of knowledge and skills
1. To what extent have you been able to use any knowledge and skills that you learned in
the Commanders training back in the workplace?
2. Which specific skills or knowledge have you been able to use? (please be as specific as
possible, describe the cases, describe what you did, who was involved)
Page 22 of 23
3. What difference did applying these skills make to you OR the case? What happened
then?
4. Thinking about the last time you were able to use the skills in the investigation of a TIP
case please describe the case in detail and what you were able to do differently.
5. Can you share some evidence of that? Eg, can you show me the strategic plan / risk
assessment / can I talk to one of your junior officers about what happened?
6. What were the success factors of applying those skills?
7. Which knowledge and skills were you NOT able to use and why?
8. What the challenges have you faced when applying new skills?
9. How have you overcome those challenges?
Implementation of the action plan
10.Do you remember the action plan you developed at the training?
11.If yes, to what extent have you been able to implement the action plan?
12.Which parts were the easiest to implement and why?
13.Which parts were the hardest and why?
14.Can you share with me any documentation or interviewee that would provide evidence
that you were able to use the action plan?
15.How successful is the action plan as a tool to help commanders in Indonesia?
Page 23 of 23
Figure 1 - MSC Workshop Participants
Figure 2 - MSC Workshop Participants
Figure 3 - MSC Workshop Participants
Figure 4 - MSC Workshop Participants
Figure 5 - MSC Workshop Participants
Figure 6 - MSC Workshop Participants
Figure 7 - MSC Workshop Participants
Figure 8 - MSC Workshop Participants
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
Background .................................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1.
Purposes/Objective of the workshop.................................................................................................... 3
1.2.
Data Collection Method ........................................................................................................................ 3
2.
panelist .......................................................................................................................................................... 4
3.
Selected Stories ............................................................................................................................................. 4
Mindset change (Commander 3) SELECTED  .......................................................................................... 5
EMPATHY FOR THE VICTIM (PROSECUTOR 1) SELECTED ....................................................................... 7
Boosting the spirit of investigators (Investigator 1) SELECTED ............................................................. 9
Cooperation on eradication of TIP (VSA 3) SELECTED .......................................................................... 10
4.
Role of AAPTIP Based on the stories .......................................................................................................... 12
ANNEX I - Profile of Story-Teller ........................................................................................................................... 13
ANNEX II - Most Significant Change – Stories (Not Selected Stories) ................................................................... 16
Communication and coordination among agencies (Commander 1)  .................................................... 16
Improved investigator self-confidence (Commander 2) ............................................................................. 18
Victim centred approach (Investigator 2) ................................................................................................ 20
Improving capacity of investigators in the unit – Investigator 3  ............................................................... 22
Better coordination on prosecuting human trafficking (Prosecutor 2)  ..................................................... 24
Practical learning is more important than book learning (Prosecutor 3)  .............................................. 25
From no-one to someone (VSA 1)  .............................................................................................................. 27
Lessons learned from ex-migrant worker (VSA 2)  .................................................................................. 29
2
1. BACKGROUND
Australia-Asia Program to Combat Trafficking in Persons (AAPTIP) is an Australian Government
initiative to assist in the fight against human trafficking in ASEAN through strengthening the
criminal justice response in close cooperation with Indonesian criminal justice agencies.
AAPTIP is a five-year program, starting in 2013 and will be completed in 2018. Therefore, currently
AAPTIP is in the last year of program implementation. AAPTIP has programmed a series of
evaluation activities to measure achievements, outcomes and effectiveness of the program and to
learn about what worked well and less well.
This workshop is part of the qualitative evaluation process of the AAPTIP program using Most
Significant Change Technique; a method using stories of observed and experienced change from
AAPTIP stakeholders who have been actively involved during AAPTIP program implementation.
These changes are then evaluated by program partners to determine which changes are the most
valuable or important.
1.1. PURPOSES/OBJECTIVE OF THE WORKSHOP
The objective of the MSC Selection Workshop is to identify and discuss changes that were
experienced and/or observed by AAPTIP stakeholders during their involvement in the
Program. The selection panel will discuss and select stories containing the most significant or
most important changes, and provide a rationale for this decision.
1.2. DATA COLLECTION METHOD
Data Collection was conducted on February 12th, 2018 until March 3rd, 2018 involving twelve
people as informants or respondents (Please see annex for respondent detail information)
The participants were selected based on the number of AAPTIP events they had been involved
with, according to the participants list database. The sampling method was designed to
involve practitioners from Police, Prosecutor, Judges, and Victim services Agencies (NGOs)
who have participated in six or more AAPTIP activities. The sampling theory is that any
significant changes to which the program could reasonably contribute, are less likely if the
involvement in the program is minimal.
Twelve respondents were selected by four domains in this evaluation approach, as follows:
a. Police Commanders;
b. Police Investigators;
c. Prosecutors; and
d. Victim Services Agency/NGO
AAPTIP selected three respondents for each domain.
3
2. PANELIST
Eleven people attended the workshop from 12 people who were invited as panelists, and represented four
domains. Here is the name of the panelists:
Domain
Commander
Investigator
Prosecutor
Victim
Service/NGO
Name
Gender
AKBP M Harry Sandy Sinurat
Male
AKBP Supriyono
AKBP Fatmah Noer
Male
Female
KOMPOL Aditya Pradana
Male
IPTU Hilal Adi Imawan
BRIGADIR Reza Agrison
Male
Male
Virginia Hariztiaviane
Female
Yuliarni Appy
Female
DR.Lies Sulistiani
Bobi Anwar Maarif
Wahyu Susilo
Female
Male
Male
Institution/Organization
North Sumatera Provincial Police
Office
Police Training Center
West Java Provincial Police Office
International Relationship Division of
INP
TIP Unit of CID of INP
115 Task Force
Prosecutor Training & Education
Center
Directorate Terrorism & Transnational
Crime of AGO
Victim & Witness Protection Agency
Indonesian Migrant Worker Union
Migrant Care
Table 1 - List of Panelists
3. SELECTED STORIES
The main task of the panelists was to select one story out of the three stories in each domain which
contained the most significant or important changes, and share their rationale based on their
domain (for the detailed stories please see the annex):
a. Commander Domain
This group selected the story with the title Mindset Change.
Changes were identified from selected story as follows:
• changes in mindset and conceptual understanding of TIP case handling
• improved knowledge of TIP in general and globally
• changes in approach to TIP case handling, from reactive to pro-active
• changes in point of view of TIP cases that TIP cases very closely relate to transnational crime
This story was considered to reflect more important changes than other stories because those
changes above have positive broader impact with changing the technique from reactive to proactive. This is because in many situations the victims are reluctant or afraid to make a report to
the police. Also, this story talked about the need for law enforcement to have same perception,
mission, and vision among institutions either domestically and transnationally.
The changes in this story also will be sustained with mindset changes of the entire stakeholder
group. This story resonated the panelists because in this story, the story-teller mentioned about
synergy and common commitment – which exists on paper in all relevant situations - but in
reality, it is different in the implementation.
4
The story was selected through consensus after long debate.
Below the selected story:
MINDSET CHANGE (COMMANDER 3) SELECTED 
I am a Police Superintendent (AKBP) in the Indonesian National Police. I
graduated from the police academy in 2000, and currently I am assigned as the
coordinator of personal secretaries of the police chiefs at Metro Jakarta
Provincial Police Office. Previously, I was assigned as the head of human
trafficking unit at the Criminal Investigation Agency of the Headquarters of
Indonesian National Police for approximately one year and had frequent
contact with AAPTIP. I did not have any previous experience in the investigation
of Human Trafficking cases and because I was assigned as the head of Human
Trafficking unit, I had to learn more about Human Trafficking.
When I was the head of Human Trafficking unit, I participated in several activities organized by AAPTIP,
including one occasion in Jakarta and 2 events abroad. In addition to that, I also had frequent discussions
with AAPTIP, both institutionally and personally.
When I was the head of Human Trafficking unit, I assumed the role as head investigator in inquiries and
investigations related to all cases of human trafficking in Indonesia. This unit is under the supervision of
the Criminal Investigation Agency of the Headquarters of Indonesian National Police as a centralized
investigation unit at the Headquarters of Indonesian National Police, which functionally supervises subdirectorates handling human trafficking cases in regional police or provincial police.
However, my role as the head of Human Trafficking unit was very operational in nature, ranging from
the preparation of assignment letters to the implementation of field duties, such as conducting arrests,
searches, and confiscations of objects related to the investigation of human trafficking cases.
The changes occurring while I was serving as the head of Human Trafficking unit, including those that I
experienced myself as well as those that I could observe are as follows:
o
o
o
Changes in the mindset and concepts in the investigation of Human Trafficking cases, as it turned
out that this crime does not only have domestic coverage in Indonesia or across provinces. As we
are all aware, Human Trafficking is a transnational crime involving two countries or more. With the
collaboration or the role assumed by AAPTIP, we can see that the crime truly involves several
countries, and AAPTIP also provides facilitation so that we can engage in cooperation with other
countries, such as Malaysia, Thailand and others.
A change that I experienced myself; my horizon has been broadened with regard to human
trafficking in general or global terms in international forums and it has also expanded my
understanding. Human Trafficking crime is relatively new for us, in the sense that we have learned
only from Law no 21 of 2007, so that it is necessary to expand our understanding and knowledge
of Human Trafficking crime. In general, it is clear for me that AAPTIP has expanded my knowledge
of this matter. On the other hand, police officers in general still need training on human trafficking.
Coaching clinic or training held for police officers has only involved a few representatives from
several regions and police officers from the Criminal Investigation Agency. Because of such
limitations, we have been sending police officers in turns. However, it is uncertain that the
organization would organize several trainings in one year and sometimes there is only one training
event in a year. Another obstacle is that the officers having been trained are being promoted and
assigned to other positions. Therefore, we hope that there will be a continuous cooperation.
Another change is the change in mindset, conceptual mindset in handling cases, from the method
for handling the cases which always used a reactive method or approach by waiting for reports.
Currently, we are starting to our endeavour to use a proactive approach or method, based on the
reactive training held by AAPTIP we are trying to develop such method. When I was the head of
5
Human Trafficking unit, we tried to take proactive actions by observing the latest issues related to
human trafficking.
The most significant change is the change of mindset. This is because Human Trafficking crime really
requires special attention in the handling, considering that Human Trafficking crime has factually existed
and we can explicitly say that it is part of modern slavery – this is actually a type of modernized slavery
but the mechanism is different from slavery in the past.
With such change in mindset, the handling of human trafficking cases by the police does not only use
reactive approach as now the police have started to use proactive approach. This is demonstrated in
the handling of Indonesian migrant workers in Malaysia – Indonesian Police heard a rumor about the
death of an Indonesian citizen after being exploited as a domestic helper in Malaysia and a rumor about
the possibility of human organ trading. Without waiting for report from the victim’s family, the police
immediately conducted investigation including visits to East Nusa Tenggara. I was involved in the
investigations in East Nusa Tenggara, from conducting profiling, mapping and meeting the family
members, conducting observations of the local condition, as well as finally taking law enforcement
actions there. Well, that is the most significant change.
This change is significant for me because without conceptual understanding of human trafficking and
personal drive to eradicate human trafficking crimes, it would be impossible for a person to take the
necessary measures and to be directly involved in combating the crime. Without such mindset, it would
be impossible for that person to contribute.
Theoretically, that person might have participated in coaching clinic, and taken part in events abroad –
but only for the sake of the trip, but he might not be able to solve domestic or cross-province cases, not
to mention transnational cases.
With such change in mindset, thank God we have been able to demonstrate good performance, in fact
we received Hasan Wirayudha award from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Why? Without a common
mindset shared among the head and the hard working members of the unit, it would be impossible for
us to receive the award. We have to build a chemistry first, including me.
I asked myself about what I knew about human trafficking. Like it or not, I had to learn a lot and AAPTIP
played an extensive role in this matter, not only at formal level, only with that I could have an open
mind.
AAPTIP has contributed 70% in this change. AAPTIP held training events involving police officers from
various police precincts, facilitated the sharing of information among provinces, and organized
discussions or encouraged the entry into MoU to facilitate communication among police officers and
observers of human trafficking issues abroad. Moreover, when I was serving as the head of unit, I had
intense discussions with colleagues at AAPTIP, both formally and informally.
The other 30% is for the willingness to endure self-development or for the willingness to change.
b. Prosecutor Domain
This group selected the story with the title Empathy for the Victim.
Changes were identified from the selected story as follows:
• Strengthened networking or coordination with other institutions
• Increased victim sensitivity, particularly to women and children
• Changes in attitude and point of view on handling TIP cases
This story was more important than other stories because the story-teller is a woman and the
panelists from this domain are also female. This story reflects a similar situation to that
experienced by the panelists as women prosecutors, and there were several prosecutors with
6
no victim sensitivity before participating in AAPTIP events. The other reason is because this story
talks about emotional changes while the other stories are more simple and flat.
The changes in this story also will be sustained because beside the AAPTIP program, the
Attorney General prioritises TIP cases, especially the cases involving women and child victims
and encourages female prosecutors to handle TIP cases involving women and children.
The story was chosen through common consensus.
Below the selected story from this domain:
EMPATHY FOR THE VICTIM (PROSECUTOR 1) SELECTED
I am the second child out of six siblings and I come from Flores (one of the regencies in
the East Nusa Tenggara). My father was a public prosecutor and when I was a child, my
father often took me to his office to see him working. This is probably what motivated
me to finally choose to become a public prosecutor. I am currently focused on
prosecuting cases which involve women and children, murder cases, including human
trafficking cases. I have attended about eight events that AAPTIP organized for example
in Jakarta, Bandung, Jogja, etc.
I have spent seven years of working as a functional public prosecutor working out how
to get the victim to share information about the actual incident by using ways that would make them
comfortable. It is easier for the public prosecutor to make an indictment if the victim is willing to be open.
Also in my work I try to study the case deeper to uncover the criminal network in a sense, I try to gather
information that can later be used by the police force to catch the key offender.
There are several changes that I recognize, particularly after being actively involved in the activities that
AAPTIP organized such as:
o
o
o
o
o
My knowledge and understanding on issues related to human trafficking have improved. As a result,
some of the barriers such as communication barrier with other law enforcers and agencies have been
lifted through coordination because AAPTIP were able to bring us together in a forum and we could get
to know each other.
In addition, I can distinguish which cases are human trafficking (and what type of trafficking) and which
are human smuggling. On the other side, as a public prosecutor it is easier for me to determine articles
under which the perpetrator should be indicted.
Attending AAPTIP events makes me feel that I have established a stronger network and accordingly I
know who I should consult with, for example with my public prosecutor colleagues at the attorney
general’s office.
The sense of empathy that I have towards the victims has intensified or increased. I have become more
oriented to the victims – particularly how to first get the victims into recovery.
One of the changes that also makes me proud is that I have become more recognizable by my fellow
public prosecutors outside my Regency. They contact me when they are facing any barriers or problems
in handling a case asking for my advice or wanting a discussion.
The most significant change that I recognize is the change in my behavior or point of view to ensure the best
interests of the victim. I now have a higher sense of empathy toward the victim as I previously mentioned. I
first think of how to recover the psychological condition of the victim before moving forward with the court
process.
7
This has helped me a lot because the victim becomes more cooperative, particularly in gathering the evidence
that is presented in the hearing to convince the judge. The approach that I have adopted is to bring the victim
to the public prosecutor’s office and to have a face-to-face conversation with them. Because most of the
victims of human trafficking are children and/or women, as a female prosecutor, it’s easier for me to show
my respect, appreciation and how much I care for the victim by holding their hands or giving them a hug when
they are telling me their stories or giving me information. There was one case that I handled where the victim
told me that they were afraid that the perpetrator would come to them, so I had to ask the help from P2TP2A
to place the victim in a safe house.
I used to only think how to solve a case quickly and this sometimes made the victim feel that they are just a
source of information.
I chose the above change as the most significant change, because now I have become more sensitive and I
can easily feel compassion toward the victims, in a sense that I can feel the burden that they have to carry. I
also think that the legal enforcement apparatus should have high sense of empathy towards victims because
human trafficking is a crime against humanity where the victims would be continuously exploited by the
perpetrators if we are unable to arrest them. To make an arrest and successful prosecution we need victims
not to be afraid to undergo the judicial process.
AAPTIP has a substantial role in the above changes and I am more aware of the trends in trafficking. Moreover,
I also appreciate the effort that AAPTIP had made to create a discussion forum among the investigators, public
prosecutors and judges. I often find a judge who lacks empathy or is not very sensitive toward the victim at
hearings. I have great hope that one day the judges would become more sensitive to the victims, particularly
women and children.
If made into percentage, AAPTIP contributed almost 75% of the changes that I mentioned above while the
remaining is contributed by government agencies such as KPPA, P2TP2A, etc.
c. Police Investigator Domain
All stories were similar and related to each other but ultimately this domain selected story with
the title Boosting Spirit of Investigator.
Changes identified from the selected story were as follows:
• With pro-active investigation of cases disclosure increased
• Improving investigators’ professionalism
• Increased investigators insight and knowledge make the spirit of investigators increase, and
also being able to use pro-active techniques
This story was considered more important than other stories because it described having an
positive impact on the trust of community in police. It was thought that these changes will be
sustained because the TIP crime will not stop while the demand of Indonesian workers remains
high and there are no work opportunities in Indonesia.
This resonated with panelists because of the change in the mindset from waiting for the report
to the “picking up the ball” or using proactive approaches.
The story was selected through discussion and eventually consensus among the members of
this domain.
See the selected story below:
8
BOOSTING THE SPIRIT OF INVESTIGATORS (INVESTIGATOR 1) SELECTED
I have been assigned at my Police Precinct for a quite some time, about 30 years.
Before that, I was based in several nearby police precincts and during that time, I
was completely unaware of human trafficking. It was not until 1.5 years after being
appointed as the Head of Development and Operation Division, I was involved in
the activities organized by AAPTIP where I began to get familiar with and have more
knowledge and understanding of human trafficking.
As my knowledge, and the investigators in my precinct’s knowledge has improved,
we handle more cases of human trafficking in our Police Precinct, particularly those related to forced
labour and sexual exploitation. Seeing this condition, I am of the view that the PPA unit that is handling
human trafficking should be established as a specialist unit and separated from the assets unit as they
are currently together now.
As to AAPTIP, I have participated in five events organized by AAPTIP, such as the training for the
commanders in Bandung, the multi agency event in Jakarta, financial investigation training in Bogor etc.
In every event that we attended, AAPTIP has always given its support and motivation for us to work
harder in solving human trafficking cases. In addition, AAPTIP has been regularly visiting us at the Police
Precinct for discussion or consultation.
There are several changes that I have observed up to now, namely:
o
o
o
o
After attending the trainings organized by AAPTIP, I see changes in myself and my work,
particularly in handling human trafficking cases as I have more knowledge and insight on this
subject and example cases overseas. This motivates us and boosts our spirit.
My Police Precinct currently has initiated many law enforcement activities. In the past, we did not
have the courage and the capacity to do law enforcement activities due our lack of knowledge on
human trafficking. Because of the increasing number of cases that we have handled, we acquire
more knowledge and insight and accordingly we become more aware of and are able to recognize
the modus operandi of the crime.
In my opinion, my Police Precinct has made significant progress in handling cases of human
trafficking. Previously, we only waited for people to report cases, while now we try to gather
information on possible human trafficking cases (pro-active) and in return, many people provided
us with information.
Changes are also seen in the investigators at my Police Precinct. They have been working with high
spirits.
In my opinion, the most significant change that I can recognize is the increased spirit that the
investigators have. They become more actively involved in handling human trafficking cases
relentlessly, working day and night. This is demonstrated by them looking for information to the migrant
worker departure locations, being proactive. AAPTIP support also contributes to this change. In
particular, when the investigators attended any training on human trafficking, they would share their
knowledge with others. Furthermore, the leaders at the Police Precinct always show their support to
the PPA unit, for example by giving directions to keep them motivated and to give them administrative
facilities.
This is a significant change, in my opinion. There have been many changes in the PPA unit if compared
to the previous situation where there were only a small number of cases of human trafficking being
handled, now the number of human trafficking cases has increased as the investigators have become
more actively involved.
The role of AAPTIP in the above changes is that AAPTIP has given advice, ideas and examples of issues.
AAPTIP has organized events that brought together police officers, public prosecutors and judges which
9
have led to better comprehension on the handling such cases. In other words, AAPTIP has contributed
80% to the above changes.
Although up to now there has no other organization than AAPTIP that contributes to these changes,
one agency such as P2TP2A has coordinated closely with Cianjur Police Precinct, particularly when they
identify any victim of human trafficking.
d. VSA/NGO Domain
This group selected story with title Cooperation on Eradication of TIP.
Changes were identified from the selected story as follows:
• Described changes and individual development who is influencing an institution
• Changes in knowledge and commitment especially on interest and passion towards victim
needs or victim rights
• Increased skill on international relations management and networking
This story was considered to reflect more important changes than other stories because of
having an impact not only domestically but also internationally, having an impact on the
individual, having an impact institutionally, and having an impact on cooperation among law
enforcement – nationally and transnationally. In addition, this story can be as best practices on
compliance with victim needs or rights. However, it was difficult to compare these three stories
because of the difference in background of the story teller – one story came from a person who
works in government while others are only at village level.
The story selected through consensus after having long discussion.
Below the selected story:
COOPERATION ON ERADICATION OF TIP ( VSA 3) SELECTED
Before I joined LPSK, I worked for an NGO which focused on environmental
issues. With my background as a public attorney at that time I often gave
assistance to local and customary community in relation to environmental
conflicts that occurred between them and the authorities or corporations.
My involvement with LPSK began when I was asked by them to join their defense
team as LPSK was sued by its former commissioner. Then in 2010 I was asked to
join LPSK as the expert staff for the management during which most of my works
concerned with handling the plenary decisions of the management. Afterwards,
I was transferred to the protection division and then to witness and victim’s
rights division. My last transfer was to the request receipt division where I have been working until
now. This division is the gate to LPSK, not only do we receive reports or requests, we also carry out
analysis and then prepare report on the results of the analysis to be submitted to the management
before passed on to plenary meeting.
With regard to AAPTIP, if I am not mistaken I have attended 8 events with AAPTIP, including
workshops, meetings, etc. I remember AAPTIP visited LPSK a couple of times for meeting with me or
the management, particularly at that time to discuss the Benjina case. In addition, I also attended
several bilateral meetings and a few workshops, both as participant and source person.
10
I have done many things during my eight years of working with LPSK, but I probably will explain my
work and my role now as the expert staff of the request review bureau. First, upon receiving the
requests then I examine and review the file. In this phase, we usually discover whether a witness must
be immediately given protection, or a witness needs medical assistance or sometime a witness is lying
or gives false statement or information. We then draw up minutes or a summary of results to be
submitted to the management. After the management grants its approval, then we calculate the
restitution or compensation that the victim should receive. The last phase is to submit the file to the
plenary meeting.
Below are several changes that have been made when I or LPSK was engaged with or supported by
AAPTIP:
o
o
o
o
o
Regarding our relationship with the law enforcement personnel, there were several occasions
where AAPTIP brought us together with the law enforcement personnel at a meeting. This has a
lot of advantages, among others facilitating the eradication of human trafficking because we are
already aware of and understand our respective duties.
This relationship is not only on a domestic, but also international scale. For example, when we
reached a dead end in the Benjina case because Myanmar had asked that we use the MLA
mechanism which would take a long time, but AAPTIP, both in Indonesia and Myanmar, helped
us to meet with the victim without having to take the MLA route. Presenting a foreign citizen
victim is a new thing for LPSK. In addition, this gives rise to the idea of entering into cross-border
protection cooperation with Myanmar because there is no institution like LPSK in Myanmar for
promoting victim protection.
Awareness of the police officers at the national level or the criminal investigation agency and
several police forces at the province and regency level to directly refer victims to LPSK for service
and protection.
LPSK is often invited as resource person to discuss issues related to human trafficking. This shows
that our investigator colleagues have become more professional in carrying out their mandate,
particularly in fulfilling the victim’s rights.
For additional information, human trafficking is not only concerned with witness and victim
protection.
In my opinion, the most significant transformation is shown in establishing cooperation and building
relationships because the point of view that the law enforcement now has of LPSK has changed. They
are now aware of the roles and functions of LPSK particularly in witness and victim protection and in
assisting them in calculating restitution and compensation if required.
The police did not understand that the victim is entitled to restitution. On the other side, LPSK is of the
view that sharing information on criminal network or profile is crucial for LPSK for use as material for
analysis in determining the type of protection for the victim.
Because LPSK could not handle the eradication of human trafficking by itself, it requires support and
cooperation from many parties and stakeholders and something to be proud of is that this cooperation
has become real in several cases.
If calculated as percentage, the role or contribution of AAPTIP in the above transformation constitute
70%, while the remaining 30% is from the media and the relations that LPSK have.
IOM, Migrant Care, Kabarbumi, P2TP2A, LPA-LPP, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of
Social Affairs are other organizations which have also participated in assisting victim handling.
According to the selected stories above in each domain, apart from capacity and knowledge of
the story-teller there were another factor which influence the changes of story-tellers such as
their compassion or concern to the victims and high of sense of responsibility on the TIP
11
eradication issue. Coordination among instances or institution is also an important thing,
because without having good coordination the initiative will not impacted significantly.
Despite all story-teller mentioned or described their concern and highly sense of responsibility
in term of eradication of TIP. However, each story-teller seeing from different point-of-view in
accordance with their area (of living and working), knowledge, and experience. For story-teller
who often participate in transnational or multinational activities or events have wider view or
insight rather than story-teller who only participate in local or national level of activities or
event.
Based on the paragraph above it can conclude that the important thing is how to increase
people awareness and improved people sense of responsibility in term of eradicating TIP crime.
Each of domain interrelated, to make the program running well the approach should be
implement holistically from upstream to downstream or involved demand and supply side.
4. ROLE OF AAPTIP BASED ON THE STORIES
All the domain groups identified the role and/or contribution AAPTIP in the changes as follow:
From the prosecutor domain: through AAPTIP has been many changes such as strengthened
criminal justice sector networking – they knew each other (Police, Prosecutor and judge). Without
AAPTIP, those changes may have happened but might be only in internal prosecutor networking.
From Investigator domain: AAPTIP has successfully increased insight and knowledge of
investigators at provincial and district level. Before, not all investigators in district level understand
about the National TIP law, particularly the police office in hot spot areas. Without AAPTIP those
changes would not have happened because of lack of, or limited information to the investigators
at district level as well as information and/or knowledge regarding the type of TIP and new modus
operandi of trafficking crime.
From Commander domain: AAPTIP gave positive contribution to the mindset of the stakeholder.
Without AAPTIP the changes may have happened but not significantly like now.
From VSA/NGO domain: AAPTIP is a hub who is able to facilitate or accommodate community
stakeholders with criminal justice from grassroots level up to the national level to meet. All this
time in other TIP programs they (community stakeholders and criminal justice actors) are always
in opposition, but in this program (AAPTIP) has been effective with collaboration. AAPTIP is also an
important facilitator both personally and institutionally, and has improved the human capacity and
strengthened the internal institution. Without AAPTIP the changes will have happened but maybe
partially.
12
ANNEX I - PROFILE OF STORY-TELLER
No
1
Name
Julianto P Sirait
Domain
Commander
Number
of event
attended
11
(Male)
Name of Event
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
ATU Commander Workshop
3rd NPSC Meeting
2nd FI TWG Meeting
4th NPSC Meeting
5th NPSC Meeting
ASEAN and COMMIT Workshop: Identifying Victims of Trafficking in Persons and Associated Forms of
Exploitation: Developing Common Indicators for Practitioners
The Senior Meeting to Discuss Commitment to Improve Cross Border Cooperation on Law Enforcement on
Trafficking in Persons in the Fishing Industry Cambodia-Indonesia-Myanmar-Thailand
1st Bilateral meeting between Indonesia & Malaysia
Transnational Investigative Cooperation training between INP & RMP
2nd Bilateral meeting between Indonesia National Police and Royal Malaysian police
3rd Sub Regional Law Enforcement Cooperation on Trafficking in Persons within the Fishing Industry Meeting
o
2
Ade Mulyana
Commander
8
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Strengthening Police Training on Human Trafficking in the INP
1st Financial Investigation Training
research result dissemination
ATU Commander Workshop
One day Workshop ATU & FTRAC
1st Bilateral meeting between Indonesia & Malaysia
Transnational Investigative Cooperation training between INP & RMP
2nd Bilateral meeting between Indonesia National Police and Royal Malaysian police
Commander
4
o
o
o
o
3rd NPSC Meeting
One day Workshop ATU & FTRAC
AAPTIP Regional Program Steering Committee (RPSC) Meeting
1st Bilateral meeting between Indonesia & Malaysia
Investigator
12
o Multi Agency Workshop on TIP in Force Labor - West Java
o 2nd FI Training
o 1st TWG FI Meeting
(Male)
3
Reynold Hutagalung
(Male)
4
Euis Yuningsih
(Female)
13
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
5
AW Nasution
Investigator
3
o ATU Commander Workshop
o 1st RTD West Java
o 2nd Reactive Investigation Training
Investigator
6
o
o
o
o
o
o
1st RTD West Java
2nd Multi Agency workshop for force labor in West Java
2nd Reactive Investigation Training
TIP coaching support curriculum
Workshop on Handling TIP Case in Cirebon District
Coaching session one in Cirebon polsek susukan
Prosecutor
6
o
o
o
o
o
o
Strategic Planning Workshop
1st Financial Investigation Training
research result dissemination
Multi Agency Workshop on TIP in Force Labor - West Java
1st RTD West Java
2nd Multi Agency workshop for force labor in West Java
Prosecutor
2
o 1st Financial Investigation Training
o research result dissemination
Prosecutor
10
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
(Male)
6
Iwa Mashadi
(Male)
7
Agatha C Wange
(Female)
8
Jaya Sitompul
(Male)
9
Nana Riana
(Male)
1st RTD West Java
2nd FI TWG Meeting
2nd Multi Agency workshop for force labor in West Java
2nd Reactive Investigation Training
Workshop on Handling TIP Case in Cirebon District
Multi Agency Workshop on Coordination between Agencies on
Fullfilment of Restitution Rights for Trafficked Victims
Consultation Meeting in Jakarta, Sukabumi and Cianjur on 16 - 18 Feb 2015
Meeting for Preperation of the Creation of NPSC Indonesia
1st NPSC Meeting
Strengthening Police Training on Human Trafficking in the INP
research result dissemination
Multi Agency Workshop on TIP in fishing industry
5th NPSC Meeting
Conference on the Labor Dimensions of Trafficking in Persons in the ASEAN Region
1st Sub regional meeting between Indonesia, Myanmar, and Thailand
14
o 3rd Sub Regional Law Enforcement Cooperation on Trafficking in Persons within the Fishing Industry Meeting
10
Susilaningtyas
o research result dissemination
o 5th NPSC Meeting
o Multi Agency Workshop on Coordination between Agencies on Fulfillment of Restitution Rights for Trafficked
Victims
o LPSK's Meeting with ATTFs and Victim-Witnesses regarding the participation of Victim-Witnesses of Benjina
Fishing Boat Cases
o The Senior Meeting to Discuss Commitment to Improve Cross Border Cooperation on Law Enforcement on
Trafficking in Persons in the Fishing Industry Cambodia-Indonesia-Myanmar-Thailand
o 2nd Sub regional Workshop to Discuss Trafficking in the Fishing Industry Cambodia-Indonesia-ThailandMyanmar: Law Enforcement Cooperation in Fishing Trafficking in Persons in the Fishing Industry
o 3rd Sub Regional Law Enforcement Cooperation on Trafficking in Persons within the Fishing Industry Meeting
VSA/NGO
(Female)
11
Euis Maria
VSA/NGO
5
o
o
o
o
o
MDT Team Meeting 12 July 2017
MDT Training in Cianjur
MDT Team Meeting 28 Sept 2017
MDT Training in Cianjur 21 Oct 2017
MDT team meeting in Cianjur 14 Dec 2017
VSA/NGO
5
o
o
o
o
o
MDT Team Meeting 15 July 2017
MDT Training in Cirebon
MDT Team Meeting 24 september 2017
MDT training Cirebon 4 Nov 2017
MDT Team Meeting 24 December 2017
(Female)
12
Maman
(Male)
15
ANNEX II - MOST SIGNIFICANT CHANGE – STORIES (NOT SELECTED
STORIES)
COMMUNICATION AND COORDINATION AMONG AGENCIES (COMMANDER 1) 
I graduated from the Police Academy in 1999, and thereafter, was placed in the traffic
unit in NTT. In 2005, I served in PAPUA for 8 years still in the same unit, and in 2014, I
served for 6 months in West Kalimantan Regional Police in the traffic directorate.
Thereafter, I was commissioned into the Criminal Investigation Agency of the National
Police Headquarters as the first head of the human trafficking task force.
At first, I did not understand what is meant by human trafficking because it is extremely
different from my knowledge which was until then related to traffic management, traffic
law enforcement and traffic engineering, and subsequently in 2014, I suddenly became
an investigator. In terms of management, it was still the same, but the duties and responsibilities were different.
At that point, I learned a lot how to prove a criminal act of human trafficking (TPPO). The first case I handled is
the case of Burmese citizens whom we found in a hotel, and whereby TPPO was eventually uncovered, and
another case of kidney trafficking which is also a part of TPPO which resulted in a conviction.
In 2016, I knew AAPTIP, and at that time, I served as the Head of TPPO Task Force until I became the Head of
TPPO Unit at the Criminal Investigation Agency of the National Police Headquarters. Due to the contribution and
proper cooperation among the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia (POLRI) especially the TPPO unit,
AAPTIP, as well as both national and international NGOs interested in combating human trafficking including the
migrant issues, in 2016 and 2017, we received Hasan Wirayuda Award.
To my recollection, I have attended more than 12 AAPTIP events, both domestic and overseas, such as trainings
and meetings. There are several changes related to my involvement in AAPTIP as follows:
o
Change of behavior and habit. AAPTIP provides training by bringing together some selected Regional
Police. The training will become a new habit because they used to only apply sexual abuse article or
articles in common crimes, but by involvement in AAPTIP, they are helped. We used to only think about
how to conduct an investigation without any intention to coordinate or to save the victim, and then to
provide psychological counselling.
o
We used to give up when finding that the victim is overseas, and to only rely on international relationship
which sometimes takes a long time. Due to AAPTIP, we coordinate to synchronize perception at the
Southeast Asia level, for example, now the National Police can establish close relationship with Malaysia
through Mazesly and with Thailand through Tamasak.
o
The change I personally experience is that currently as the Chief of Departmental Police I always look for
potential occurrence of TPPO in my area. If I remain in the traffic function, my knowledge will be only
about traffic. However, I can combine the knowledge now. The capabilities will serve as new capabilities
which can make breakthroughs in my current work area.
o
There is improvement in my managerial skill, such as dividing tasks, giving a role, giving a report on the
tasks we assigned to members, making analyses, noticing opportunities, noticing threats and designing
an efficient follow-up work plan to achieve the pre-determined outcomes
o
Lastly, cooperation among teams has also improved such as between the TPPO task force of the Criminal
Investigation Agency and the TPPO Unit at the Criminal Investigation Agency. In addition, cooperation
among law enforcement institution and other institutions both national (domestic) and international has
become closer
16
The most significant change in my opinion is the change in team communication and cooperation. Because by
strengthening them, I can uncover all cases in Indonesia due to proper communication and cooperation between
investigators at the Criminal Investigation Agency of the National Police Headquarters and police officers in
regions. In addition to identifying perpetrators in Indonesia, we are also able to identify and uncover
transnational perpetrators, although the perpetrators who are overseas are eventually only subject to the
Immigration Law such as Iyad bin Mansyur in Malaysia.
In relation to cooperation, many parties play a role in such change, and other governmental agencies also make
contributions such as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection,
Ministry of Law and Human Rights and other NGOs including AAPTIP.
For example in a case of organ trafficking, at that time, we only thought of applying Law No. 21 Year 2007, while
in fact, the method of substantiation remained fragmented and disintegrated. We only relied on what we
noticed and heard, but through training provided by AAPTIP, we know that organ trafficking also constitutes one
of the forms of human trafficking.
For me, it is significant because now we are beginning to aware about the importance of communication and
cooperation. We used to only think in our respective ways, and then we were given one same vision and mission
related to the way of perceiving TPPO thus each ministry and institution see it from the same side meaning that
they have the same method for perceiving TPPO.
In my opinion, AAPTIP has 90% contribution to such change in terms of law enforcement, but AAPTIP might have
insignificant role in relation to other matters aside from law enforcement because to the best of my knowledge,
AAPTIP indeed does not work on other matters other than law enforcement.
The remaining 10 % contribution is certainly made by other NGOs and institutions which are interested or hold
a mandate in the issue of eradication of TPPO.
17
IMPROVED INVESTIGATO R SELF-CONFIDENCE (COMMANDER 2)
I graduated from the police academy in 1999. My first assignment was in East Java and
then I was transferred to Semarang and afterwards to Pekan Baru before I was finally
stationed where I am now. This has made me familiar with the characters of the people
in my province. From the first day I became a police officer, I have always been assigned
in criminal investigation division, both in general and special crime units. I had also
been appointed head of sub-district police. Since becoming a mid-rank officer, I had
served as head of unit and head of directorate in the child, juvenile and women
(RENAKTA) division, overseeing units which actually operate under special laws, but
they fall within the directorate of general crimes, such as human trafficking,
employment and child protection units. I am currently the Head of the Operational Division and my duties
include receiving reports from people and coordinating parties to accommodate such reports. This makes
analyzing every incoming report easier which eventually would help us in concluding whether or not such report
would give rise to an allegation of criminal act.
I have participated in more than five activities held by AAPTIP.
I was previously assigned as the head of manpower unit which also handles human trafficking and nonprocedural migrant workers. I was also a member of people smuggling task unit.
When I was a Head of Sub-directorate, I mapped out issues which would fall under the duties and responsibilities
of 5 Units under Sub-directorate 4, namely Women and Children Unit, Human Trafficking Unit and People
Smuggling Unit, Vice Unit, KLT Unit, and Migrant Worker Unit. We consolidated these units and made discoveries
based on their main duties and functions, in addition to handling cases that the Directorate of General Crimes
should assign to Sub-directorate 4.
Furthermore, one of the functions of the Head of Sub-directorate is to provide guidance, which also includes
enhancing the capacity of investigators under my supervision. We must certainly maintain collaboration and
coordination with the relevant agencies, both government agencies and NGOs, because the crimes handled by
Sub-directorate 4 involve many elements and stakeholders, including the government, such as P2TP2A, BP3AKB
now known as DP3, Women Empowerment Service Office, and KPAI, LPA, as well as NGOs such as IOM, Migrant
Care. One of the focuses of AAPTIP is to improve the capability and capacity of investigators. We are also making
efforts to provide trainings for our personnel and to act as the party overseeing the lowest units, namely
investigators at the Criminal Investigation Unit.
There are several changes occurring after I and my sub-directorate got involved in AAPTIP programs, among
others:
o
o
From my point of view, AAPTIP has not only enhanced the capacity and capability of our investigators in
Sub-directorate 4 and representatives of police precincts with its workshops and trainings, but has also
opened lines of communication, for example between our office and the Criminal Investigation Agency and
other Provincial Police, particularly those in areas commonly used as human trafficking route such as West
Kalimantan and Batam. It has also opened our communication with Malaysia. For example, there was a
case in Pontianak which was then headed to Serawak. As we have established communication with
Malaysia, we were able to communicate this to Serawak police force.
Changes in the members of the unit occur because of the trainings. I also have trainings for the Head of
Unit and for investigators. These trainings improve their understanding on human trafficking and establish
stronger networks, particularly between investigators and public prosecutors and investigators at the
Criminal Investigation Agency. In addition, there is an increased understanding that could be explored that
human trafficking is a transnational crime. Although obstructions often occurred.
18
o
Changes did not only occur due to AAPTIP, but also due to the collaboration and cooperation that have
been established with other agencies, for example Human Trafficking Task Force, DP2KB, etc.
Out of the above changes, the most significant one is the fact that the investigators now have better skill, in a
sense that they have the capacity, self-confidence and have no hesitation at processing the case. For example,
if a case where the recruitment took place in East Java, but the human exploitation occurred outside East Java.
Our members used to think that human trafficking only involved children. They would hesitate and have doubt
if the exploitation occurred outside East Java. But now more human trafficking cases are investigated and
brought to court. This proves that their skill in applying the element of human trafficking has improved.
At the beginning of my assignment there was a common understanding that human trafficking only involved
child exploitation and that when the victim wanted to do so, it could not be categorized as human trafficking,
while there was actually the element of human trafficking in such cases which despite the victim’s approval, the
element of crime in there was not eliminated. Furthermore, there was also a concern when we would have to
bring our investigation outside Indonesia jurisdiction.
The above changes are significant to me because investigators’ capacity has been improved after attending
trainings held by AAPTIP. Coordination with DP3AKB is also improved and therefore, the process of retrieving
the victim who is overseas becomes easier. With this synergy, we become more responsive. We also have the
capacity and skill and no longer hesitate in applying all of the elements as set out in the Human Trafficking Law.
In my point of view, AAPTIP contribution to these changes and to the improvement of capacity and knowledge
of the investigators is 100%, however in other aspects, such as victim handling, there are other agencies and
institutions that have also contributed such as the social affairs service office, BP3AKB and IOM.
19
VICTIM CENTRED APPRO ACH (INVESTIGATOR 2)
I have been working as a police officer since 1986 and my first assignment was at the
criminal investigation division. I learnt a lot from my seniors and superiors during my
years in the criminal investigation division and I developed a passion as an
investigator. In 1992, I began handling cases and later, I enrolled to the police officer
academy in 2002 and became an officer in 2003. Afterwards, I was appointed as the
head of unit in several units in the police precinct and as an investigator. In 2009, I
was assigned as the head of a district police station for 3 years before I served as the
head of PPA unit in XX Metropolitan Police for 1.5 years. I was then transferred and assumed position as the
head of development and operation of criminal investigation division in Bandung Metropolitan Police and
subsequently received an award and a promotion.
When I was serving as the head of buah batu police precinct, I often adopted repressive approach with the hope
that it would have a deterrent effect on perpetrators. At the end of 2016, I was appointed as the head of human
trafficking unit in XX Regional Police. This unit is handling not only human trafficking cases, but also other cases,
such as land dispute, kidnapping, etc.
I was aware of AAPTIP at the beginning of 2017, and at that time I felt that I have not acquired sufficient
knowledge on human trafficking and it does not only motivate me, but also challenges me to learn more about
human trafficking. Afterwards, I continued spreading and sharing the knowledge that I have obtained from all
sources about human trafficking.
I also received support from my superiors for the work that I have done. The human trafficking task force was
established where I have been appointed as the head of team 1. Up to now, there are several human trafficking
cases that have been investigated with the support from the task force unit. Members of this task force come
from all police precincts under the regional police.
I often participated in activities held by AAPTIP, such as in Bandung, Bogor, Jakarta, Jogja and Cirebon. There
were probably seven activities. During my involvement in the activities held by AAPTIP, there are several changes
that I have experienced and observed, as follows:
o
o
o
o
o
o
I personally have acquired more knowledge and understanding on handling human trafficking, I am able
to recognize the psychological condition of the victim – this is due the training on human trafficking that I
have often attended.
The trust that the superiors placed on us is increasing significantly, if there is a person reporting a possible
human trafficking case, they would immediately be asked to meet or coordinate with me
These days, I have often been asked to become a source person in various events in my province to discuss
issues related to human trafficking, in other words, more people are familiar with me
Regarding the members of my unit, I always share what I have to all members of my unit because their
success is my pride. The result is, my team members are now familiar with the elements of human
trafficking, if there is a member of the community that is filling a report, they are able to give direction
Improved public trust to the police apparatuses
Improved coordination among agencies, I am currently trying to establish more communication &
coordination with the Public Prosecutors’ office, DP3AKB and P2TP2A, I am also encouraging the members
of my team to engage in coordination
The most significant change to me is the increased understanding of the psychological condition of the victim in
handling cases, I see that the members of my unit and I have grown to become more sensitive and empathetic
towards the victims, particularly when interviewing them so that they do not feel that they are talking to police
officers.
20
Previously there was no special approach applied to the victims, in a sense that my team members are only
looking for information from the victims without considering their psychological aspect.
With this change, I have noticed that the victims have become more open to police officers, not only female,
but also male police officers.
This is important because until now there are still victims of human trafficking who refuse to be open because
they are worried, angry, scared, etc. to file a report or to provide information to police officers, but with the
knowledge and/or understanding that we obtained, my team members now know how they should approach
and handle the victims and therefore it opens the case more and makes solving the cases and revealing the
criminal network that is involved, become easier.
AAPTIP has played a substantial role in improving understanding, conduct, behaviour and knowledge. In
addition, AAPTIP has always shared the results of evaluation and books of guidelines.
If calculated in percentage, the contribution that AAPTIP has made to the above changes reaches 40%, while the
remaining 60% is from the prior knowledge and understanding that the team members have.
21
IMPROVING CAPACITY O F INVESTIGATORS IN THE UNIT – INVESTIGATOR 3 
I graduated from high school in 1996/1997 and I wanted to become a police officer. Then
I enrolled to the NCO candidate school and after following the selection process, I was
admitted. My first assignment was in BRIMOB, my duty was to provide security with the
classification of high intensity crime. After 6 years of duty in BRIMOB, I finally had the
opportunity to be transferred to the public investigation division from 2003 until now.
Serving as a police investigator has been my dream because in this division I am able to
learn so much about the police science with many various challenges that I have
encountered during my service.
I have engaged in several activities held by AAPTIP in 2017, including workshops on human trafficking and
victim’s rights, restitution and how to investigate human trafficking. One workshop included police, prosecutors
and judges and focused more on sharing similar perception among the legal enforcers.
As the head of the task unit, my role is to control the performance of the unit, improve the capacity of
investigators by way of sharing knowledge. For example, after attending the training on reactive investigation, I
gather members of my unit and share the knowledge that I get from the training. After they understand the
information or the knowledge that I share, I ask my investigators to apply the knowledge so that they are able
find evidence of human trafficking cases, and in November we successfully solved one human trafficking case
using pro-active investigation techniques. In addition, the most important duty as the head of the unit is to
motivate the investigators that human trafficking case is a case that requires extra attention and that it is not an
ordinary case because the victim of human trafficking is usually suffering.
I asked AAPTIP to help us to disseminate information and knowledge to the public at large, particularly in my
Regency, which was supported by a community event involving community leaders. I also communicated to my
investigators that this is one of the duties as members of the unit to provide information on human trafficking
to the community.
Several changes have occurred with the support from AAPTIP, including:
o
o
o
My insight and knowledge of human trafficking has personally improved, including understanding of how
to handle human trafficking. I am also capable of conveying or transferring the knowledge to other
members.
Increased capacity of the personnel, including in handling cases and providing information to the public,
this is demonstrated by the success of the dissemination event in villages as supported by AAPTIP.
In 2018 there are already 2 cases of human trafficking that we are currently working on in my Regency,
while in the previous year, we never handled any cases of human trafficking. In handling a case, I try to
involve investigators in my unit to the greatest extent possible so that they can learn.
Investigators have become more responsive when they receive a report or information, they can identify and
distinguish whether it is human trafficking or other criminal act, they have the ability to analyze and make a
conclusion when information is given that could be human trafficking.
Regarding several changes that I have mentioned, I think the most significant transformation is the investigators
have become more responsive in following up on a report, then proceeding to the first interview. In this phase,
the investigators already have the capability to conclude that the circumstance is human trafficking. The
knowledge and motivation that my investigators have on cases of human trafficking have essentially improved.
The actual proof is, for example, one day I was out of my district attending an event and I received a report from
the investigators that there has been a person filing a report on a criminal act. Not only that, the investigators
22
also informed me that they have interviewed the victim and found preliminary evidence of human trafficking.
In my absence as the head of the unit, the investigators are able to receive report from the public; to conclude
that it is human trafficking and follow it up by making a police report.
It is significant for me because in my opinion, the most important thing in our work is to have an understanding
of the matter. If we understand what we must do, then it will automatically run properly. With better knowledge
the investigators can function and work properly in compliance with the existing laws and regulations. In
following up on cases, it is not enough to only identify the definition of human trafficking, but we must have a
detailed and deep understanding of what human trafficking is, what are the elements and what are the victim’s
rights. These are obtained after AAPTIP presented them to us through trainings.
AAPTIP has substantially contributed to or played a significant role in the above changes because honestly the
investigators, including me have never specifically received any knowledge on human trafficking in the police
vocational school. Furthermore, AAPTIP has continuously been giving motivation, support and opening
communication. Previously when we receive a report on human trafficking where the victim is overseas, it breaks
our spirit and self-confidence because it seems too far from our range, but AAPTIP always gives the motivation
that we could handle the case and is willing to help with the communication and coordination in relation to the
handling of victims who are still abroad. This lifts our confidence that we would be able to solve a human
trafficking case, despite of the fact that the victim is overseas.
Up to now particularly for cases of human trafficking we are only able to communicate and coordinate with
AAPTIP, there are no other organizations that assisted us. If calculated in percentage, AAPTIP contribution to the
above change reaches 80%, while the remaining 20% is contributed by prior knowledge of the respective
investigator. The investigators already have very basic knowledge on human trafficking, but they have no deep
and detailed understanding on the elements of what, how, who are the victims and how does it happen. They
gain deeper knowledge after I as the head of the unit attended the training organized by AAPTIP.
23
BETTER COORDINATION ON PROSECUTING HUMAN TRAFFICKING (PROSEC UTOR 2) 
I have been serving as public prosecutor since 2002. Since then, I have been the head
of a public prosecutor branch office, then as the head of academy sub-directorate at
the public prosecutor training and education agency and now as the head of the
cooperation unit in the cross-border crime and terrorism task force of the attorney
general’s office of the Republic of Indonesia.
Up to now, I have been involved in many activities held by AAPTIP, both as participant
and resource person in several events held by AAPTIP, either domestic or foreign,
such as the workshop in Thailand on human trafficking, multilateral meeting of 3
countries in Siemreap and training in Bandung, as well as workshop in Ambon and Jakarta.
There are several changes that I could observe and see, such as:
o
o
o
Increased capacity of the public prosecutor, either in the task force or in the region with regard to the
handling of human trafficking, whether from the aspect of formal or material law.
The involvement of AAPTIP has in fact facilitated the ASEAN regional coordination in handling human
trafficking cases. For example, in Benjina case where AAPTIP assisted the communication process between
the law enforcers in three countries (Thailand, Indonesia and Myanmar) to discuss strategies for handling
the human trafficking case in Benjina by facilitating multilateral meeting.
In addition, AAPTIP also implements programs to assist in the preparation of the implementation of
national program for the eradication of human trafficking by establishing the NPSC
The most significant transformation that I see from the involvement of AAPTIP is the increased capacity of the
public prosecutors and coordination at ASEAN regional level. As a result, human trafficking cases that the public
prosecutors handle have increased. This demonstrates that there has been an improvement of the public
prosecutor’s capacity in handling human trafficking cases based on reports from the public prosecutors at the
national and regional level. Before when there were many cases that should fall into the category of human
trafficking case, due to limited knowledge that the public prosecutors had, the perpetrator was indicted for
other offenses, such as labour law.
For example, in the Benjina case, the prosecution was initially hampered, but once again with the help from
AAPTIP who provided technical advice and support in bridging the communication with the other countries, the
public prosecutor was eventually capable of filing a lawsuit under the human trafficking law as the evidence
which confirmed the occurrence of human trafficking was found.
This is very significant to me because the attorney general’s office of the Republic of Indonesia has a role of
supervising human trafficking cases in the region. As the public prosecutors in the region have better
understanding, it makes our work at the national or central level easier. We can give advice to the prosecutors
without having to explain broadly or in detail as to what they should do.
AAPTIP contributed 80% to the above transformation, while the remaining 20% is contributed by other
organizations, such as IOM that has very high level of concern of victim handling.
24
PRACTICAL LEARNING IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN BOOK LEARNING (PRO SECUTOR 3) 
In 2000, I was appointed as a civil servant three years later I attended public
prosecutor school. Following two assignments in district Prosecutor offices, I took
part in a selection process to join the Anti-Corruption Commission (KPK), and
Alhamdulillah I was selected. I served at the Prosecution and Investigation Unit of
KPK for approximately 6 years. After completing my term of service in KPK, I was
transferred to the position of the head of the Intelligence Unit in a District Prosecutor
Office and then to the Head of General Crime Unit, which handles human trafficking
cases and I began to know AAPTIP. I have to say honestly that I am proud and happy
to be assigned in my current region because I can find many cases with
characteristics that I have never found before in other regions, almost all types of cases of general and special
crime can be found in my region.
As far as I can remember, I have participated in 2 or 3 events organized by AAPTIP which included the Police, NGO,
judges and prosecutors, who are all involved in the criminal justice process.
We frequently exchanged thoughts and experience. Frankly, I have to admit that the training prioritized practical
works rather than theories, which are sometimes not helpful in real life. If I am not mistaken, I handled 3 or 4
human trafficking cases and the judges’ decisions on those cases were in line with or accommodated the entire
charges made by the public prosecutors. Such facts made me proud, because all legal analysis for the
substantiation of the elements of the charges was agreed upon by the judges. There might be slight differences
but in principle they could understand the reasoning especially in relation to the substantiation of the Mens rea
element, which means proving the crime.
In my role I have noticed some changes. There were many factors causing the changes as part of the process that
I experience when I was involved in activities organized by AAPTIP. We can say that experience is the best teacher.
When I participated in activities organized by AATIP, I met various individuals, and various subjects who also
handle the same cases. In those meetings, we always shared knowledge related to the technical aspects of case
handling which cannot be found in books, or in laws and regulations. From the sharing of knowledge, I learned
various tips or techniques for handling cases to ensure that it would not be protracted. Let’s just say that those
cases would not end up with acquittal, because we have to honestly admit the difficult part of the substantiation
of human trafficking case is to present witnesses. On this occasion I would like to express my sincerest gratitude
to the witness and victim protection agency for their participation which allows us to present witnesses in courts
to give their testimony, without the agency’s assistance, I believe that 70% of the cases would be hampered by
such difficulty.
Another change is related to the institution. All this time, when preparing requisitoir after the presentation of
charges, most prosecutors would hesitate to include payment of compensation to victims. As I learned from many
books or decisions of the Supreme Court, only a small number of prosecutors included compensation in their
charges. There should be clear and firm regulations, because court decision on these cases indicate a provision
or process stating the existence of expropriation of assets from the perpetrators or defendants if they do not have
any assets, they may replace it with confinement. This means that the use of alternative criminal punishment of
confinement is not conducted automatically, prosecutors should track down the perpetrators’ assets first.
Prosecutors do not usually go as far as that. I am suggesting that when conducting investigations, investigators
should confiscate assets having economic value, so that when the verdict includes the imposition of compensation
so that if the verdict sets out a compensation, it can be paid from the proceeds of the sale of the confiscated
assets to be further paid to the victims or their children. I think it is the most effective way, because 80% of
actions during investigation, including confiscation and search and seizure, is the portion of investigators.
25
The next change is probably personal in nature. I have become more confident about speaking in public, in
scientific forum, including at group dynamic level. This means that I am more confident and poised when I share
my technical knowledge to other prosecutors or when I have discussion with judges.
The most significant change among the aforementioned changes is, in my opinion, the sharing of technical tips
and tricks in substantiation. We have to honestly admit that Law 21/2007 or the subordinate regulations or the
existing literary references do not provide specific explanations regarding anything in the context of
substantiation, such as in substantiating the element of transportation, how to prove that such matter is within
the scope of trafficking, or rather labour issues. This means that there has not been any book that elaborates
these details and we can obtain such knowledge only from Technical Guidance. The second one is related to case
studies. There has not been any scientific literary work elaborating cases such as the Benjina case. Why there
should be the substantiation of the perpetrators of participation? There has not been any book discussing such
issue. And we can only obtain such knowledge in a forum such as the one organized by AAPTIP. At that time,
everything was clearly portrayed on slides, and we could know the names of the suspects, and the evidence.
Such change is significant for me because I am practical in nature, it is practical in the application of the articles,
in the substantiation of the violation, in the substantiation of non-legal aspects. It will be used as reference in
cases with similar pattern. That is for sure, When we have a benchmark or reference, everything will be easier. In
my analogy, when we already have knowledge and training about how to drive a car, it will be easier for us to
drive a car, than reading a book given by the car owner.
In my opinion, AAPTIP has an important role and to say it in a percentage, I would say the percentage is ranging
from 70% to 90%, while the rest is the individual factor who has the willingness and motivation to learn from the
references. In addition to AAPTIP, the public prosecutor education center also contributed to the change by
providing guidance or training for prosecutors, and providing various references even though they do not provide
in-depth explanations regarding human trafficking.
26
FROM NO-ONE TO SOMEONE (VSA 1) 
I am originally from Karawang and in 2010 I moved to a new village. I participated
in many activities in the village such as Posyandu, PKK, and Multi-disciplinary Team
(MDT) because I had no job. In the MDT, I learned about human trafficking and it
provided me with more insight. Although I am not native to this village, I feel that I
have become a part of it. I would be ashamed if my village becomes underdeveloped
and therefore, I try to develop my village by participating in various activities in the
village.
I have been involved in activities organized by NEXUS or the MDT since February 2017 and I have never missed
(not once), the activities that the MDT conducted. I have to admit that I do not like to read books, but I try to
put the knowledge that I gain from these activities into practice because it is easier to apply it directly in the
field, than reading books.
As a Posyandu cadre, I have been helping people in my village with their health. If any of their children gets sick,
I will refer them to a village midwife. In addition, as a cadre in PAUD, I also encourage people who have schoolage children to continue taking their children to school, because although they have no money, school now does
not charge any tuition fee and similarly, the village provides facility for early age children in the form of PAUD.
As a member of the MDT, I have the duty to assist victims in dealing with problems, for example, a family filed a
report to me stating that their child had run away from their employer overseas and now, their whereabouts
are unknown. The child never contacted their family in the village. I then coordinated with other colleagues in
MDT to address this issue. Furthermore, I also give advice to people who are planning to work as migrant workers
and I give them an understanding that they should not go abroad to work as domestic helpers, they could work
in Jakarta or Bandung. But, in the end, I leave the decision to them; some would listen to my advice, some would
not.
Below are the changes that have happened after I joined the MDT:
o There is nothing different, no particular changes that have occurred in the village, there is nothing special in
participating in the activities that the MDT conducted because they are the same as other activities
conducted in the village, such as PKK or Posyandu
o Changes in the village people, nowadays when people have any problem, they come directly to me or other
colleagues in the MDT to ask for advice to solve their problems
o Now I have the courage to speak up, so when people ask me about their problems, I can immediately give
my responses. If not, I would ask my other colleagues in the MDT
o Relationship and communication between the people and legal enforcers, such as the police and the military
has been improved, particularly among members of MDT
o We have more information and knowledge. I did not know that migrant workers in the Middle East are prone
to become the victims of human trafficking. I thought they were only regular abuse cases. In addition, I have
become aware of the mechanism and modus operandi of the perpetrators
The most significant change that I notice is that many people recognize me as a member of MDT who is familiar
with human trafficking and as a result, a lot of people would come to me asking for my advice and opinion.
Furthermore, today I am confident to speak in front of the public and I no longer feel uncomfortable talking to
the law enforcer, for example to a member of Bhabinkamtibmas. I used to not have the courage to speak with
the member of the police force, I was afraid that I would be misunderstood and get arrested. Likewise, I am now
confident to discuss with the head of the village about my ideas.
All of these are motivated by my desire to help the village people because I could not help them financially,
therefore the least that I could do is to give them advice, opinion and information.
27
Being involved in the activities that NEXUS conducted has changed my way of thinking. I used to be sceptical
about our migrant workers. But now, I become more empathetic towards them. I try to dig up information as to
why this problem happened –I essentially ask more questions.
There have been no other organizations that made such changes up to now. There was a government agency,
P2TP2A that gave a counselling session on human trafficking in Posyandu, but it was only briefly.
I would give AAPTIP 50% for their contribution to such changes.
28
LESSONS LEARNED FROM EX-MIGRANT WORKER ( VSA 2) 
I am a former migrant worker and therefore there is a continuity and relevancy with
the NEXUS program because I know what migrant workers have experienced. I
worked in a factory in Taiwan for two years and then in a factory in Korea for two
years. Before I departed, I was a little afraid because it was my first experience of
working in another country where I did not really understand their language. I went
abroad through official channels, I admit that Taiwan has actually implemented a
protection system for migrant workers but it was always undermined by the people
in the company because of high demand for and from migrant workers in Taiwan. It
was very easy to find replacements for any migrant workers who did not obey their rules which were very strict.
I had to transfer money to my family in my home town through them (PJTKI) and they gave low exchange rate
for the dollar which made me feel deceived. At that time, I was giving information to my migrant worker
colleagues which led them to organize a demonstration and caused some of them to be sent home. At that time,
the factory tried to look for workers from the Philippines, but they were actually more demanding, they asked
in detail of the benefits that will receive. The factory eventually asked for workers from Indonesia again.
I am currently assisting Pak (SBMI) because of my experience as a migrant worker, I feel a sense of responsibility
to help prospective migrant workers who will go abroad. I have been involved in the MDT for almost one year
from January 2017.
What I do as a member of the MDT is that I give an understanding to the prospective migrant workers who are
about to go overseas on the condition and situation as well as the risks of working abroad because most of the
workers who become the victims are not familiar with the local language spoken in the place where they are
working. They have no understanding of the local culture.
I have done this for almost a year since I get involved with the MDT and I am currently actively assisting Pak in
his organization (LNGO).
There are several changes that I feel and observe:
o
After becoming involved in MDT, I feel that my previous work of taking care of prospective Indonesian
migrant workers is not entirely legal – many people were asking for my help to handle candidate migrant
workers because they knew that I am a former migrant worker.
o
I grew a sense of wanting to give protection and direction to prevent them from going overseas to work, in
other words, I became more concerned.
o
I am able to identify the victim and to perceive in a broader sense that many sponsors are actually also the
victims.
o
In addition, I see many colleagues in the MDT who previously were not aware of the issue, now have an
understanding on this and are willing to share with other colleagues. The motivation of the members of
MDT to be involved in handling the victims of human trafficking has increased.
The most significant change is the increase of the level of awareness of the victim, I think and feel that it is
enough, no more people from my village should be the victims of human trafficking.
This change has occurred because of the awareness that NEXUS and AAPTIP have, I suppose if other people are
willing to show awareness on my people, why don’t we – we should care more. In addition, NEXUS and AAPTIP
gave the knowledge and understanding on human trafficking, and after I put this knowledge into practice, I have
more understanding. Furthermore, I am also able to identify the victim.
This becomes significant because I feel that I was also the victim of human trafficking for leaving my family and
working overseas. At first, I did not know what is human trafficking and how to identify the victim of human
trafficking.
29
I used to feel only sympathy on the victims and did not know that to do, but now I can at least help them by
providing them with information on what steps they should take.
The other matter is that, I see many people who are not aware of this human trafficking and therefore I am
planning to distribute books to the existing authorities and the people so that the victims are able and willing to
report human trafficking.
If calculated in percentage, AAPTIP and NEXUS contribute 50% to this change, the remaining 50% is contributed
by LNGO that has also been helping the victims up to now and the knowledge that the member colleagues of
MDT have.
There are several local organizations that also engage in this, but they are not significant, NEXUS and we are like
family.
30
Measuring Multi-Disciplinary Team (MDT) Members’ Initial Knowledge in Three
Villages in Three Districts (Sukabumi, Cirebon, and Cianjur) of West Java Province
Regarding the Process of Human Trafficking Victims Identification and referral
ERWIEN TEMASMICO DJAYOESMAN
AAPTIP NATIONAL MONITORING & EVALUATION INFORMATION OFFICER
Picture 1 - Sukabumi Multi-Disciplinary Team
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Page 1 of 16
LIST OF PICTURES
Picture 1 - Sukabumi Multi-Disciplinary Team ............................................................................................................................................................0
Picture 2 - Diagram link program between AAPTIP & NEXUS ....................................................................................................................................3
Picture 3 – Process of Questionnaire completion.......................................................................................................................................................5
Picture 4 - Questionnaire ..............................................................................................................................................................................................5
LIST OF CHARTS
Chart 1 - Number of respondents disaggregate by gender ........................................................................................................................................4
Chart 2 - Distribution of MDT Members occupation ..................................................................................................................................................4
Chart 3 - Number of people were attended TIP events .............................................................................................................................................6
Chart 4 - Total score per variable .................................................................................................................................................................................7
Chart 5 - Total result score in 3 pilot areas .................................................................................................................................................................7
Chart 6 - Current knowledge percentage of MDT member in 3 areas ......................................................................................................................7
Chart 7 - Comparison of knowledge of victim identification .....................................................................................................................................8
Chart 8 - Score total for variable one...........................................................................................................................................................................8
Chart 9 - Knowledge level of victim identification ......................................................................................................................................................8
Chart 10 - Form of trafficking .......................................................................................................................................................................................8
Chart 11 - Potential TIP victim by gender ....................................................................................................................................................................8
Chart 12 - TIP victim nationality ...................................................................................................................................................................................8
Chart 13 - Type of Indonesian worker occupancy ......................................................................................................................................................9
Chart 14 - Type of Destination .....................................................................................................................................................................................9
Chart 15 - Most favorite destination country .............................................................................................................................................................9
Chart 16 - Victim approval or agreement on contract ...............................................................................................................................................9
Chart 17 - Capacity MDT on looking the sign of TIP victim ........................................................................................................................................9
Chart 18 - Knowledge MDT on victim support ..........................................................................................................................................................10
Chart 19 - Total score for variable two ......................................................................................................................................................................10
Chart 20 - Knowledge level of victim support ...........................................................................................................................................................10
Chart 21 - Support for victims ....................................................................................................................................................................................10
Chart 22 - Role & responsibility of MDT ....................................................................................................................................................................11
Chart 23 - Referral institution or agencies ................................................................................................................................................................11
Chart 24 - Knowledge MDT on Criminal Justice Process ..........................................................................................................................................12
Chart 25 - Total score variable three .........................................................................................................................................................................12
Chart 26 - Knowledge level of CJ process ..................................................................................................................................................................12
Chart 27 - Criminal justice steps for TIP victim .........................................................................................................................................................12
Chart 28 - Cooperation between victims and police ................................................................................................................................................13
Chart 29 - Victim allowed to revoke the report ........................................................................................................................................................13
Chart 30 - Legality needs for CJ process ....................................................................................................................................................................13
Chart 31 - Victim right & responsibility .....................................................................................................................................................................13
Chart 32 - Risk usually or will facing by victim ..........................................................................................................................................................14
Chart 33 - Knowledge MDT on minor victim .............................................................................................................................................................15
Chart 34 - Total score for variable four......................................................................................................................................................................15
Chart 35 - Knowledge level of involved minor victim ...............................................................................................................................................15
Chart 36 - Identification process for minor victim ....................................................................................................................................................15
Chart 37 - Different approach for minor victim ........................................................................................................................................................15
Chart 38 - Referral system for minor victim ..............................................................................................................................................................15
Chart 39 - Criminal justice process for minor victim ................................................................................................................................................16
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 - Target Locations & Number of Respondents ...............................................................................................................................................4
Table 2 - Advantages & Disadvantages of Questionnaire ..........................................................................................................................................5
Table 3 - Data Collection Itinerary of Baseline Study .................................................................................................................................................6
Table 4 - Scoring System of Baseline Study .................................................................................................................................................................7
Page 2 of 16
This study aims at measuring or capturing the knowledge of the program’s current target group
(multi-disciplinary team members) to provide baseline data for AAPTIP and NEXUS as the
implementers. The program will run a series of training and mentoring for 33 Multi-Disciplinary
Team (MDT) members in three regions (district/city) in West Java Province.
Results from this baseline study will be compared to an endline study that will probably be
conducted in January 2018 (near the end of the NEXUS program) to see any trend or development
of the target group’s (MDT) knowledge and capability in identifying and referring Victims of
Trafficking for assistance, if they chose this avenue.
This study seeks to measure the achievement of the five AAPTIP indicators in this program as
follows:
a) More forced labor victims identified and the victim referral mechanism being used
b) Successful cases of identified forced labor victims
c) Victim witnesses becoming more aware of their rights and role as witnesses (a. number of
victims having been reached /received information; b. success stories about victims with
greater awareness)
d) More investigators both men and women being aware of their duties
e) Victim witnesses being referred to support networks by investigators
The questions (see annex 1) focus on MDTs knowledge on human trafficking crime, especially on
victim identification as well as the referral mechanisms or procedure through directory services.
The questions are developed in accordance with Identification and Referral Guidelines which is
the basis of all mentoring and training modules to be developed/implemented.
In the end, through the endline process, the extent of the AAPTIP training program’s impact on
law enforcement apparatuses (project no. 2) with regards to human trafficking crime case
processing will also be measured based on MDT reports. In other words, it will be seen how
comprehensive the relationship becomes from the supply side to the demand side, as illustrated
by the diagram below:
Picture 2 - Diagram link program between AAPTIP & NEXUS
Note:
Supply – Law Enforcement Apparatuses Trained by AAPTIP
Demand – Community Members (MDT) Trained by NEXUS
Page 3 of 16
This baseline was carried out in three
villages in three districts of West Java,
namely Sukabumi District, Cirebon
District, and Cianjur District involving 33
MDT members in the areas. Detailed
information on locations and the
number of respondents is available in
the following table:
# of Respondents
19
7
10
8
4
3
0
SUKABUMI
4
0
CIREBON
Male
Female
4
4
CIANJUR
TOTAL
3
Unknown
Chart 1 - Number of respondents disaggregate by gender
No.
1
2
3
Village
District
Jambe Nenggang
Babakan Geubang
Sukamaju
Sukabumi
Cirebon
Cianjur
No. of
Respondents
11
11
11
Table 1 - Target Locations & Number of Respondents
Chart 2 - Distribution of MDT Members occupation
33 MDT members come from many different kinds of profession such as farmer (3%), teacher
(9%), police officer (6%), laborer (18%), civil servant (3%), village official (15%), and others (28%).
They are community members from the villages.
This baseline employs the quantitative descriptive method. The study is descriptive considering
that it is carried out to find out the values of one or more independent variables without making
a comparison or creating an association among them. There are several independent variables
being studies herein, namely:
1. Respondents’ knowledge on the identification of human trafficking crime victims and signs of
victims
2. Respondents’ knowledge on support and assistance for human trafficking crime victims
3. Respondents’ knowledge on the criminal prosecution process for human trafficking crime
victims
Page 4 of 16
4. Respondents’ knowledge on the identification, support, and criminal prosecution process for
child trafficking crime victims
Each variable stands independently in the process of analysis even though they seem
interrelated. Therefore, the descriptive method is selected instead of the comparative or
associative approach.
Quantitative research refers to research that tries to obtain data in the form of figures, or that
seeks to produce quantified qualitative data.
The samples were taken using the population (census) method in
which population means a generalized region consisting of
subjects/objects with certain qualities and characteristics, which
were established by the researcher to study and to draw conclusions
from. In this baseline, the population is all MDT members in the three
regions (33 respondents).
Picture 3 – Process of Questionnaire
completion
The non-interactive technique was employed to collect data, in which the researcher used a
questionnaire as a tool. Questionnaire is a data collection tool used by providing a set of written
questions or statements for respondents to respond, so the researcher
does not directly ask respondents questions (as in the interactive
technique such as interview or FGD). In this baseline, the questionnaire
was of the combination type in which there were open questions to be
answered by the respondents and also questions with options of answers
for the respondents to choose from by giving a tick mark (closed
questions).
Picture 4 - Questionnaire
The advantages and disadvantages of using a questionnaire are as follows:
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
Time saving, meaning that data can be obtained There is a possibility that a respondent is not
in a short time
honest in responding to the questions
Cost saving, because it does not need many tools An unclear question can lead to irrelevant
answer (out of topic)
Labor saving, questionnaires can be distributed There is a possibility of respondents copying
all at once to all respondents
responses from one another
Table 2 - Advantages & Disadvantages of Questionnaire
Based on the above theory, this baseline employed the descriptive, quantitative method. Data
obtained from the baseline population samples was analyzed in accordance with the statistical
method being applied to then be subjected to interpretation.
Page 5 of 16
This baseline was carried out in stages in three locations as mentioned above for three weeks,
following the mentoring process by the NEXUS team. The following is the table of the study’s itinerary
and activities in the locations:
Location
Jambe Nenggang Village – Sukabumi District
Babakan Geubang Village – Cirebon District
Sukamaju Village – Cianjur District
Date
6 May 2017
13 May 2017
20 May 2017
Table 3 - Data Collection Itinerary of Baseline Study
From the field-collected data, there are some findings based on the observation, discussion with the
Village Heads, and questionnaire results. Below are some key findings:
1 The selection of villages in Sukabumi District was not as expected by AAPTIP and has ended up
being under the jurisdiction of Sukabumi City Police (Polres) Office and not that of Sukabumi
District Police Office (which has been trained by AAPTIP before). There is a concern that the
information about the performance of the trained police we were hoping to gather from the
project might not now be possible because the City police have not been trained by AAPTIP).
1 The involvement of a law enforcement apparatus, specifically the sub-district police office in the
piloting area was an important part especially in the mentoring activities by NEXUS, so that the
two program partners (MDT & Police Investigators) could be acquainted with each other and
work in synergy.
1 So far Village Government Officials, especially Village Heads have a central role and are very
important people in the initial process or prevention of human trafficking crime, as the permit
process and legality verification for workers are under their authority, both those requested by
the worker or those requested by the sponsor, including the verification of their residential
identification documents.
1 Related to the above point, the lack of awareness about human trafficking crime at a village level
is a dominant factor for why human trafficking crime keeps occurring and is a factor in the failure
to identify and refer cases within villages. Stakeholders lack the skills to recognize TIP cases. This
is true for both village key figures and community members in general. This is despite some MDT
members (especially those coming
from a labor union) having
participated in training or a
workshop and seminar held by
some institutions such as the
Ministry
of
Women
Empowerment and the Ministry of
Social Affairs as well as
international organizations like
Chart 3 - Number of people were attended TIP events
IOM.
1 That issue (in the above point) was proven by the poor knowledge of MDT members on variables
used as references in this baseline study, as shown by the chart of questionnaire analysis results
below:
Page 6 of 16
TOTAL SCORE PER VARIABLE
TOTAL RESULT
VARIABLE 2
VARIABLE 3
230,0
177,3
1,5
CJ PROCESS
3,9
REFERRAL SYSTEM
1,2
IDENTIFICATION PROCESS
RISK FOR VOTS
194,5
DIFFERENT APPROACH
RIGHT & RESPONSIBILITY
REVOKE REPORT
LEGALLY NEEDED
CJ STEPS
COOPERATE WITH POLICE
REFFERAL PLACES
ASISTANCE FOR VICTIMS…
TIP VICTIMS…
VARIABLE 1
SUPPORT FOR TIP VICTIM
DESTINATION
VICTIMS AGREEMENT
VICTIMS GENDER
VICTIMS NATIONALITY
EXPLOITATION FORM
VICTIMS OCCUPANCIES
20,3 21,8
15,8 20,0
13,3
12,1
11,8
11,2
9,1 9,1
10,6 9,4
6,7
6,4 6,4 5,2
4,8
Sukabumi Cirebon
VARIABLE 4
Chart 4 - Total score per variable
Cianjur
Chart 5 - Total result score in 3 pilot areas
From the above table, it can be concluded that MDT members’ knowledge on each measurement
variable was still poor (for details, please see the next section). It was found that members in
Cirebon were more knowledgeable (230 on average) than those in Sukabumi (194.5 on average),
which was followed by Cianjur (177.3 on average) as the area with poorest level of knowledge on
human trafficking crime.
1 The figures shown in Chart 5 are far from ideal based on the victim identification guideline and
the service directory guideline developed by NEXUS, which will later be the training module for
MDT members in the three areas, along with the assessment system for each question in the four
variables in the questionnaire:
Question #
B1
B2
Each Correct answer will
earn 10 point
# of right answer
correct 1
correct 2
correct 3
correct 4
correct 5
correct 6
correct 7
correct 8
correct 9
ToTal Score
B3.1
B3.2
B3.3
B4
B5
Total Point for Section B = 260
7
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
4
10
20
30
40
4
10
20
30
40
3
10
20
30
2
10
20
C1
C2
C3
C4
D1
Total Point for Sec tion B = 200
1
10
5
10
20
30
40
50
5
10
20
30
40
50
7 N/A
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
D2
D2.1
D2.2
D3
D3.1
E1
Total Point for Section B = 310
8
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
9
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
1
10
1
10
5
10
20
30
40
50
E2.2
E2.3
Total Point for Sec tion B = 50
7
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
8
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1
10
2
10
20
820
Table 4 - Scoring System of Baseline Study
Therefore, it is determined as a whole (ideal total
assessment figure vs provisional total knowledge level)
that MDT members in Cirebon District sit at 28%,
Sukabumi District at 24%, and Cianjur District at 22%.
Chart 6 - Current knowledge percentage of MDT
member in 3 areas
1 Based on the analysis per variable, it is found that the level of knowledge on the referral
mechanism (variable 2) in total was the lowest at 14%, then followed by knowledge on the
criminal prosecution process for human trafficking crime victims (variable 3) at 15%, and on the
criminal prosecution process for child TIP cases at 32%. As for knowledge on victim identification,
the percentage was 41% (for more details, please see the next section). That said, only some MDT
members were able to correctly answer (full score) some questions from the 4 sets of questions
in the questionnaire.
Page 7 of 16
2
10
20
The baseline study’s findings as a whole (total) have been provided above (summary and findings).
Next, this section shall explain those findings in a detailed way for each question from the four
variables in the study as the result of the questionnaire analysis1.
Broadly speaking, most MDT members were able to answer each question albeit not perfectly
(obtaining perfect scores), but at least out of seven answers they could answer one correctly.
Chart 7 - Comparison of knowledge of victim identification
Chart 8 - Score total for variable one
Chart 9 - Knowledge level of victim identification
In the above chart we can see that overall MDT members’ knowledge were below 50% (see Chart 8),
where in this variable members in Cirebon had better understanding compared to those in the other
two areas.
Chart 10 - Form of trafficking
Chart 11 - Potential TIP victim by
gender
1
Chart 12 - TIP victim nationality
Respondents were allowed to give more than one responses, so the chart does not represent the condition of one person one answer
per question
Page 8 of 16
24 MDT members were able to provide an answer about the forms of trafficking (Chart 10) and
only 2 gave 5 out of 7 answers. 7 people did not correctly answer the question on the dominant
gender of victims of human trafficking (Chart 11), and the chart shows that there were only 9
people who mentioned the possibility of adult men falling victim to human trafficking, with the
most frequent answers being girls (26 respondents) and adult women (21 respondents). 6 people
answered correctly that human trafficking crime can happen to Indonesian citizens working in
Indonesia, Indonesian citizens working abroad, and also foreign citizens working in Indonesia
(Chart 12)
Chart 13 - Type of Indonesian worker
occupancy
Chart 14 - Type of Destination
Chart 15 - Most favorite destination
country
The majority of MDT members (24 respondents) mentioned Indonesian workers mostly working
abroad as domestic helpers (Charts 13 & 14). The most favorite destinations were middle eastern
countries (Chart 15). Most workers in Malaysia apparently had a job as construction labor or in a
farm while some of them work as domestic helpers.
Out of 33 MDT members, only 2 answered correctly. The others only provided incomplete
answers. 21% of MDT members stated workers had a destination both within and outside of
Indonesia.
Chart 16 - Victim approval or agreement on
contract
Chart 17 - Capacity MDT on looking the sign of
TIP victim
64% of the members already had an understanding that even though the victim had agreed or
signed an employment contract, it does not mean their status as victim had to be annulled. 24%
of them said that victims would lose their status and rights as victim (Chart 16). On the other
hand, 70% of MDT members could see the signs of human trafficking victims although they could
not explain completely such signs as in the NEXUS victim identification guideline, while the others
could not mention those signs (Chart 17).
Page 9 of 16
Currently, support and assistance available in the three areas are significantly lacking. This explains
MDT members’ poor knowledge on the possible forms of support and assistance for human trafficking
crime victims. There is a lack of awareness raising effort about the available services for victims and
also a lack of community involvement in advocacy for human trafficking crime victims, as illustrated
by the charts below:
Chart 18 - Knowledge MDT on victim support
Chart 19 - Total score for variable two
Based on the charts above, MDT members’
understanding in Cirebon (35.5) scores
much higher than in the other two regions
(chart 19 & 20). Even though statistically,
looking at the three components in this
variable, MDT members were able to give
answers in the questionnaire (chart 18), 33
of them actually could not provide
complete explanations.
Chart 20 - Knowledge level of victim support
The chart on the left shows that in MDT
members’ understanding, the most important
support was social support (16 respondents), and
then health and legal support (12 respondents).
Only 1 MDT member was able to give 4 out of 5
correct answers based on the victim
identification guideline.
Chart 21 - Support for victims
Page 10 of 16
None of MDT team members were able to
name MDT’s seven roles and only 3 out of 33
were able to name at least 2 roles, and the rest
was only able to name one role. On the other
hand, majority of MDT members mentioned
that in addition to raising public awareness (7
respondents), MDT is also responsible for
identifying victims (4 respondents), give
referral (3 respondents), report to police and Chart 22 - Role & responsibility of MDT
coordinate with other government bodies (2
persons each), and offer protection (2 persons). The other 15 could not name any role correctly.
As mentioned before, lack of or insufficient referral facilities at villages poses a major challenge
to MDT members. Referral institutions generally are located far from villages and this creates
problems when they have to refer trafficking victims to obtain services. The following services
are available in the three locations:
TRAFFICKING
VICTIMS
· Police,
represented by
Public Safety and
Order Section
· Trafficking Task
Force
· Puskesmas
· Support from
NGO
WITNESS VICTIM
· Legal protection
and security
· Maintain
confidentiality of
information
regarding the
victims
MIGRANT
WORKER
VULNERABLE
GROUP
· Skills building
(Training Center)
· Business Groups
· NGOs
· Explain about legal
basis related to
trafficking crime
· Advocacy – to obtain
support
Unfortunately, more than 50% of MDT team members could not answer the four questions due
to their poor knowledge concerning victims’ services and access to such services.
2 MDT members were able to name 3 out of 7 referral
institutions, while majority of the members (16 respondents)
answered that victims have to be referred to the police to
access criminal justice process. Aside from that, 9 members
also said that victims can be referred to access services from
relevant government institutions, such as Social Affairs,
Chart 23 - Referral institution or
Manpower and Health Offices. The rest mentioned that they
agencies
can refer victims to NGOs, village apparatus and P2TP2A
(integrated center for women and children protection).
Page 11 of 16
Chart 24 - Knowledge MDT on Criminal Justice Process
Chart 25 - Total score variable three
Chart 26 - Knowledge level of CJ process
MDT members’ lack of criminal justice knowledge is understandable due to the fact that they rarely
interact with trafficking investigators from respective resort police. They are also lacking information
on steps they can take to support victims during criminal justice process against suspects.
52% of MDT members could not name criminal
justice process while the other 42% could name
at least one step (only 1 respondent named 3 out
of 9 trafficking criminal justice process). The steps
that majority of MDT members named are:
1 File a report to local or nearest police office;
1 Police will start an investigation based on
Chart 27 - Criminal justice steps for TIP victim
report;
1 Police
will
conduct
investigation
(summoning witnesses and gathering evidence); and
1 Follow up to trial sessions
In addition to the points they mentioned, we asked two questions to further understand if MDT
members are aware of criminal justice process; (1) Is it legally necessary to cooperate with the
police during the criminal justice process? and (2) Are victims allowed to revoke their report? The
answers are consistent with those of the above points’ (see diagram below)
Page 12 of 16
Chart 28 - Cooperation between victims and police
Chart 29 - Victim allowed to revoke the report
91% MDT members said that victims should cooperate with the police, while the other 9% said
that victims should access social and health services. Similar answer arose when they said victims
may revoke their report (52% said it is possible and 48% said otherwise). Prevailing laws do not
prohibit victims from revoking their report, nonetheless, such action will not cease legal process
or investigation that investigators carry out.
64% named at least one legality required in criminal justice process and the other 36% could not
name anything. Those are:
1 Travel documents such as tickets, permission
letter, ID Card, Family Card, etc.
1 Bring in witnesses;
1 Report to police;
1 Visum et repertum;
1 Photos of victims and crime scenes;
1 ID of suspects;
Chart 30 - Legality needs for CJ process
1 Chronological events or Police Report;
76% of MDT members could name one or two out of 7 basic rights and two responsibilities of
victims during criminal justice process, such as:
1
1
1
1
1
Rights to attain justice (receive legal aid) and
protection
Responsibilities to give honest and right
statements
Responsibilities to report a trafficking case
Rights for privacy and confidentiality
Rights for restitution
On the other hand, 26% could not respond with
an answer when asked what are trafficking
victims’ rights and responsibilities during criminal justice process.
Chart 31 - Victim right & responsibility
Page 13 of 16
Majority of MDT members (64%) could not answer question
on risks for trafficking victims when they decide to pursue
criminal justice process. Remaining 36% did give an answer
or two.
According to MDT members, some of the risks for victims are:
Chart 32 - Risk usually or will facing by
victim
1 Force or pressure to testify as witness
1 Protection procedure failure
1 Time consuming (when they have to testify)
Page 14 of 16
In addition to limited knowledge on the criminal justice system (see prior explanation), they also have
limited knowledge on victims identification and criminal justice for child victims, which is only 32% as
reflected in following diagram:
Chart 33 - Knowledge MDT on minor victim
Chart 34 - Total score for variable four
Chart 35 - Knowledge level of involved minor victim
We can see from the variables that MDT members in Sukabumi have higher understanding concerning
identification and criminal justice for child victims (18.2) compared to their fellow members in Cirebon
(16.4) and Cianjur (13.6), namely regarding the referral system (diagram 34 & 35).
Weakest areas within these variables are understanding on (1) Criminal Justice Process; (2) Referral
System); and (3) Identification Process (Diagram 23)
Chart 37 - Different approach for minor
victim
Chart 36 - Identification process for
minor victim
Page 15 of 16
Chart 38 - Referral system for minor
victim
Three diagrams above indicate that 94% of MDT members agree to a special identification
process of child victims, while the other 6% said it does not have to be done differently (Diagram
36). However, only 12% of MDT members were able to inform how the identification should be
done (Diagram 37). Following are different approaches in child victims’ identification:
1 Never put pressure on child victims to get their statements; and
1 It has to be done in a closed session.
In regards to child referral system, only 36% were able to name such system and how it works,
which include the following:
1 Receive security protection from the police (Women and Children Protection Unit) or Child
Protection Office;
1 Receive medical attention from sub-district health center or hospital;
1 Rehabilitation to Social Affairs Office.
Only 15% of MDT members could name criminal justice
process for child victims, such as: (a) victims have to be
accompanied all the time; (b) victims do not have to be
present at court room to prevent them from meeting the
suspects; (c) victims’ statements can be recorded in a
closed session or trial.
Chart 39 - Criminal justice process for minor
victim
MDT members’ poor knowledge might be due to limited
information concerning criminal justice process for child
victims and child protection awareness raising program.
Page 16 of 16
ENDLINE STUDY RESULT
Measuring Multi-Disciplinary Team (MDT) Members’ end of project knowledge in
Three Villages in Three Districts (Sukabumi, Cirebon, and Cianjur) of West Java
Province Regarding the Process of Human Trafficking Victims Identification and
referral
ERWIEN TEMASMICO DJAYOESMAN
AAPTIP NATIONAL MONITORING & EVALUATION INFORMATION OFFICER
Picture 1 - Sukabumi Multi-Disciplinary Team
TABLE OF CONTENTS
........................................................................................................................................ 2
A.
Objective ..................................................................................................................................... 2
B.
Endline Study Methodology....................................................................................................... 2
Study Methods ............................................................................................................................... 2
Limitation of Study ......................................................................................................................... 3
..................................................................................................................... 3
............................................................................................................................... 4
Section B: IDENTIFICATION AND SIGNS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING VICTIMS ................................... 4
Section C: SUPPORT AND ASSISTANCE FOR HUMAN TRAFFICKING VICTIMS .................................. 5
Section D: CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROCESS............................................................................................. 6
Section E: CHILD VICTIMS (MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OLD) ............................................................ 7
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................... 7
LIST OF PICTURES
Picture 1 - Sukabumi Multi-Disciplinary Team ........................................................................................ 0
Picture 3 - Process of filling Questionnaire ............................................................................................. 2
LIST OF CHARTS
Chart 2 - Comparison percentage Respondents able to answer Variable 2 (Baseline VS Endline) ........ 4
Chart 3b - Total Score Percentage Baseline vs Endline........................................................................... 4
Chart 4 - Average Score Baseline vs Endline by Area.............................................................................. 4
Chart 8 - Comparison Percentage Respondent able to answer Variable 3 (baseline vs endline)........... 5
Chart 9 - Average score Baseline Vs Endline by Area ............................................................................. 5
Chart 10 - Total Percentage Baseline vs Endline..................................................................................... 5
Chart 14 – Comparison of Knowledge MDT on Criminal Justice Process between Baseline & Endline . 6
Chart 15 – Percentage Score of Knowledge level of CJ process between Baseline & Endline ............... 6
Chart 16 - Total score variable three Areas ............................................................................................ 6
Chart 22 - Knowledge MDT on minor victim........................................................................................... 7
Chart 23 - Total score for variable four................................................................................................... 7
Chart 24 - Knowledge level of involved minor victim ............................................................................. 7
Page 1 of 11
A. Objective
This study measures increases in knowledge of the target group (multi-disciplinary team
members) as a result of a series of training and mentoring conducted over 9 months for 33
members of the Multi-Disciplinary Team (MDT) in three districts in West Java province.
The results of this Endline study is compared with the results of the Baseline study conducted
on 5 May – 23 May 2017, in order to observe any increases in, or development of knowledge
and capacity of the target group (MDT) for identifying and referring human trafficking victims to
receive services.
PROJECT GOAL: To increase the identification of trafficking victims at a village level, to increase
their referral into the criminal justice process and access to assistance.
• Objective #1. To build the capacity of police and other front-line actors at the village level
in West Java to screen and identify potential trafficking victims in their communities
• Objective #2. To enhance the identification and referral of trafficking victims for access to
the criminal justice system and assistance.
The study questions (see annex 1) focus on MDTs’ knowledge about human trafficking,
especially victim identification as well as the referral mechanisms or procedures through
directory services. The questions were developed in accordance with the Identification and
Referral Guidelines which is the basis of all mentoring and training modules which were
developed and implemented.
B.
Endline Study Methodology
Study Methods
This Endline study employs the quantitative descriptive method. The study is descriptive
considering that it is carried out to find out the values of one or more independent variables
without making a comparison or creating an association among them. There are several
independent variables being studies herein, namely:
1. Respondents’ knowledge about the identification of
human trafficking victims and signs of victims
2. Respondents’ knowledge about support and assistance
for human trafficking victims
3. Respondents’ knowledge about the criminal prosecution
process for human trafficking victims
4. Respondents’ knowledge about the identification,
Picture 2 - Process of filling Questionnaire
support, and criminal prosecution process for child
trafficking victims
Each variable stands independently in the process of analysis even though they seem
interrelated. Therefore, the descriptive method is selected instead of the comparative or
associative approach.
Quantitative research refers to research that tries to obtain data in the form of figures, or that
seeks to produce quantified qualitative data.
Page 2 of 11
Limitation of Study
There were several factors that are likely to have an impact on the quality and consistency of
data from respondents, as follows:
a. As noted, the contents measured in this study (endline) follow the same content as the
previous study (baseline) to make the result comparable. No other questions were asked as
it would not be comparable, hence, any other factors were not able to be captured by this
tool;
b. Because of the limited scope of this study, it would not be appropriate to serve as a final
evaluation of the whole project. The study’s findings can and should, however, inform the
final report of the project along with other monitoring data.
c. Using questionnaires as the data collection tool instead of interviews meant that the
opportunity to probe or gain deeper insight was not possible.
From the field-collected data, there are some findings based on the questionnaire results below:




There was a small increase in knowledge (three percentage points) in relation to identification
and signs of human trafficking overall, however knowledge of indicators of human trafficking
increased significantly in two areas (Sukabumi and Cirebon). Across the three areas, however,
MDT members’ awareness of domestic trafficking or foreigners being exploited in Indonesia
reduced since the baseline study.
There was also a small increase in knowledge (six percentage points) about support and
assistance for human trafficking victims overall, however in Cianjur, correct answers to
questions about the kinds of support that should be provided reduced significantly. Possible
explanations for this may involve the ongoing lack of support and referral options available for
trafficking victims, so the question about what “should” be available may have been
misinterpreted as what “is” available. Correct answers relating to roles and responsibilities of
MDT members rose substantially from the baseline. In terms of awareness of referral options,
there were greater increases with regard to the Integrated Service Centre for Women and
Children (P2TP2A), as well as police and government services, while awareness of NGOs and
village staff remained about the same.
There was a small increase in knowledge (four percentage points) in relation to the criminal
justice process. Overall, MDTs were more knowledgeable about the steps in the criminal
justice process and victims’ right to revoke a police report, however were less aware of what is
legally required of a victim who files a criminal complaint. Possible explanations for this may
involve the fact that very few of the potential victims that the MDT members came in contact
with wanted to file a formal police report. Most victims wanted to receive informal
compensation for unpaid wages or unfair debt from exploiters rather than pursue a court
case. There was an increase in knowledge of risks facing victims of trafficking in Sukabumi and
Cirebon but a slight decrease in Cianjur, which is likely due to confusion about the question.
There was a significant increase in knowledge (15 percentage points) in relation to child
victims of trafficking. In particular, a steep increase in correct responses was seen in the
subject of referral systems for child victims (from 36% in the baseline to 81% in the endline).
In contrast to the other sections, Cianjur increased the most in this subject, indicating that
there are possibly members of the MDT with specific child victim experience.
Page 3 of 11
The Endline study’s findings as a whole have been provided above (summary and findings). Next, this
section shall explain those findings in a detailed way for each question from the four variables in the
study as the result of the questionnaire analysis1.
Section B: IDENTIFICATION AND SIGNS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING VICTIMS
Broadly speaking, most MDT members were able to answer the questions in this section in the
Baseline and Endline studies however there were some increases of more than 10 percentage points
in relation to the last two questions, represented in the chart below.
Chart 1 - Comparison percentage Respondents able to answer Variable 2 (Baseline VS Endline)
The understanding of the forms of exploitation decreased from 73% to 65%, while the
understanding of other issues in this variable remained the same or increased, such as
understanding of the victim’s consent and signs or indications of human trafficking victims. Many
MDT members view sex and worker exploitation as the only forms of human trafficking; only a few
mentioned other forms, such as trafficking of organs, vessel crew, etc., as human trafficking. This
may reflect the types of trafficking that are mostly occurring in their immediate communities, but
the limitations of the questionnaire methodology prevented the study from learning more about
this.
Chart 2b - Total Score Percentage Baseline vs Endline
Chart 3 - Average Score Baseline vs Endline by Area
1
Respondents were allowed to give more than one response, so the chart does not represent the situation of one person one answer per
question
Page 4 of 11
Based on the chart above, we can see that overall, there has been an increase in the MDT members’
knowledge in this variable (Identification and signs of human trafficking victims) although total
questions answered correctly was still below 50% (Chart 3b). Based on the results of analysis by
district, Cianjur saw a decrease of 7 points from 109 points at baseline to 102 at endline out of 260
points maximum (for detail please see next sub section analysis), while two other areas saw an
increase (chart 4).
Section C: SUPPORT AND ASSISTANCE FOR HUMAN TRAFFICKING VICTIMS
According to the respondents, there is no change in the availability of referral options for the victims
in their areas.
Maximum score for this variable or section is 200 points.
Chart 4 - Comparison Percentage Respondent able to answer Variable 3 (baseline vs endline)
Chart 6 - Total Percentage Baseline vs Endline
Chart 5 - Average score Baseline Vs Endline by Area
Overall, there is increased knowledge related to the referral system and the support which is
required or can be provided to human trafficking victims from 15% to 21% (chart 9). From the
breakdown by district, it can be seen (chart 10) that Sukabumi and Cirebon have increased rather
significantly, while in Cianjur, the knowledge of MDT members in this variable remains the same as
the baseline, which may also be a reflection in part of the lack of services in that area.

Page 5 of 11
Section D: CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROCESS
Chart 7 – Comparison of Knowledge MDT on Criminal Justice Process between Baseline & Endline
Chart 9 - Total score variable three Areas
Chart 8 – Percentage Score of Knowledge level of CJ
process between Baseline & Endline
Overall, there has been an increase in the MDT members’ knowledge and understanding in this
variable (Chart 16), and such increase occurred in the three MDTs (Chart 15). However, if viewed in
detail, there are some contents in this variable which decreased, such as knowledge of the legal
requirement for victims to cooperate with the police as well as understanding of the legal
requirements which must be fulfilled by the victim, the assisting person and the competent
authority in order that the victim can receive maximum services (Chart 14). It is possible that
respondents’ answers reflect a new awareness of the challenges faced by victims in reporting and
cooperating with the police compared with limited exposure at the beginning.
Page 6 of 11
Section E: CHILD VICTIMS (MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OLD)
Overall, the MDT members’ knowledge and understanding in three areas have increased by 13%
(chart 25) from previously 32% at baseline. Maximum score for this variable is 50 points.
Chart 10 - Knowledge MDT on minor victim
Chart 11 - Total score for variable four
Chart 12 - Knowledge level of involved minor victim
We can see in this variable that the three MDTs have increased their understanding and knowledge
in relation to child victims, particularly MDT Cianjur, which saw a significant increase (chart 24)
compared to the baseline results.
Conclusion
Overall there was a small increase in knowledge from the baseline study to the endline study. There
were no targets set for knowledge gain, however, and given the low starting point, any gain can be
considered as a positive. In some subjects, the scores may reflect the challenges facing trafficking
victims and those helping them to navigate official channels for support and redress. Very few
victims want to pursue formal complaints and see their traffickers put in prison, reasonably
preferring to receive financial compensation for unpaid work or unfair debts. This makes the role of
the MDT in providing a bridge between the victim and the formal justice system difficult.
The findings show that despite this, the MDTs are more aware of their roles and responsibilities, the
steps in the criminal justice process and of the referral options for victims and especially children. It
is also possible that the MDTs skills and knowledge of other important aspects of their duties has
improved but this study was limited in scope, both in terms of the questionnaire methodology, and
the format of baseline/endline questions needing to be identical for comparison. Other factors
affecting the scores may include the focus on theory rather than practice, and in this way, it is
expected that this study will serve as only one source of data for a broader assessment of the
progress and achievements of the MDTs in Sukabumi, Cirebon and Cianjur.
Page 7 of 11
ANNEX I - Questionnaire
A. Demography Data
Tick (x) the box is appropriate with the question below
A1. Location:
A2. Gender
A3. Education
Master ☐ PhD
A4. Occupation
☐ Military
☐ Sukabumi
☐ Cirebon
☐ Cianjur
☐ Male
☐ Female
☐ Elementary ☐ Jr HS ☐ Sr HS ☐ Diploma ☐ BA ☐
☐ Farmer
☐ Fisherman
☐ Breeder
☐ Teacher ☐ Police
☐ Labour
☐ Civil Servant ☐ Village Staff ☐ Others
……………………………………
A5. Did you have been received information or attended training/seminar about TIP previously
(other than NEXUS)?
☐ Never
☐ YES – Frequent, How Frequent?..................
☐ YES, rare
A5.1 if YES, from whom? (Please write the name of organization)
……………………………………………….
B. Victim Identification and sign of TIP victim
Open question, please write the appropriate answer as you know base on the question below
B1. What are the forms of exploitation for which people may be trafficked??
B2. What type of labor are Indonesian trafficked for? Which countries or area that the
exploitation happens the most?
B3. What type of person can be trafficked?
Tick (x) appropriate boxes – Multiple answers
B3.1 Base on Gender:
☒ Girls
☒
Boys
☒ Female
☒
Male
B3.2 Base on Nationality:
☒ Indonesian Migrant worker ☒ Foreigner in Indonesia ☒ Indonesian local worker
B3.3 Base on destination:
☒ Outside Indonesia
☒ Within Indonesia
B4. If someone agrees to do the work can they still be a TIP victim?
Tick (x) the appropriate box
☒ YES
☐ NO
☐ Others,
(describe)……..………………………………………………………………..
B5. How do you know if someone become or will be victims of trafficking (sign or Indicating)?
Page 8 of 11
C. Victim Support
C1. What kind of support should a TIP victim have?
Listing all the support that you know
C2. What kind of assistance that provide at the village level? And what is MDTs role?
C3. In your District, what kind of support/assistance available for:
C3.1 Victim of trafficking
Based on respondent Responses
C3.2 Victim witness
Based on respondent Responses
C3.3 Migrant Worker
Based on respondent Responses
C3.4 Vulnerable Group (Penyandang Masalah Kesejahteraan Sosial/PMKS)
Based on respondent Responses
C4. Where would you refer a TIP victim for the following assistance? And what kind of assistance?
D. Criminal Justices Process
D1. What are the steps in the criminal justice process?
Listing the steps
D2. Do victims legally have to cooperate with the police during criminal justice process?
☒ YES
☐ NO
D2.1 Are they allowed to withdraw their report?
☒ YES
☐ NO
D2.2 what is legally required of a victim of crime who files a complaint or is approached by the
police?
D3. What rights and responsibilities do victims of trafficking have during criminal justice process?
Victims Right
D3.1 What the risk will be face by VoTs?
Page 9 of 11
E. Involve Minor Victim (under-age children)
E1. Is there any different approach when dealing with the minor Victims?
☒ YES
☐ NO
E2. Please explained more detail during the process of:
E2.1 Identification process
E2.2 Referral or assistances for minor victims
E2.3 Criminal Justice proses for minor victim
---- Thank you for your time to complete this questionnaire ------
Page 10 of 11
Tracer Study on the Application
of Training Knowledge of
2nd Reactive Investigation
AAPTIP Indonesia Country Office
Technique
APRIL 9th – APRIL 16th, 2018
Erwien Temasmico - Indonesia NMEIO
Contents
A.
Background of the Tracer Study ..................................................................................................... 3
Objective of the Tracer Study ........................................................................................................ 3
B.
Key findings..................................................................................................................................... 4
Data Collection Process & Methodology ....................................................................................... 5
Limitations During Data Collection ................................................................................................ 6
C.
Analysis of the Findings .................................................................................................................. 7
Result of Individual Interview ........................................................................................................ 8
D.
Conclusions ................................................................................................................................... 22
Annex one – Result of training evaluation ............................................................................................ 23
Annex two - Result of Pre- and Post-Test ............................................................................................ 24
Annex three - Respondent profile and data collection phases ............................................................ 25
Annex four - Guideline Question ......................................................................................................... 27
LIST OF CHARTS
Chart 1 -Number of TIP Cases Handled before and after training .......................................................... 7
Chart 2 – Respondents Candidate Vs Actual Respondents ................................................................... 26
Page 2 of 27
A. Background of the Tracer Study
Objective of the Tracer Study
The objective of this study is to measure the extent to which selected participants of the
second reactive investigation skills training have been able apply the knowledge and skills
that they obtained from the course in West Java Provincial police office, 22 district police
office in West Java, and some of the TIP task force of CID INP held 23 May – 27 May 2017.
This study is also interested in which skills in particular are in use, and the reasons behind
any that are not being applied.
The goal of the reactive investigation training was:
To provide the participants with the necessary knowledge and skills to enable them to
effectively use a range of reactive investigative techniques in trafficking in persons cases.
While the learning objective was:
At the end of the program, participants will be able to:
1.
Fully describe the act-means-purpose analytical framework in respect of international
and domestic TIP legislation and to contrast and explain the differences between
international and domestic law.
2.
Demonstrate sound knowledge of the four-stage victim-identification methodology and
the challenges associated with its application.
3.
Explain the critical importance of risk assessment in TIP cases and describe the four-stage
risk assessment matrix, especially in relation to the risks posed to victims of TIP.
4.
Demonstrate a sound grasp of the principles of investigation planning and critical
decision-making skills.
5.
Fully describe the key elements of the PEACE interview model and demonstrate technical
skill in the development and execution of evidential victim interviews
6.
Articulate the crucial importance of evidential corroboration and explain the three
principal methodologies by which it can be obtained
7.
Fully describe each phase of the PEACE model for planning and executing arrest and
rescue operations in TIP cases.
In addition to sessions on financial investigation, asset seizure and the invetsigators’ role in assisting
victims to claim restitution, the course included the rationale and principles of transnational
investigative cooperation and the difference between operational and judicial cross-border
cooperation methods.
Page 3 of 27
B. Key findings
The key findings of this study are as follows:
•
•
•
Only two districts had more than a small number of cases: Cianjur (23 cases since 2016,
80% sexual exploitation) and West Java with 26 cases since 2016. Cianjur and Indramayu
respondents reported that one result of the training was an increase in cases (from 5 to
15 and from zero to six respectively). INP HQ had 16 cases involving forced labour in 2017,
however outside HQ the majority of cases recorded are for sexual exploitation.
Relatively stable cohort of trainees: Out of the 12 respondents (M:5, F:7), only 2
respondents (M:1, F:1) have been transferred. One female respondent was transferred
to another District Police and still holds the same position as the head of WCPU1 unit in
the new place, while one male respondent was transferred to another unit although he
is still in the same District Police.
The training content most commonly remembered was techniques for interviewing
victims (7 respondents (6:F)), followed by victim handling (3 (2:F)) and arrest and reactive
investigation (2:M), victim restitution (2:F) and Financial investigation (2:M).
Ability to use new skills and knowledge
•
•
•
•
•
11 out of 12 respondents, 92% (M:4, F:7) have been able to apply new knowledge and
skills developed in the training for TIP2 and/or other cases.
Seven (M:2, F:5) out of 12 respondents (58%) have handled TIP cases and used knowledge
and skills in handling those cases with good results, while the remaining respondents
(M:3, F:2) have not handled TIP cases but used the learnings in other cases.
9 respondents (M:3, F:6) used the victim interview techniques as taught in the reactive
investigation training. This involved various measures to make the victim more
comfortable so as to elicit better evidence.
TIP victim identification technique (fulfillment of TIP elements) constitutes knowledge
and skill applied by 4 respondents (M:2, F:2).
The other knowledge applied is apprehension technique (M:1), inter-agency or inter-area
coordination (M:1, F:1), restitution (F:1), and financial investigation (M:2).
Results and success factors
•
Overwhelmingly the results of applying the skills and knowledge included victims being
more comfortable (9 including 6F) and this often led to faster interviews and processing
of cases because when comfortable, victims were more cooperative.
1
Women and Children Protection Unit
2
Trafficking In Person
Page 4 of 27
•
•
One respondent also noted that because of the more in-depth interviews, better case
files were being presented to prosecutors and fewer were sent back.
Success factors varied but a common response was about motivation of investigators, as
well as increase in capacity, coordination, cooperation and team work, and one
respondent noted that attention from leaders was a significant success factor.
Hindering factors and challenges
•
•
•
•
•
•
Most reported challenges involved limited budget and equipment and limited
investigators (including the pressures of needing to investigate other crimes in the unit)
which impacted on the ability to investigate cases, particularly when travel was needed.
Limited knowledge about TIP law and elements among prosecutors and judges was also
noted by several respondants.
Uncooperative victims were noted by three respondents who also mentioned that often
victims do not consider themselves as victims (and it is likely that they are willing
prostitutes).
Linked to the above point, there is an absence of TIP cases reported from the public in
some areas, and few if any TIP cases are handled. In addition, many victims only expect
damages from perpetrators without any intention to proceed with a formal criminal
process.
Catching the “big fish” (high level expoiters) was noted as a problem by three
respondents (2:F) because they are out of reach and the focus on the low level recruiters
means that conducting financial investigation is not possible – there is very little money
at that level.
Calculating restitution for victims was a challenge for two respondents (F).
Data Collection Process & Methodology
The data collection process was conducted in 13 police stations; 1 at the national level
(BARESKRIM MABES POLRI), 1 Provincial level Police (West Java Provincial Police), and 11
stations at the district/city level consisting of Cianjur District Police, Sukabumi District Police,
Cirebon District Police, Bandung Barat District Police, Subang District Police, Indramayu District
Police, Karawang District Police, Bandung Major City District Police, Bandung District Police
Office, Bogor District Police Office and Bogor City Police office. The study targeted 12 people
(Male 5, Female 7) as respondents out of 31 training participants (39%). The selection of the
respondents is based on the following categories:
1. Participants who have handled TIP cases after attended course;
2. Progressive and active participants after course;
3. Recommendation from Head of TIP unit of West Java Provincial Office.
The study will use twokinds of approaches, as follows:
1. One on one interview, using purposive sampling which involves selected persons (please see
the list name in the table below) who attended Reactive Investigation Course.
Page 5 of 27
2. Collection of documents or photos for evidence to triangulate claims of knowledge and skills
use and statistical data on TIP cases.
The respondents were selected by using Purposive sampling techniques. Names of respondents
are as follows:
No Name
sex
1
Abraham Boang M
Manalu
2
Wa Ode Pryati F
Halma
3
Mugiono
M
4
Iwa Mashadi
M
5
F
6
Nenden
Nurpatima
Frida Hidayanti
7
Irrene Kania Defi
F
8
Mutia Teny
F
9
Indrie Hapsari
F
10
Herwit Yuanita
F
11
Asep Sodikin
M
12
Muhlisin
M
F
Position During Training
Investigator in TIP Task Force of
General Crime Directorate of CID of
INP HQ
Investigator in Unit III of subdirectorate IV of West Java General
Crime Directorate
Chief of WCPU of Cimahi District
Police Office
Chief of WCPU of Cirebon District
Police Office
Chief of WCPU of Subang District
Police Office
Chief of WCPU of Bogor City Police
Office
Chief of WCPU of Bandung City
Police Office
Recent Status
Same Position
Same Position
Same Position
Same Position
Same Position
Same Position
Chief of WCPU
of Bogor District
Police Office
Chief of WCPU of Bandung District Same Position
Police Office
Chief of WCPU of Indramayu Same Position
District Police Office
Chief of WCPU of Karawang District Same Position
Police Office
Chief of WCPU of Cianjur District Same Position
Police Office
Chief of WCPU of Sukabumi District Chief of Crime
Police Office
with violence of
Sukabumi
District Police
Office
Table 1 - List of Respondents
Limitations During Data Collection
There are some factors which affect the quality and quantity of data given by respondents:
o
o
3 (1 from Indramayu District Police, 1 from Bogor City Police and 1 from Bogor District Police)
out of the total 12 chosen respondents cannot be met at their office but in another place,
thus supporting evidence as a validation or triangulation process cannot be requested.
one respondent who comes from Sukabumi District Police has been transferred to another
division unlike the respondent's position at the time of training. Another respondent was
Page 6 of 27
o
transferred from Bandung City Police to Bogor District Police, but was still responsible for a
TIP unit.
In-depth interviews were sometimes interrupted by sudden important assignments which
led to a halt in the interview process or made respondents try to expedite the interview
process.
C. Analysis of the Findings
There is an increase in the number of TIP cases handled in 12 police offices targeted by this study
following reactive investigation training based on the results of interview. The following is a case
data chart in district police in the jurisdiction of West Java Provincial Police.
Before
After
18
17
1313
16
5
1
0
2
4
4
6
6
5
1
0 1
1 1
0
2
2 2
0
0 1
Chart 1 -Number of TIP Cases Handled before and after training3
There was an increase in cases noted in 7 districts although still low numbers in most.
Respondents from West Java Provincial Police said that the number of handled cases is the same
as before the training because some reports coming into West Java Provincial Police are
delegated to the District Police from which the victim originates like the case in Karawang and
Subang. From the Criminal Investigation Agency of the Headquarter of the National Police of the
Republic of Indonesia, the task force team mostly processes TIP cases of transnational dimension
based on victim reports and brafak4 from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Averagely, TIP cases
handled by respondents are based on a (reactive) report and only a few take pro-active actions
except for Cianjur District Police in which 50% of TIP cases handled by Cianjur District Police are
reportedly based on pro-active investigation.
3
POLDA = Provincial Police Office; Kota = City; Kab = District
4
Information send through faximile
Page 7 of 27
Result of Individual Interview
Interviews were done by using two key questions as the means to collect data or information.
The two key questions are:
1. What is the current situation in TIP case handling in respondents' area?
2. To what extent are respondents able to apply new knowledge and skills learned from reactive
investigation training?
The following is a summary of the results of interview with 12 respondents:
1) Herwit Yunita (F) – Karawang District Police
• She is still in the same position as when she attended the training (head of the women
& child protection unit).
• In 2016, there were no TIP cases, but at the end of 2017, there was 1 case being
handled and in 2018, there is 1 potential case. The two cases are sexual exploitation
cases.
• The training content she remembered involved the method of handling victims and
restitution, including method of apprehension by using a video as a means of
evidence.
Knowledge and skills from the training that has been applied in TIP cases, involves helping
victims to understand that they are TIP victims because in many TIP cases, victims do not
regard themselves as victims and they even consider perpetrators as their heroes. Other
knowledge and skill are the application of restitution, as investigators currently must canvass
victims' restitution right at the beginning of investigation.
Results of application of knowledge and skills:
• Investigators' helping victims to understand that they are victims facilitates better
information from them during interviews.
• Better identification of TIP cases. In the past, they have never realized that an
incoming report has the nuance of TIP and only considered it as a light criminal or
administrative act.
• Investigators in the WCPU unit of Karawang District Police have started to take proactive actions by involving the Cyber unit to track human trafficking perpetrators
especially online prostitution, whereby previously, they only thought of it as pimping
instead of TIP.
Challenges identified
The challenges faced by investigators in Karawang District Police is the high number of
uncooperative victims because they do not regard themselves as victims and they are
comfortable with the occupation. According to investigators, perpetrators have met the
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elements of human trafficking in accordance with Law Number 21 Year 2007. On the other
hand, TIP perpetrators sometimes do not know that the practice they do is a part of TIP.
Another challenge is the determination of figure or amount of restitution because to date,
there is no special or appropriate formulation for calculating the amount of restitution for TIP
victims.
Success Factors
One success factor is team's solidness in handling cases, whereby the respondent as a unit
leader always involves all investigators in her unit to participate in handling TIP cases and as
much as possible, to make case presentations thus there is a peer-educating process.
2) Abraham Boang Manalu (M) – Criminal Investigation Agency of the Headquarter of the
National Police of the Republic of Indonesia
• He is still in the same position as when he attended the training (Investigator of the AntiHuman Trafficking Task Force of the Criminal Investigation Agency of the Headquarter of
the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia).
• The respondent recently joined in the task force in the middle of 2017, and he did not
know exactly how many cases handled by the task force in 2016, but in the period from
2017 to 2018, there were 16 cases handled by the task force. All of the cases were forced
labor cases with 1,513 victims, most of whom are women, with 28 apprehended
perpetrators.
• The training content most remembered is the method of victim identification technique
(fulfillment of elements), interview techniques and method for handling victims
(considering victims' privacy), and financial investigation including confiscation of
perpetrators' assets.
The respondent is able to apply their knowledge and skills when handling TIP cases, starting
from apprehension technique, asset (financial) investigation, and uncovering TIP cases. For
example, the first stage is identifying victims in terms of ensuring whether or not they are
actually TIP victims. In this stage, investigators collect and examine all of victims' data such as
identity card and other documents before putting them into the list of victims. Subsequently,
the interview process is commenced and it must be implemented in a proper method as
taught in the training because TIP victims usually suffer some trauma. This involves protecting
victims' privacy. The next stage is tracking perpetrators assets and then freeze or confiscate
them.
Results of application of knowledge and skills:
• Identification of TIP victims and fast uncovering of TIP perpetrators thus the case
handling process becomes faster.
• In relation to the point above, doing proper interview makes victims feel comfortable
and protected and helps the police in uncovering TIP cases.
Page 9 of 27
Challenges identified
The challenges faced by the respondent in applying the knowledge and skills developed in the
training are limited personnel and time, whereby the number of investigators is incomparable
to the number of victims who must be identified and/or interviewed thus it requires a long
time. Long distance and low budget constitute other challenges because most cases handled
by the Criminal Investigation Agency of the Headquarter of the National Police of the Republic
of Indonesia are cases of Indonesian migrant workers overseas thus a lot of budget is required
both for dispatching investigators to the location and repatriating victims. However, the
National Police of the Republic of Indonesia cooperates with other agencies such as the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Manpower, Immigration, and Ministry of Social Affairs.
Success Factors
As mentioned above, cooperation and coordination among government agencies constitutes
the main success factor in uncovering and handling TIP cases which are handled by the
Criminal Investigation Agency of the Headquarter of the National Police of the Republic of
Indonesia.
3) Indrie Hapsari (F) – Indramayu District Police
• She is still in the same position as when she attended the training (head of the women &
child protection unit).
• In 2016, there were no TIP cases, but in 2017 and 2018, there have been 6 cases, 4 of which
have been in the prosecution stage and one of which is still in the investigation stage. Four
cases are related to sexual exploitation and 2 cases are related to Indonesian migrant
workers.
• The training content most remembered is the method of identifying victims, handling
victims, and victim interview techniques
Results of application of knowledge and skills:
As a result, there is an increase in the number of cases handled because in the past, the
respondent did not have any good knowledge and understanding about TIP thus she did not
dare to prosecute perpetrators under the TIP Law. So far, the respondent has been able to
apply the knowledge and skills developed in the training to TIP cases handled by Indramayu
District Police especially enhancing empathy for victims and application of victim interview
techniques. In doing interviews, the respondent adopts an approach of closing the distance
between the investigator and victims, placing victims in a special room thus victims feel
comfortable, and then asking general questions before eventually entering the subject. In
addition, a sitting position is also critical, without judging and giving any stigma to victims.
There is no significant difference both before and after the application of knowledge and skills
developed in the training. However, the training has given enlightenment for the respondent
as an investigator that persuasive treatment to victims is fundamental and will subsequently
make victims want to admit or give information to the investigator in addition to giving
understanding to victims about their rights and obligations.
Page 10 of 27
Challenges identified
Not all knowledge and skills developed in the training can be applied, for example
apprehension by using a recording device. The respondent realizes that recording an
apprehension activity will be useful as one of the means of evidence if perpetrators try to twist
the facts during a Police Investigation Reportprocess or during a hearing process. However,
the challenge faced by the respondent is limited equipment and absence of investigators in
the respondent's unit who has the ability to use a camera.
Success Factors
Improvement in investigators' knowledge and understanding in the WCPU unit both about
laws and investigation techniques focused on the victims constitutes the main success factor,
because all this time, the respondent tries to transfer or share the knowledge they develop to
investigators in their unit.
4) Muhlisin (M) – Sukabumi District Police
• The respondent has been transferred to the criminal violence unit as the head of the unit,
but remains in the Sukabumi District Police. The respondent served as the head of the
WCPU unit for less than one year.
• There were 6 cases handled by Sukabumi District Police in 2017, but 2 of those cases were
terminated. One of the cases was terminated because there was insufficient evidence and
the second case was terminated because of request for termination from the victim's
family.
• The training content remembered by the victim includes playback of video about organ
trading, and scene identification.
• So far, the respondent admits that very limited knowledge and skills developed from the
training have been applied by the respondent. However, the respondent has shared the
knowledge to investigators in his unit.
• Before serving as a head of the WCPU unit (unit handling TIP), the respondent did not
know anything about TIP.
Some training material given by AAPTIP is still relevant for use in his current position, for
example, understanding the characteristics of confinement, and use of video media to record
apprehension or raid activities. In addition, although the respondent did not completely
understand about TIP, investigators in the WCPU unit of Sukabumi District Police have good
knowledge about TIP because they often participate in activities both with AAPTIP and other
institutions. However, the respondent principally gains new knowledge by participating in the
training on reactive investigation convened by AAPTIP.
Results of application of knowledge and skills:
Although when serving as the head of the WCPU unit, 6 TIP cases have been identified in the
area of Sukabumi District Police, the respondent did not dare to say that he made a great
contribution to such achievement, but more to the high capacity, ability, and knowledge of
Page 11 of 27
investigators in the WCPU unit. The WCPU unit does not only handle TIP cases but also some
other criminal cases such as adultery, sexual abuse and property crime.
Challenges identified
There are some challenges which are faced by investigators in Sukabumi District Police
especially in making TIP investigation, as follows:
a.
Limited budget available to the WCPU unit especially for TIP, thus hampering
investigators in collecting evidence, especially due to challenging geography. The wide
jurisdiction of Sukabumi District Police and an extremely difficult geography require a
large budget. Due to limited budget, investigators in the unit almost have never
conducted any pro-active investigation, and only rely on public reports.
b.
In addition to budget, lack of investigators in Sukabumi District Police affects the
number of TIP cases handled. On the other hand, TIP has not been a priority program
thus many leaders direct budget and human resources to priority criminal acts such as
terrorism and narcotics.
c.
So far, according to the respondent and his investigators, coordination with prosecutors
is relatively good, while understanding about TIP is similar because investigators and
prosecutors often meet and discuss in events convened by AAPTIP. However, judges
apparently still have limited understanding thus many cases which were initially
prosecuted under the TIP Law are changed into other criminal acts and are even set
free.
Success Factors
According to the respondent, the success factor is investigators' relatively good ability which is
supported by high motivation to uncover TIP cases despite limited budget.
5) Mutia Teny (F) – Bandung District Police
• She is still in the same position as when she attended the training (head of the women
& child protection unit).
• There were no TIP cases handled from 2016 to 2018. In 2017, there is one potential
case but the report was revoked by the victim's family.
• The training on reactive investigation is the first TIP training attended by the
respondent
• She has not been able to apply all knowledge and skills developed from the training
on reactive investigation. The respondent still remembers victim interview technique
material.
There were no TIP cases handled by Bandung District Police due to the following reasons:
o The crime scene is located in big cities such as Bandung, Jakarta City, or overseas thus
there is no reporting to Bandung District Police related to TIP (it has been handled by the
District Police of the destination area).
o Due to the lack of knowledge about TIP, the respondent admits that before attending the
training her way of seeing TIP is different, as she thought that TIP only occurs in the scope
Page 12 of 27
of prostitution. For example, before the training, the respondent received a report on 40
Indonesian migrant workers who have departed illegally and some of them have even
passed away due to torture and illness. The respondent apprehended the sponsor who
sent them – and then, the sponsor apologized to the victims and was willing to pay
damages. Thereafter, the respondent considered that the issue is solved, but in fact, after
the respondent attended the meeting, she realized that it constitutes one of the forms of
TIP. Up until now if there is a case concerning Indonesian migrant workers, investigators
direct it to the Manpower Law.
Although there is no TIP case handled by Bandung District Police, there are some knowledge
or techniques which are still relevant for use in other criminal cases handled by the WCPU unit
and have been applied by the respondent – among others interview techniques. When doing
interviews, the respondent now considers the sitting position both of investigators and
victims. After the training, the respondent realized that victims in fact may not want to sit with
their back to the door. Before, it was thought that when victims sit facing the door, they will
be disturbed by passing people.
In addition, she also become more confident in visiting villages in Bandung District area
together with the Regent to give direction or dissemination about the hazard of TIP. After
returning from the training, she has instructed investigators in the unit to first look into the
elements of TIP if there are cases of Indonesian migrant workers. However, so far, there is no
significant development.
Results of application of knowledge and skills:
As a result, victims become more open and feel comfortable. There is an example in which a
victim whose case has been completed often visits the WCPU unit only for consultation or an
informal chat. It indicates that victims feel more comfortable and there is an increase in public
trust in police.
Challenges identified
The main challenges faced by the respondent are:
a. Lack of information in the community on TIP, thus there are still many Bandung District
residents who become Indonesian migrant workers illegally. In addition, reports from
residents/victims to the police on TIP are low.
b. Limited knowledge of investigators including the respondent as the head of the WCPU
unit about TIP, thus many cases which should have met the elements of TIP were directed
to manpower cases.
c. In addition, other criminal justice actors (prosecutors & Judges) also have extremely
limited understanding.
Success Factors
The application of such knowledge is based on willingness. As new knowledge, the respondent
mentioned that she wants to apply this knowledge to TIP cases. Now, the respondent can
share her thoughts with the other heads of WCPU unit in other District Police or with Provincial
Police.
Page 13 of 27
6) Nenden Nurpatimah (F) – Subang District Police
• She is still in the same position as when she attended the training (head of the women &
child protection unit).
• In 2016, before the training, she handled 2 TIP cases. In 2017, after the training, she also
handled 2 TIP cases, and in 2018, there is one case which is still in the investigation stage.
The three cases in 2017 & 2018 are sexual exploitation cases.
• Training content which are remembered by the respondent include interview techniques
and understanding about the importance of cross-sectoral coordination.
The respondent said that interview techniques is more often applied in handling TIP cases. It
is also supported by the change of lay-out of the special service room to become tidier,
brighter, and more comfortable. The respondent reported that she and her investigators
currently are able to collect information from victims more easily in TIP cases. Most victims
do not regard themselves as victims, thus investigators must give better understanding by
explaining in detail the process and fulfillment elements of TIP to victims and they eventually
realize that they are the victims. One example in 2018, initially, one of the victim's parents
made a police report on his child who was taken to Bali for work, but in fact, the job is not in
accordance with the initial promise. Therefore, Subang District Police coordinated with West
Java Provincial Police to pick up the victim in Bali. In Bali, another 5 women from Subang were
found working at the place of entertainment so law enforcement took the initiative to save
the other 5 women including the victim to be returned to Subang. In this stage, the other 5
victims did not regard themselves as victims and even considered the perpetrators as heroes
who gave them work and blamed the reporting victim, because of her parent's report, all of
them lost their job. However, due to the humanitarian approach of investigators in the unit
and the provision of explanations and inputs, they were eventually willing to become victim
witnesses.
The difference felt by the respondent between before and after attending the training is that
the respondent was more capable to uncover TIP cases using the knowledge she developed
in the training. Principally, the respondent does not hesitate to make examination and
investigation of TIP cases.
Results of application of knowledge and skills:
As a result of application of this knowledge, victims who initially did not want to be victim
witnesses became willing to cooperate with the police to uncover the TIP case they
experienced. If previously, many investigators were hesitant to apply the TIP Law, they are
now able to identify TIP victims by analyzing the elements of TIP.
Challenges identified
In Subang, the greatest challenge faced by investigators all this time is lack of budget and nonworking trafficking task force, in addition to uncooperative victims (not regarding themselves
as victims) thus in the end, Subang District Police must ask the assistance of other District
Police or West Java Provincial Police like in the example case above.
Page 14 of 27
Success Factors
Willingness and desire of the respondent and investigators in the WCPU unit to eradicate TIP
constitute success factors.
7) Mugiono (M) – Cimahi District Police
•
•
•
•
He is still in the same position as when he attended the training (head of the women &
child protection unit).
After the training, there was one TIP case handled by Cimahi District Police, namely
sexual exploitation case involving 1 perpetrator and 3 female victims. At the moment,
the case is in the stage of prosecution.
Some training content remembered by the respondent includes reactive investigation
procedure or stages starting from receiving complaints or reports, apprehension
technique such as in the shown video, application of articles, and TIP case study in the
fishery industry.
Interview technique is the learned technique most often applied by the respondent.
The examples of TIP case handling discussed in the training serve as reference for the
respondent, such as a case in Thailand which was shown during the training – the video
showed how the police conducted apprehension and victim rescue. Another example made
as reference by the respondent is TIP case study in the fishery industry in Benjina discussed in
the training.
The technique often used by the respondent both when handling TIP cases and other cases
handled by the WCPU unit of Cimahi District Police is interview technique. When handling a
case, the respondent reports, “I divide the teams each of which has different roles and duties
and prepare female police officers to interview victims because the victims are women. In
addition, I make case presentations by bringing together all teams to evaluate handling
process and in the end, we decide on the articles to be used to prosecute perpetrators.”
Specifically, the implemented procedure when interviewing victims follows the simulation
made in the training. The interview process is usually implemented face-to-face between
investigators and perpetrators as well as victims. Now, the respondent and his investigators
arrange the chairs side-by-side.
Results of application of knowledge and skills:
As a result of application of the technique, interview process becomes easier, because victims
feel more comfortable unlike being interrogated. By using such techniques, the respondent
believes victims become more honest in giving information. In addition, the process becomes
faster as usually, an interview process takes 5 to 7 hours. By such technique, interviews can
be done within 2.5 hours.
Page 15 of 27
Challenges identified
Investigators' capacity is greatly tested in handling TIP cases because many investigators have
not understood about the TIP Law especially analysis of the elements of TIP. Another challenge
is eliciting information from victim witnesses because most victims do not regard themselves
as victims.
The other challenge in handling TIP cases is difficulty in apprehending the main perpetrators
because TIP is an organized crime and sometimes, there are many “powerful” players in the
background. Therefore, in many TIP cases, only perpetrators in the field are successfully
apprehended.
Success Factors
The main success factors are investigators' hard work and cooperation’.
8) Iwa Mashadi (M) – Cirebon District Police
•
•
•
•
He is still in the same position as when he attended the training (head of the women &
child protection unit).
In 2016, there were 2 TIP cases investigated by Cirebon District Police. 1 case in which the
elements of TIP were not proven was only subject to the Manpower Law for irregular
Indonesian migrant workers. The elements of TIP of the other case were proven thus
judges decided on it using the TIP Law. In 2017, there are two potential TIP cases but until
now, they are still in the investigation stage because the victims are still overseas so
investigators have difficulty in interviewing them.
Some training content remembered by the respondent includes reactive investigation
procedure or stages starting from receiving complaints or reports, apprehension
technique such as in the shown video, application of articles, and TIP case study in the
fishery industry.
Other material which is still remembered by the respondent include investigation
technique and evidence collection including among others interview technique.
The investigation technique referred to by the respondent is methods for handling victims
starting from victim rescue operations to interviews with victims using victim centred
techniques, making it easier to elicit information from them especially when asking them to
recall their experience. In detail, the respondent said that in an interview process,
investigators prepare a special room for victims to secure their privacy and comfort. In
addition, if the victims are women and children, the WCPU unit of Cirebon District Police will
assign female investigators to interview them.
In relation to application of knowledge and skills developed from the training on reactive
investigation, they can be applied not only to TIP cases but other cases involving women and
children.
Page 16 of 27
Results of application of knowledge and skills:
The results or impacts which can be seen from the application of knowledge and skills are ease
in obtaining information from victims because they feel protected and served. Before the
training, the respondent still used conventional methods whereby an interview process is
implemented like an interrogation and can be seen by other investigators (no special room is
provided) although there is a regulation of the Chief of the National Police of the Republic of
Indonesia which requires all WCPU units in District Police to provide a special room if the
victims are women and children.
Challenges identified
Limited special rooms in Cirebon District Police – is the greatest challenge because victims
mostly come together and the respondent sometimes also uses the room of the head of the
WCPU unit as a place for interview.
Success Factors
The respondent believes that the knowledge developed in the training is very important and
has high value, thus the respondent as the head of unit shares such knowledge with
investigators in the unit led by him. On the other hand, the respondent also believes that
investigators' motivation in handling WCPU cases including TIP constitutes another affecting
factor.
9) Frida Hidayanti (F) – Bogor City Police
• She is still in the same position as when she attended the training (head of the women &
child protection unit).
• There is only one case in 2017, namely a forced labor case, in which the victims are made
to do washing labors and which is currently in the hearing process. There is no TIP case in
2016, and there is no case in 2018.
• Training content remembered by the respondent is interview technique.
So far, the respondent can only apply the interview technique developed in the training.
According to the respondent, this technique is most relevant to other cases handled by the
WCPU unit. Due to lack of TIP cases handled by Bogor City Police, her knowledge cannot be
applied thoroughly. When doing interview, the WCPU unit of Bogor City Police does the same
as simulated in the training in which victims are accompanied by 2 investigators, one of whom
is assigned to question the victims while the other one records the results. Nevertheless, such
mechanism is not implemented in every case and is only situational by considering the need.
The potential for TIP cases in Bogor City Police is very high both as recipient and sender area
but so far, very few reports from the public related to TIP are submitted to Bogor City Police.
The potential for TIP case in the jurisdiction of Bogor City Police is mainly sexual exploitation.
In addition, it constitutes a new knowledge for the respondent because she has never received
any training on TIP.
Page 17 of 27
Results of application of knowledge and skills:
Differences between before and after the application of the knowledge are:
o Since there are two investigators, questions become more developed, and interview
process is designed like a discussion between investigators and victims;
o Victims become more comfortable because they are treated properly by placing them in a
special room and arranging proper lay-out – placing victims next to the exit.
o Instructions from prosecutors, or rejected files by Prosecutors (P.19) become less because
in relation to the previous point, questions from investigators become more deep and
detailed.
o Complaint from the public is minimized, because the previous method for collecting
information from victims is like interrogation rather than interview, leading to complaints
that the investigators are fierce and snap at the victims. The respondant believes that the
police's image improves now.
Challenges identified
There are some challenges faced by the respondent in applying the knowledge such as:
o Limited investigators in the WCPU unit of Bogor City Police, thus sometimes it is impossible
to do interviews involving two investigators.
o The WCPU unit does not specifically handle TIP but also many other criminal cases and are
sometimes seconded for non-investigative activities.
o There are no “big fish” caught thus financial investigation process cannot be applied.
o There are prosecutors who have not understood about TIP, thus they do not feel confident
when prosecuting under the TIP Law.
Success Factors
Considering the lack of TIP cases handled by Bogor City Police, it is difficult to identify the
success in handling TIP cases. However, as said by the respondent, some knowledge and skills
developed in the training are still relevant to the handling of other cases. In connection with
it, the respondent said that investigators' ability improves in relation to the criminal act under
their investigation. In addition, specifically related to interview with victims, the condition of
special service room (lay out) constitutes one of the factors which support success.
10) Irrine Kania Defi (F) – Bogor District Police (Prev. Bandung Metropolitan Police)
• She is still in the same position as the Head of the women & child protection unit but in a
different area, and was transferred at the beginning of 2018.
• When serving as the head of the WCPU unit of Bandung Metropolitan Police, there is one
TIP case handled (sexual exploitation) with one female victim. Meanwhile, since serving
in Bogor District Police in 2018, there are 3 TIP cases handled, namely two sexual
exploitation cases and one forced labor case (involving children).
• Training content remembered by the respondent includes interview technique,
restitution, and Elements of TIP.
Page 18 of 27
In relation to the understanding of elements of TIP, the respondent currently understands that
by law, not all elements must be fulfilled and only some or one of the elements must be
fulfilled for prosecution under the TIP Law. All this time, the respondent says that she only
prosecutes perpetrators under article 259 (pimping) with the maximum punishment of 6
months.
Therefore, after the training, the respondent always tries to look into the elements of TIP
every time there are sexual exploitation cases.
After the training, the respondent says that she changes room lay-out thus it can
accommodate investigators' needs when interviewing victims, so that they become more
comfortable and relaxed when giving information.
Results of application of knowledge and skills:
As a result of the application of knowledge, investigators in Bogor District Police are no longer
confused or hesitant to apply TIP article. In addition, victims become more open in giving
information because the respondent instructs her investigators to do interview with victims
in a friendlier manner and not to use an interrogative method anymore. Case handling also
becomes fast because sexual exploitation victims usually feel ashamed to speak honestly or
even afraid of being honest that they are employed as prostitutes by perpetrators.
Challenges identified
Some of the challenges for the respondent both when serving as the head of the WCPU unit
in Bandung Metropolitan Police and now in Bogor District Police are:
o There is still a difference in understanding from Prosecutors, thus the process of file
transfer to Prosecutors takes a long time with many instructions and evidence which must
be collected by investigators.
o In relation to restitution, so far, many investigators are still hesitant to determine the
amount of restitution due to investigators' limited understanding about it (the
respondent recently knows that LPSK may play a role in such an issue following
explanation). Investigators are also concerned that the restitution is not fulfilled thus
victims will claim or blame them in the end. It is also caused by lack of information or
dissemination of the role and duties of LPSK in calculating the appropriate and adequate
amount of restitution for victims of all criminal acts (not only TIP).
Success Factors
Improved understanding of the respondent and investigators especially in applying TIP articles
with the ability to analyze the elements of TIP constitutes the main factor which support
success in handling cases. Subsequently, the interview process which follows the techniques
taught in the training also greatly helps because by the application of such techniques, victims
can be convinced and are willing to speak honestly in a simple manner.
Page 19 of 27
11) Asep Sodikin (M) – Cianjur District Police
• He is still in the same position as when he attended the training (head of the women &
child protection unit).
• Cianjur District Police has handled 23 cases from 2016 to 2018, namely 5 cases in 2016,
15 cases in 2016, and 3 cases in 2018. In addition, 80% of the cases are sexual exploitation
cases found by investigators through a pro-active technique. Cianjur District Police is a
District Police which has the highest number of cases handled out of all District Police in
the area of West Java Provincial Police.
• Training content remembered by the respondent includes financial investigation and case
handling technique. Nevertheless, financial investigation cannot be applied to date.
The case handling technique referred to by the respondent is understanding or knowledge
developed by the respondent in relation to new methods of TIP perpetrators as well as
method for coordination with higher ranks such as Provincial Police or Headquarter of the
National Police of the Republic of Indonesia for cases of transnational dimension, or with
international institutions such as IOM for victim repatriation from overseas.
The respondent says that theoretically, he has forgotten the discussed materials, but almost
all of the knowledge and skills developed from the training have been applied starting from
apprehension process, risk analysis, filing to coordination. In addition, investigators in
Cianjur District Police are often trained by AAPTIP to improve their capacity and attend
meetings which also involve prosecutors and judges. However, this is the first time the
respondent attended training on TIP.
Results of application of knowledge and skills:
The results which may be seen from the application of knowledge and skills developed from
the training convened by AAPTIP. Out of 15 TIP cases handled by Cianjur District Police in
2017, all of them have been in the prosecution stage. Statistically, the number of TIP cases
handled in Cianjur has increased.
Challenges identified
Although Cianjur District Police constitutes a District Police which is relatively experienced
in handling TIP cases, according to the respondent, there are some obstacles or challenges
faced by investigators especially in applying financial investigation. Investigators have
conducted financial investigation of perpetrators in regions but since they are only field
recruiters, investigators do not obtain any results, because to date, investigators have not
been able to apprehend any main perpetrators as this network involves foreign citizens living
outside Indonesia.
Another obstacle is the lack of public awareness to report to the police, thus Cianjur District
Police tries to conduct pro-active investigation.
Success Factors
In addition to investigators' considerable ability in TIP, leaders' attention also constitutes one
of the success factors in eradicating TIP in the area of Cianjur District Police. In addition,
proper coordination among government agencies in Cianjur constitutes the main success
factor of TIP case handling, so far, there is no issue of coordination among the police,
Page 20 of 27
Prosecutor's Office, and P2TP2A including in picking up victims where P2TP2A prepares
budget which also involves investigators and prosecutors.
12) Wa Ode Pryati Halma (F) – West Java Provincial Police
• She is still in the same position as when she attended the training (investigator of the
anti-human trafficking unit – Child and Women Violence Sub-Directorate of West Java
Provincial Police).
• In 2016, West Java Provincial Police has managed to handle 13 TIP cases with the
number of victims of 33 people, while in 2017 the same number of cases involves 67
victims.
• The training content remembered by the respondent includes interview technique and
it has been applied to TIP cases in West Java not only by the respondent, but also by
other investigators in the unit. AAPTIP has trained all investigators in this unit and the
respondent is the last investigator who attended the training.
The training on reactive investigation is the first TIP training attended by the respondent for
almost a year serving in the TIP unit of West Java Provincial Police. Before attending the
training, the respondent had handled TIP cases in West Java Provincial Police. However,
before the training, the respondent only read the TIP Law, while after attending the training,
the respondent learned that there are many types of TIP including Indonesian migrant
workers overseas who are prone to human trafficking.
Interview techniques is one of the skills applied out of a number of techniques taught in the
training. After the training, the respondent sets the room for interview including arranging
sitting position which makes victims comfortable and not doing interview face-to-face
(sitting side-by-side instead) to avoid direct eye contact when doing interview. The
respondent is usually assigned to interview female victims one-on-one because according to
the respondent, too many investigators will make victims feel afraid or uncomfortable.
Interviews are done in the counselling room. Meanwhile, financial investigation has never
been conducted so far unless there is an instruction to conduct TPPU investigation.
Results of application of knowledge and skills:
The respondent feels that there is no extremely significant result from the application of
knowledge. After the training, unit leaders gave targets to investigators to uncover TIP cases
related to Indonesian migrant workers or forced labor, especially transnational cases. So far,
there are some TIP cases overseas investigated by West Java Provincial Police but they have
never resulted in the apprehension of the main perpetrators or “big fish”.
Challenges identified
Lack of investigators in the unit constitutes the main challenge. In addition, the unit also
investigates cases other than TIP cases such as sexual abuse and others. In relation to TIP
cases overseas, the main challenges are limited funds of West Java Provincial Police to be
able to pursue information from victim witnesses overseas and investigators' difficulty to be
Page 21 of 27
able to apprehend perpetrators located in an offshore setting. In addition, the broad
jurisdiction of West Java Provincial Police also constitutes a challenge in its own right.
Success Factors
Attention from leaders (heads of unit and Heads of Sub-directorate) to the issue of TIP
eradication in West Java area constitutes the main success factor. On the other hand, AAPTIP
presence also gives a positive influence or change for investigators especially in terms of
improvement in their capacity and knowledge.
D. Conclusions
 Interview techniques was the most useful and memorable subject in the Reactive training
course for the respondents of this tracer study. This may be because the majority of
respondents were women and female police are commonly responsible for interviewing
female victims of trafficking. Because the majority of TIP cases handled outside of HQ
concern sexual exploitation, the majority of victims are female.
 TIP is not the highest priority for the units, which also handle other crimes. There are
limited human and other resources available to effectively investigate TIP cases. The
number of actual and potential cases handled by most of the units is very low. The public
do not report, victims do not consider themselves as victims, many criminal justice
officials still consider labour exploitation to be a non-criminal offence. However,
motivation and team work, as well as leadership were considered to be success factors.
 There were more TIP cases handled in the areas that AAPTIP has done training although
there is no clear evidence of a causal link between training and number of cases.
 This tracer study activity can answer the indicators which AAPTIP have, namely as follows:
• 92% of Training Participants (M:4, F:7) sampled were able to provide credible
examples of their use of new knowledge and skills, although only some was on TIP
cases. This means that the proportion of the total participants of the Reactive
Training course (31) that can demonstrate application of new skills and knowledge
is at least 35%.
• There were a number of Success cases where trainees (LE) have used new/enhanced
knowledge and skills which led to more cooperative victim/witnesses, leading to
better case files and quicker case processing.
Page 22 of 27
Annex one – Result of training evaluation
Page 23 of 27
Annex two - Result of Pre- and Post-Test
Page 24 of 27
Annex three - Respondent profile and data
collection phases
The total actual respondents who were able to be involved in this study is 12 persons as respondents
with the details as follows: 1 male investigator from the Anti-Human Trafficking taskforce of Bareskrim
Mabes POLRI, 1 female investigator from the West Java Provincial Police, 1 male investigator from
Cianjur District Police, 1 male investigator from Sukabumi District Police, 1 female investigator from
Karawang District Police, 1 male investigator from Cirebon District Police, 1 female investigator from
Bogor District Police, 1 male investigator from Cimahi/Bandung Barat District Police, 1 Female
investigator from Subang District Police, 1 female investigator from Bogor city police, 1 female
investigator from Indramayu police, and 1 female investigator from bandung District Police, as shown
in table below.
Region
Trafficking Task Force of Mabes POLRI
West Java Provincial Police
Karawang District Police
Cianjur District Police
Sukabumi District Police
Cirebon District Police
Bandung District Police
Subang District Police
Bogor District Police/ Bandung Major City District
Police
Bogor City Police
Indramayu District Police
Cimahi District Police
TOTAL RESPONDENTS
Respondent Candidate
Male
Female
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
1
1
7
Actual Respondent
Male
Female
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
1
1
7
Table 2 – Distribution of comparison of respondents
Page 25 of 27
Male
Female
7
7
5
5
RESPONDENT CANDIDATE
ACTUAL RESPONDENT
Chart 2 – Respondents Candidate Vs Actual Respondents
The data collection process is conducted in two phases as follows:
Date
Mon, 9 April 2018
Tue, 10 April 2018
Wed, 11 April 2018
Thur, 12 April 2018
Fri, 13 April 2018
Location
Cirebon District Police
Indramayu District Police
Subang District Police
Bandung District Police
West Java Provincial Police
Cimahi District Police
Cianjur District Police
Sukabumi District Police
Respondent Name
• Iwa Mashadi
• Indri Hapsari
• Nenden Nurpatima
• Mutia Teni
• Wa Ode Pryti Halma
• Mugiono
• Asep Sodikin
• Muhlisin
Table 3 – First Phase of Data Collection
Date
Tue, 17 April 2018
Wed, 18 April 2018
Thur, 19 April 2018
Location
TIP Taskforce CID HQ
Bogor City Police
Bogor District Police
Karawang District Police
Respondent Name
• Abraham Boang Manalu
• Frida Hidayati
• Irrine Kania Defi
• Herwit Yunita
Table 4 – Second Phase of Data Collection
Page 26 of 27
Annex four - Guideline Question
CURRENT SITUATION
1.
Are you in the same position as you were during Reactive Investigation Training? Yes /
no (if no, where are you now?)
How many TIP cases did you handle in 2017?
What is status of those cases?
How many of them are forced labour cases?
How many victim (M/F) involved and how many offender (M/F)?
How many cases did you handle in previous years? (increase? Decrease? Same?)
Is there a difference in the proportion of forced labour cases from 2017 compared to
previous years? If yes, why is that?
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Thinking about the reactive investigation skills course you did in May 2017 what do
you remember most about the content of that training?
To what extent have you able to apply or implement any Reactive Investigation Skills
and knowledge that you learned in the training?
Which skills and knowledge were used the most? Can you give me some specific
examples?
What difference did using that skill make to the case or to your work?
What were the success factors for you being able to use that skill?
What would you have done differently or what would have happened in that case or
in your work BEFORE the training?
Which skills / knowledge were not so useful and why?
What were the barriers?
Page 27 of 27
STORY TITLE :
Work Location : Sukabumi
Project #
: P4 – Management and supervision of TIP investigations, including financial
Investigations
Outcome
: More male and female TIP Investigators know their job
rigadir Fajar has been working as police officer for approximately 10 years in
Sukabumi district police office including 5 years as investigator in women and
children protection unit. In that time he handled five TIP cases including 4 sexual
exploitation cases and 1 forced labor case.
One case following the AAPTIP training involved women from Sukabumi who were sent
to Kalimantan for sexual exploitation purposes and the perpetrator was decided guilty
and sentenced for 6 years. The best thing in terms of using the knowledge from the training was that
the case ran quickly and effectively because of the trust built with the victim/witnesses through
using victim sensitive interview techniques. Around June he was transferred to the other unit
(property crime unit) but he still provides input to TIP investigations when required.
In his current unit, he still able to use the knowledge and/or techniques learned at the AAPTIP training,
for example in other cases involving vulnerable witnesses. In addition, the knowledge from the
financial investigation training has been particularly relevant in his new position because most of
property crime are likely to involve assets that are proceeds of crime and with new knowledge he was
able to develop an investigation plan to trace the suspect’s assets in one case.
In addition to sharing the knowledge in informal ways, such as distributing the training material/handout and discussions with other investigators, he also shared his knowledge through formal ways,
presenting specifically on how to do interviews with children and/or women victim and witnesses
for approximately 35 police officers from sub-district level of police office in a 45 minute session.
Brigadier Fajar said that he now feels confident to be a facilitator for TIP training/workshop for subdistrict police officers if he has an opportunity in future.
STORY TITLE
Work Location
Project #
OUTCOME
:
: Multiple countries
: P5 – Transnational Cooperation Between Indonesia & Malaysia
: Targeted Transnational investigations are managed better by LE in
both countries
enjina is a sub-district in the Aru district of Maluku province in
Indonesia. On March 2015 more than 500 fishermans mostly
from Myanmar were identified as Trafficking victims who were
trafficked by the Indonesian company PT Pusaka Benjina Resources and
a Thai company called Silver Sea.
AAPTIP funded one Myanmar investigator to travel along with two others (funded by Myanmar
Government) to Benjina to interview the victims. During this process, the Indonesian AAPTIP country
office also encouraged Indonesia National Police through the Anti Trafficking Unit to actively
investigate the cases. The Chief of Indonesian National Police also giving an attention to this publicinterest case as mentioned by Langgeng – Senior investigator of INP ATU “the highest commander sent
an instruction letter to the unit to investigate this case because this is social-human disaster”1.
To engage three countries involved in this cases AAPTIP supported a multilateral meeting between
Indonesia Myanmar and Thailand to assist with investigation of this crime.
The first meeting occurred in Pattaya, Thailand on 4 June – 5 June
2015 involving 46 people (Male 36; Female 10) from three
countries. Indonesian delegates sought verification from Myanmar
delegates of the names of victims to be interview by Indonesian
Investigators of whom 23 were determined to be victims of
trafficking.
In a second meeting in Bali, Indonesia on Oct 21 – Oct 22, 2016,
Cambodian delegates also attended (overall 51 people Male 44; Female
7). In this meeting LPSK
(National Victims and
“AAPTIP helped us (LPSK) to coordinate with
Witnesses
Protection
the government of Myanmar especially in the
Agency)
asked
the
process of presenting the victims in Myanmar
Myanmar government to prepare the 23 Myanmar
to Interview” – Edwin Partogi (Deputy Chief of
victims along with legal documents in Naw Pyi Daw for
National Victim and witnesses Protection
interview by LPSK for calculate the restitution2 amount,
Agency)
which was provided to 11 victims in late November
2016.
1
2
Interview by AAPTIP NMEIO
Under Indonesia Trafficking law no 21 year 2007, Indonesia recognize restitution not compensation
The third multilateral meeting on the fishing industry occurred from
March 10 – March 11, 2016 in Siem Riep, Cambodia attended by 46
people (Male 42; Female 4). In this meeting the Indonesian delegation
updated the meeting delegates on the court case being heard
concurrently in Tual court in Maluku province. Thailand and Indonesia
discussed other fishery cases in the West Kalimantan sea where several
Thai Flag boats were seized by Indonesia Ministry of fishery and marine.
On March 10, 2016 judges of Tual court in Maluku
convicted 8 people (5 Thai and 3 Indonesian) under the
Indonesia Trafficking law and sentenced those people
to 3 years’ jail and a fine of IDR 160 million. Restitution
was ordered for 13 Myanmar fisherman victims of a
total of IDR 773 million. This was handed over in late
2016 in Nay Pyi Taw.
“AAPTIP initiated the multilateral meeting inviting
three countries involved in this case (Fishery
Industry), and through this meeting each country
could express their concern” - Nana Riana
(Terrorism and cross-border crime task force of
Indonesia Attorney General’s Office)
Australia – Asia Program to Combat Trafficking in Persons (AAPTIP)
Page 2
STORY TITLE
Work Location
Project #
OUTCOME
:
: Bandung for 1st Meeting & Penang for 2nd Meeting
: P5 – Transnational Cooperation Between Indonesia & Malaysia
: Targeted Transnational investigations are managed better by LE in both countries
ilateral meetings between Indonesian National Police and Malaysian Diraja Police have been
held twice. The first meeting took place in December 2016 in Bandung where both parties
focused on introduction and discussion of cases
involving Indonesians in Malaysia.
The second meeting in March 2017 in Penang focused more
on discussing progress that had been made on investigations
of the cases elaborated in the first
meeting. Some of the cases
progressed well and both parties
enjoy the benefits of informal
communication through What’s App group. Representatives of both
countries evaluated the progress and updated the Case Progress
Monitoring (CPM) sheets.
However, these activities have not achieved the expected outcomes
in terms of successful investigations and rescues but Indonesian and
Malaysian police are now communicating frequently through the What’s App group created during
the first meeting.
Technology advancement such as this offers
a great help to both parties to respond
immediately whenever needs arise. Royal
Malaysian Police have responded to three
out of five cases discussed in the first
meeting in a timely manner as
communication utilizing this application is
taking place.
“What’s App proves to be beneficial to us. We can share
information with PDRM quickly and every group member is
well informed. I have to acknowledge Mazley’s fast response
to any inquiries we make through the group. This is a
medium that is useful for our informal communication while
we are undertaking the formal process” – AKBP Julianto P
Sirait, POLRI
Overall, these first bilateral meetings
between Indonesia and Malaysia are working and making some impact. Both parties are willing to
open up toward building communication and sharing information through this media.
STORY TITLE :
Work Location : West Java Provincial Police (POLDA)
PROJECT
: P4 - Management and supervision of TIP investigations, including financial
Investigations
OUTCOME
: More male and female TIP Investigators know their job
midst her busy work as the Head of Anti-Trafficking Unit of West Java Police,
Police Commissioner Euis took part in some of AAPTIP’s activities such as
Multi-Agency Workshop, Financial Investigation Training, and is a member of
Financial Investigation Technical Working Group.
Having participated in AAPTIP activities brings
improvements to Police Commissioner Euis, namely in
how she perceives and takes actions on the basis of knowledge she has
acquired and from
which she gained
“ I was more confident when assigned as trainer
more confidence. In
other words, AAPTIP in Anti-Trafficking training last April. It is because
has
successfully I have solid understanding and knowledge from
motivated her. AAPTIP provides my interactions with AAPTIP staff and in their
her with new insights and perspectives activities” – POLICE COMMISSIONER EUIS
concerning financial investigation as an element of
trafficking cases that she never thought of before.
To reinforce such developments, she was assigned as a trainer in a training held on 15th to 22nd of
April, 2017, at National Police School
in Cisarua, Bogor, where she had to
“ I adopt a lot of AAPTIP materials, such as trafficking
deliver subjects to 25 participants
elements, investigation technique, how to treat victims, and
consisting of investigators from subsome financial investigation issues. Participants were new
district and district police offices
investigators. I also adopt AAPTIP methods, including study
under West Java Police territory. The
case discussions and evaluation. The evaluation informs me
objective of this training is to train
that participants were able to learn from the materials” –
sub-district and district police officers
POLICE COMMISSIONER EUIS
in trafficking cases investigation.
These excellent improvements are not hers alone.
Police Commissioner Euis gladly informs that
whenever her staff are discussing a case, they
always relate the topics to what they have learned
from AAPTIP trainings. (Almost all Anti-Trafficking
Unit officers of West Java Police have received
training(s) from AAPTIP).
“ In my observation, my staff will state their
opinion by saying “AAPTIP taught us to do like
this or to do like that ” – POLICE
COMMISSIONER EUIS
STORY TITLE
Work Location
Project #
OUTCOMES
:
: Indonesia (National and West Java)
: P4 - Management and supervision of TIP investigations, including financial Investigations
: ATU leaders supervise their teams more effectively
: More male and female TIP Investigators know their job
APTIP organized a training for all commanders (ATU Commander Training) in Bandung at the beginning
of November 2016 with an objective to build Indonesian Police officers, namely Heads of Criminal
Intelligence Units, capacity in trafficking case management. At the end of the training, each participant wrote
a list of action plans to be implemented in their respective area.
Some training participants admitted that training for commanders is a new activity to them. It may not be
new to Superintendent Julianto P Sirait and Superintendent Ade Mulyana but the knowledge they learned
from it motivates and improves their work.
As the Head of the AntiTrafficking
Unit
of
Indonesian National Police,
acquiring
managerial
competency is a must. It is
foremost in the case
handling process to develop
an investigation strategy and appoint investigators. SWOT analysis learned from the training is most useful
to determine priority steps. Another skill learned is Risk Assessment. Superintendent Julianto admits that at
the beginning of an investigation he will conduct risk analysis along with the investigators.
“SWOT analysis is needed when we have to decide whether we will
conduct a reactive or proactive investigation. Decision will be made
on the basis of the analysis. Proactive investigation requires strong
risk analysis beforehand” – AKBP Julianto, POLRI
Superintendent Ade Mulyana
reports that he has completed
“ Strategic and Action Plan drafts which I proposed were inspired
from knowledge and skills I learned in AAPTIP training. I did
a
draft
strategic
plan
problem mapping and expanded it into an action plan” – AKBP Ade
developed for his directorate,
Mulyana, POLRI
along with an action plan. He
acknowledges that the ATU
Commander
training
has
improved his knowledge and coordination with other institutions in developing strategic and action plans.
The training taught him new insights related to eradication and prevention of trafficking. On the other hand,
his staff mention that Superintendent Ade Mulyana has set up a target for investigators to solve trafficking
cases reported to West Java Provincial Police.
Significant improvements have taken
place at Cianjur Resort Police where
First Police Inspector AW Nasution, the
Head of Operational Division, formed a
Trafficking Specialist Investigator Unit
under the Women and Children
Protection Division. He admits the challenges to retain this unit due to fact that investigators may be
transferred to other units or districts. However, this is one of their efforts to address to trafficking victims’
needs.
“ Right after I returned from the training I coordinated with Head
of Crime Intelligence Unit as my superior to appoint some officers
that will be in charge of trafficking cases whenever” – IPTU AW
Nasution, POLRI
These three examples showcase how AAPTIP trainings bring positive impacts although the outcome might
have not affected wide range of people.
STORY TITLE : Trained prosecutor encourages investigator to do financial investigation on TIP Cases
Work Location : Cianjur
Project #
: P4 – Management and supervision of TIP investigations, including financial
Investigations
Outcome
: More male and female TIP Investigators know their job
ummary: Following AAPTIP financial investigation training an Indonesian Prosecutor, for
the first time, sent a case file back to the investigator asking him to “follow the money”
and do some financial investigation of a TIP case.
Agatha C Wange is a Prosecutor of the Cianjur District Prosecutor Office who has prosecuted
many TIP cases, particularly in the Cianjur Area. This is why she has been invited by AAPTIP to
participate in AAPTIP events where the involvement of prosecutors is important. One of these
events was the Financial Investigation Workshop (Under Project 4 in the AAPTIP workplan) held
in Bogor on 29 February – 3 March 2016.
On 31 August 2016 AAPTIP conducted a Tracer study of the participants of the Financial Investigations (FI) Training
course, including the Cianjur District Police Office, looking in particular at evidence of promising practice change.
One of the informants of the Tracer Study was an investigator from this office. The interview process revealed much
more than practice change on the part of the investigator, it provided credible evidence that the FI training had
changed another participant – The prosecutor of a case that the law enforcement informant was investigating. It
was revealed that Prosecutor Wange had returned a case file to the investigator with an instruction to complete the
file with financial investigation evidence (as learned at the training).
On 29 October 2016 AAPTIP had an opportunity to interview Prosecutor Wange in her office (Cianjur District
Prosecutor Office) to clarify the findings from the interview with the investigator.
Prosecutor Wange explained that on 9 August 2016 the Cianjur investigator sent the TIP case file to her. The file
revealed that 20 million rupiah was transferred to the accused, and according to that piece of evidence, she
remembered the content of the Financial Investigation workshop organized by AAPTIP which encouraged
investigators to “follow the Money”, especially where it may lead to catching the “Big Fish”. This case was complex
and involved a woman who had allegedly recruited underage girls to send to Malaysia and/or middle-east through
Batam.
In the beginning the investigators refused to do financial investigation because they did not have any confidence
that the investigation would reveal anything other than small amounts of crime money, but Prosecutor Wange
insisted that the investigators do a financial investigation and at least put effort in to digging into the possibility of
there being some money laundering on this case.
Prosecutor Wange admitted during her life as prosecutor this is the first time she has given an instruction to
investigators to do a financial investigation on TIP cases. She also admitted that her participation in the FI workshop
in Bogor on 29 February – 3 March 2016 had inspired her to encourage the TIP investigators to look at the financial
elements of TIP cases and at least try to reveal higher networks so that the victim’s right to get restitution can be
accommodated (which was a key message in the financial investigation workshop).
The case is still being investigated but Prosecutor Wange is hopeful that with AAPTIP support, investigators can
improve their capacity and confidence in financial investigations, especially in TIP cases.
STORY TITLE :
Work Location : Bandung
Project #
: P4 - Management and supervision of TIP investigations, including financial
Investigations
Outcome
: More male and female TIP Investigators know their job
he West Java provincial police office conducted a Seminar on
Impoverishing Traffickers/Corporations involved in Trafficking in Persons
using Law No.8 year 2010 regarding Countermeasure and Eradication of Money
Laundering and invited 150 people from District Police office within West Java,
academia, and NGOs.
This event was initiated by Superintendent Ade Mulyana as Chief of subdirectorate IV Women and Children of West Java General Crime Directorate who
participated in the Financial Investigation workshop held in Bogor on 29 February – 3 March 2016
organized by AAPTIP (under Project 4). One of the objectives of the training was for participants to
increase dissemination of knowledge gained from the workshop to other officers in the workplace.
According to the results of an interview with Superintendent Ade Mulyana, it was found that financial
investigation in TIP cases is a new issue especially for West Java Provincial Police Office and perhaps
for Indonesia National Police in general because so far only corruption cases had been considered
suitable for financial investigation. As a “new issue”, Superintendent Ade Mulyana took the initiative
to arrange the workshop to disseminate this knowledge that he learned in the financial investigation
workshop to heads of units in the district police. He expected that the commanders at the district level
would subsequently be able to instruct the investigators under their supervision to do financial
investigations on TIP cases to catch the higher level of perpetrator.
One of the challenges he faced was around the budget for this workshop, which at that time was
outside the West Java Provincial Police Office budget. Superintendent Ade Mulyana then asked
AAPTIP to fund this seminar event but unfortunately AAPTIP was unable to assist on this occasion, so
undeterred, Superintendent Ade Mulyana proposed this event to the local government of West Java
Province through several relevant government agencies and finally the local government agreed to
fund 100% of this event.
Outcomes that this success story reflect include “more male and female investigators know their jobs”
made possible because of the Superintendent’s willingness to take forward learnings from the FI
training, beyond what was expected. His efforts and success at sourcing funding for the workshop
provides indications of sustainability and relevance. There is also a level of innovation revealed by this
story – encouraging partners to explore new ideas and approach old problems with new strategies.
No. 1 Glas Haus Building, Office 801, 8th
Floor, Sukhumvit 25, Klongtoey-Nua,
Wattana, Bangkok 10110 Thailand
P: +66 8 4719 0870 W: www.aaptip.org
Australian Aid
International Financial Centre (IFC),
Tower 2, Level 18, Jl. Jendral Sudirman
Kav. 22-23, Jakarta 12920 Indonesia
P: +62 21 8086 9800 W: www.aaptip.org
managed by Cardno Emerging Markets on behalf of Australian Government
This email and its attachments may contain confidential and/or privileged information for the sole use of the intended recipient(s). All electronically supplied data must be checked
against an applicable hardcopy version which shall be the only document which AAPTIP warrants accuracy. If you are not the intended recipient, any use, distribution or copying
of the information contained in this email and its attachments is strictly prohibited. If you have received this email in error, please email the sender by replying to this message and
own and may not reflect the views or opinions of
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